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Seamen Petition Against the Dangers of the Sea

Two Petitions.



(handwritten, is the year 1890 but this was not printed on the paper.)

The following petitions, which have been presented to the Hon. The Minister of Marine, are now printed, with the signatures, for general circulation, in the hope of exciting a much needed public interest in a matter of the greatest practical usefulness to seamen, passengers, merchants and all interested in the shipping a commerce of Canada, directly or indirectly; and in the hope, further, that the publication may aid in obtaining from Parliament, the money grant necessary for securing the aids against the dangers to navigation pointed out by the petitioners.

Petitions having the same object have been presented by Boards of Trade also and other public bodies.

The first petition, signed by nearly 400 (the exact number is 393) of the most experienced navigators, points out the cause of a large number of shipwrecks, and of a great loss of life and property to Canada-and it shows that in the opinion of those best qualified to judge, it is to a large extent preventable. It shows that:--

(a) The information concerning currents in Canadian water supplied to mariners is utterly insufficient for safe navigation.

(b) That, in their opinion, a sufficient knowledge of the currents can be procured by Government efforts.

(c) That they believe that they will be able to use the knowledge so obtained to diminish the dangers of the sea.

The second petition points out the special form which the desired information might take, viz., Tide-tables for Canadian waters, and shows that similar practical information is supplied for the waters surrounding the British Islands.

A short explanation of the dangers may be useful. In clear weather, a vessel near the coast, in daylight, has the coast itself as a guide in avoiding the dangers of shoals, hidden rocks, &c.,; at night time, the light-houses serve the same purpose.

Of the necessity of lights for safe navigation no one doubts. Yet the lights are practically extinguished by fogs or hazy weather.

As a partial remedy in such cases, fog-horns, steam-whistles, guns, &c., are placed at stations along the coasts. These are unquestionably often useful; but they cannot be relied on; they are not, and from the nature of the case they cannot be, efficient substitutes for the lighthouses.

A shipmaster on hearing a fog signal has to judge the position of his vessel by estimating the distance of the source of sound, which may be two or ten or twenty miles away. On his success in this estimate often depends the safety of the ship. But his task is complicated by the well established fact that the fog-signal which in some conditions of the air may be heard at a distance of twenty miles, may in another condition not be heard at the distance of four miles or three, or even two miles. The faintness of a sound is therefore no proof that the signal station is far off; it may be close at hand. Often, too, the signal is not heard at all, though the station is comparatively near. Moreover, it appears that these facts are not as yet generally know to shipmasters, though the knowledge is spreading. Hence, estimating the distance of the coast by fog signals is, to too a large extent, guess work.

The use of the sounding line as a check may give uncertain results also. The soundings for example, may be similar for many miles round the position of the ship.

The unknown currents are the great cause of danger. Were it not for these, the shipmaster might direct his course by the compass and log-line. But for want of the information which should be supplied to him by the State, he cannot tell in what direction or what rate these currents are carrying him from his course. If this knowledge be supplied to him by the Government, he can, by merely drawing three lines on his chart, tell the direction in which he ought to steer, in order that his ship should travel along the desired course, and he can tell her rate in that course.

A ship in a fog may be roughly pictured as having


In the children's game, the boy who is blinded guides himself in a large room by touching the furniture; this corresponds to the sounding-line of the ship touching bottom; or else, the voices of his friends warn him if he is in danger, these correspond to the fog-horns, &c., (with the drawbacks to the latter spoken of above). But in the children's game there is no source of danger corresponding to the unknown currents. To picture this we should have to imagine some contrivance by which the whole floor should slide away in some unknown direction, carrying the boy with it, while the walls and furniture remain in their places.

But what is a slight shock for the boy who mistakes his course, may be destruction for the ship.

With a proper knowledge of the currents, however, (for which an accurate knowledge of the rise and fall of the tide along the coast is indispensable) the ship would be better off than the boy. For with this, the captain could depend on his compass and log to give him a safe course to his port. It is earnestly hoped that the Parliament of the Dominion may make a sufficient grant to provide this, which the seamen of the Dominion so anxiously pray for.

ALEXANDER JOHNSON, Secretary, Committee of Royal Society of Canada.
Chairman, Committee of British Association,
for the promotion of Tidal observations in Canada.
Montreal, February, 1890.




To the Hon. The Minister of Marine of Canada;

We, the undersigned Masters and Officers of vessels engaged in the navigation of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and of the waters on the Atlantic coast of the Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland, desire earnestly and respectfully to petition the Government and Parliament of Canada, that they would promptly take such steps as they may deem advisable to obtain as thorough a knowledge as possible of the currents in these waters, whether due to the tides or to any other cause, and to distribute amongst mariners the information obtained.

We believe that the serious loss of life and property due to shipwrecks attributable to "unknown currents" during fogs or hazy weather, may thus be greatly diminished. In such weather these currents are a cause of great anxiety and danger.

Name of Vessel Tonnage Port Master and Officers
S.S. Assyrian 2608 Glasgow John Bentley, Mas.
William Bulley, C.O.
Joseph Quirk, 2nd O.
John Houston, 3rd O.
Lewis Thomson, 4th O.
S.S. Grecian 2374 Glasgow C.E. Le Gallais, Mas.
Thos. Moar, C.M.
M. Campbell, 2nd M.
Alexr. Connell, 3rd M.
J. Sutherland, 4th M.
S.S. Siberian 2558 Glasgow Robt. P. Moore, M.
Gilbert Kerr, Chief O.
William Duffy, 2nd O.
Henry J. Smith, 3rd O.
James Wallace, 4th O.
S.S. Vancouver 3388 Montreal C.J. Lindall, Commodore of the Line.
J. Hy. Buckland, Ch. O.
P. Walsh, 2nd O.
James F. Patterson, 3rd O.
Andrew J. Simms, 4th O.
Robert Fraser, Mas.
John M. Muggah, 1st Off.
Napoleon E. Holmes, 2nd Mate.
S.S. Cacouna 930 Montreal M.A. McDonald, Mas.
R.A. McDonald, 1st M.
J.A. Patoine, 2nd M.
Cremon 1356 Hamburg T.H. Schwaner, Capt
A. Opgel, 1st O.
C. Wallis, 2nd O.
Peml. Rumers, 3rd O.
S.S. Bratsberg 913 Montreal John Hironsen, Mas.
O. Olsen, M.
C.D. Christiansen, 2nd M.
S.S. Danish Prince
1044 Newcastle Edward Potts, Mas.
Joshua Thomas, 1st M.
William R.M. Petrquhart, 2nd M.
Lake Ontario 1060 Montreal J.F. McKie, Mas.
R. Madden, 1st M.
C. Carrington, 2nd M.
S.S. Lake Ontario 2922 Liverpool H. Campbell, Mas.
Richard Owen, M.
Thos. Deans, 2nd M.
Griff. Evans, 3rd M.
William Burns, 4th M.
John G. Esdon, Chief Engineer.
John W. Davies, 2nd "
William M. Fletcher, 3rd "
H. Scholefield, 4th "
Jos. A. Watson, 5th "
Arthur Lloyd, 6th "
Lake Superior 2965 Montreal Wm. Stewart, Mas.
Wm. Jones, 1st M.
James Foster, 2nd M.
Wm. Pattinson, 3rd M.
Lake Winnipeg 2175 Liverpool F. Carey, Mas
John J. Musken, 1st M.
John r. Jones, 2nd M.
Wm. Harper, 3rd M.
and Stella Maris
Quebec L.N. Lachance, Capt.
Lake Nepigon 1438 Montreal C.F. Herriman, Mas
Frank F. Gibson, chief O.
Henry G. Potter, 2nd O.
Owen Pany, 3rd O.
S.S. Hibernian 1872 Glasgow John Brown, Mas.
John Brodie, Chief O.
Donald Black, 2nd O.
Gregor MacKenzie, 3rd O.
Hugh Legg, 4th O.
S.S. Norwegian 2303 Glasgow Wm. Christie, Mas.
J.M. Millan, C.O.
J.H. Chainey, 2nd O.
Wm. G. Marshall, 3rd O.
Robt. Hepburn, 4th O.
Corean 2259 Glasgow Charles J. Menzies, Mas.
William White, Ch. Off.
Hugh Sillais, 2nd M.
James Lockett, 3rd Off.
Allan Stewart, 4th Off.
S.S. Canadian 1872 Glasgow William Dunlop, Mas.
Joseph Dalrymple, Ch. O.
Edward Scotland, 3rd O.
James, Stewart, 3rd O.[sic]
Circassian 2355 Glasgow Reginald Barrett, Mas.
Benjamin T. Eastamay, 1st M.
Richard Griffiths, 2nd M.
Charles Scott, 3rd M.
William Hough, 4th M.
Sardinian 2571 Glasgow William Richardson, Mas.
Alexander G. Stewart, Ch. Off.
Edward Pitts, 2nd O.
Lieut. Chas. A. Harvey, R.N.R., 3rd O.
George Allcot, 4th O.
S.S. Pomeranian 2831 Montreal William Dalziel, Mas.
A. Ferguson, Ch. Off.
John Cook, 2nd O.
James Chalmers, 3rd O.
Edward F. Moore, 4th O.
S.S. Edinburgh - - T.M. Milne, Master
S.S. Invermay - - B. Mitchell, Master
S.S. Grasbrook 1275 Montreal H. Schuldt, Mas.
E. Burmeister, 1st Off.
W. Schultz, 2nd Off.
S.S. Thames 1064 London Emile Couillard, Mas.
Joseph Couillard, Ch. M.
Michel Gagnon, 2nd M.
S.S. Carthaginian 1755 Montreal Angus Macnicol, Commander
C.W.O. Cumwell, Ch. Off.
Robert Bilcase, 2nd Off.
C.A. Smith, 3rd Off.
Joseph P. McCarthy, 4th Off.
S.S. Polynesian 2023 Glasgow Hugh Wylie, Mas.
John A. Fairfull, 1st Off.
D.W. Irvine, 2nd Off.
S.S. Bonavista 1313 Montreal D. Anderson, Mas.
D.C. Fraser, Ch. Off.
Wm. Fraser, Ch. Engineer.
S.S. Alpha 306 Yarmouth R.R. Blainoutt, Mas.
Edwin Clements, 1st M.
Peter Doucette, 2nd M.
S.S. Yarmouth 1432 Yarmouth Samuel F. Stanwood, Mas.
Israel C. Haines, Pilot
William H. Holden, Mate
S.S. City of St. John 446 Yarmouth M.L. Forbes, Mas.
Alex. Crowell, Mate
S.M. Harding, 2nd Mate
S.S. Worcester 1325 Boston Ziba Nickerson, jr., Mas.
John J. Ivester, 1st Off.
Benjn. T. Atkins, 2nd Off.
Donald Morrison, Pilot
Carrol 1400 Boston, Mass George H. Brown, Mas.
Justus A. Briggs, Pilot
Silmon G. Chase, 1st Off.
Alexander Stinson, 2nd Off.
S.S. Black Prince 960 Quebec John Milburn, Mas.
William Todd, 1st M.
Ivar Griff, 2nd M.
S.S. Mareca 1425 London L.O. Moen, Mas.
O. Olsen, 1st M.
H. Mitchell, 2nd M.
S.S. Damara 1779 West Hartlepool George Dixon, Mas.
A.L. Patterson, C. Mate
R. Garbutt, 2nd O.
Henry A. Reed, 3rd O.
S.S. Ulunda 1161 St. John Thomas Clark, Mas.
Henry Haslett, C.M.
Frederick William Johnson, 2nd M.
Carita 120 Port Medway Daniel Landry, Mas.
Edward Thibo, Mate
Annie G. O'Leary 142 Halifax Remie Boudrot, Mas.
Theophile Boudrot, Mate
Vanguard 47[sic] Liverpool, N.S. Thomas Boudrot, Mas.
Alexander Boudrot, Mate
Mary Eleanor 98 Halifax Thomas Ganion, Mas.
Phillip Gagnon, Mate
Steinhoft 2484 Hamburg H. Holiedt, Mas.
R.H. Ruge, C.M.
T. Becher, 2nd M.
S.S. Horton 1187 London Wm. Anderson, Mas.
George Robeson, 1st M.
Robert Sutherland, 2nd M.
Bk. Linwood 1233 Montreal C.J. McKenzie, Mas.
Bk. Mohawk 1338 Quebec Robins C. Churchill, Mas.
Robert Patterson, 1st M.
Thos. Mack, 2nd M.
Wilmslow 1627 New York A. Nicholson, Mas.
S. Jeffrey, 1st O.
David Denningham, 2nd O.
John Nicholson, 3rd O.
Loodiana 1873 St. John, N.B. Robert Sinclair, Mas.
Peter Sinclair, Mate
S.S. Oregon 2372 Liverpool A.H. Williams, Mas.
J.M. Davies, 1st M.
Rd. Jones, 2nd M.
B. Barwise, 3rd M.
T. Davies, 4th M.
S.S. Texas 1836 Montreal Z. Hunter, Mas.
Clarence Troop, 1st M.
Wm. H. Young, 2nd M.
Frank Terree, 3rd M.
S.S. Sarnia 2400 Montreal Joseph Gibson, Mas.
Thos. W. Erskine, 1st M.
Os. Osunak, 2nd M.
Thos. Griffiths, 3rd M.
S.S. Ontario 3176 Montreal W.V. Couch, Mas.
W. Bridges, 1st M.
J. Mehegan, 2nd M.
S.S. Circe 2320 Glasgow Alex. Y. Crighton, Mas.
John Halliday, Ch. O.
John Dickie, 2nd O.
Robert Watting, 3rd O.
Colina 2001 Glasgow Robt. C. Jennings, Mas.
J.E. Browne, Ch. O.
Chas. Addison, 2nd O.
William Aitchison, 3rd O.
S.S. Warwick 1648 Glasgow Geo. Coults, Mas.
Thomas Davies, 1st M.
Alexander Gow, 2nd M.
Alex. Wood, 3rd M.
S.S. Alcides 2193 Glasgow Wm. Rollo, Mas.
Alex. Jenkins, M.
John Henderson, 2nd M.
S.S. Barcelona 1880 Montreal Alex. Boyle, Mas.
Wm. H. Lawrence, 1st M.
James Forbes, 2nd M.
S.S. Dracona 1198 Dundee Jt. Tait, Mas.
James Dorward, Ch. O.
John E. Baxter, 2nd O.
Fremona 1840 Montreal Alex. Anderson, Mas.
John Findlay, Mate
James Thompson, 2nd M.
Gerona 1958 Montreal George Yule, Mas.
Jas. D. Gibson, 1st M.
W.S. Lindsay, 2nd M.
L.S. Mudie, 3rd M.
S.S. Egglestone Abbey 1567 Montreal John Cooper, Mas.
John Evans, M.
Joseph Smith, 2nd M.
Erl King 1418 London Thos. Priske, Mas.
Alex. Reddie, 1st O.
R. Whyte Anderson, 2nd O.
Thos. A. Hill, 3rd O.
S.S. Michigan 2948 London W.D. Cameron, Mas.
H. Barnes, 1st O.
W. Lloyd Jones, 2nd O.
B.G. Hayward, 3rd O.
S.S. European 1736 Montreal Ralph Johnson, Mas.
David Letham, 1st M.
Ernest C. Crosby, 2nd M.
Nellie Pickup 155 Annapolis, N.S. H.C. Stawall, Mas.
Daniel W. Court, Mate
M.L. Bonnell 296 St. John, N.B. W.L. McLean, Mas.
A.M. Anderson, 1st M.
B. Dalton, 2nd M.
Canning Packet 98 Annapolis, N.S. Joseph N. Berry, Mas.
Elmer Furnsworth, Mate.
Genius 99 Annapolis, N.S. J.W. Furnsworth, Mas.
George Milbury, Mate
Myrtle 169 Annapolis, N.S. Walter Amberman, Mas.
John Lurdgrin, Mate
Florence Christine 90 Annapolis, N.S. E.C. Berry, Mas.
William Apt, Mate
Sch. Laughing Water - N.S. David L. Ross
Katie E. Burns - N.S. R.D. Runs
Zadie - N.S. Robert Smith
A.J. Lloyd - N.S. L. McKenzie
Peerless - N.S. Hiram C. Smith
Harry B - N.S. Charles Buchanan
Sea Nymph - N.S. Wm. Murdoch
Spring Bird - N.S. John Peterson
John Halifax - N.S. J.K. Bruce
Barque Scotia - N.S. A. Liebke
Leonie - N.S. R.H. Caron
E.D. Myra - N.S. Edw. Delany
Sch. J.L. Crossley - N.S. W.N. McGilvery
Fanny Young - N.S. Peter Porriar
Favouring Billow - N.S. George Hogar
Sch. Arequipa - N.S. W.H. Pye
Native - N.S. Patrick W. Burke
Sch. Daisy Vaughan - N.S. Jn. Hopkins
Sch. J.B. Saint - N.S. John E. Martel
Jululu - N.S. Charles Bouclenot
Mary - N.S. Constant Boudrol
Bonos - N.S. George Kresor
Ceronia - N.S. James Baggett
Mary A. - N.S. Neil McAskill
Willie Craig - Halifax Edwd. Dauphinee, Mas.
Names of Vessels not given - - James Proctor, Mas.
John F. Martel, Mas.
Peter Malcolm, Mas.
Stanley Lissett, Mas.
Jacob Croft, Mas.
Kenneth Oxner, Mas.
William Burke, Mas.
A.M. Reinhart, Mas.
Murdoch Boudrot, Mas.
Irlando Taylor, Mas.
George Hogan, Mas.
-Lamoug, Master Mariner
William E. Morris
W.H. Townsend
S.S. Princess Beatrice 270 Glasgow P.H. Kelley, Mas.
Edward N. Carew, Ch. O.
Frank R. Churchill, 2nd O.
S.S. Concordia 1616 Glasgow John Taylor, Mas.
J.A.B. Brown, Mate
W.B. Webb, 2nd Mate
M.R. Gardner, 3rd Mate
S.S. Halifax 1750 Halifax S.R. Hill, Capt.
Peruvian 1845 Glasgow J.M. Wallace, Mas.
J. Goodwin, Mate
S.S. Scandinavian 1967 Glasgow John Park, Mas.
James Miller, Mate
S.S. Acadian 596 Halifax Charles Mylins, Capt
John F. Barton, C.O.
Caspian 1717 Glasgow Alex. McDougall, Capt.
H. Gunson, C.O.
S.S. Minia 1980 Halifax Sané Drott, Capt.
Thomas E. Newton, 1st O.
Robt. J. cole, 2nd O.
F.R. Madge, 3rd O.
M. Squares, 2nd N.O.
S.S. Delta 550 Glasgow Gilbert Shaw, Mas.
Aulay Kennedy, C.O.
Henry Peters, 2nd O.
Veronica 1137 St John, N.B. Albert E. Payson, Mas.
Brintow 74 Yarmouth Colin Thompson, Mas.
Arlington 850 Yarmouth W.F. Ossinger, Mas.
Conductor - Yarmouth Alexander Eisenhaur, Capt.
Jennie Miller - - William Miller, Capt.
W.E. Young - - Benj. Anderson
G.A. Smith - - William Shufe
Walter Kinley
Maggie Belle - - Martin Mason, Mas.
Glenola - - John Silver, Mas.
Geneva - - William Arenburg, Mas.
Iris - - Bernard Smith, Mas.
Latona - - Thomas Romkey, Mas.
Pleroma - - John Corkurm, Mas.
Galatea - - Daniel Ginck, Mas.
Sch. Morris Wilson - - Samuel N. Knickle, M.
H.J. Moist, Examiner M. and M.
William Young, Shipping Master
Sch. Narcissus - - Peter Heisler, Mas.
Sch. B. Geldert - - J.P. Geldert, Mas.
Sch. Nyanza - - Elias Walters, Mas.
Sch. Iota - - Richard Heckman, Mas.
Sch. Argosy - - William Haetz, Mas.
Sch. Acadia - - Alexander Knickle, Mas.
Sch. Sadie - - C. Stannage Silver, Mas.
Sch. Nova Zembla - - Richard Silver, Mas.
Nonpareil - - John Zink, Mas.
Mayflower 148 Hantsport William A. Harvey, Mas.
Maggie Q 94 59-100 Sydney Charles A. Martell, Mas.
John A. Willett, Mate
Eller Cartre 147 Halifax, N.S. Patrick McFarlane, Mas.
Pierre Britt, Mate
Sch. Topaz 104 Halifax, N.S. Walter Rowe, Mas.
Brigt. Sirocco 176 Port Medway A.T. Cohoon, Mas
Brigt. Varuna 201 Liverpool, N.S. John R. Mulhall, Mas.
Sch. Jaine M. 65 Halifax Howard Mitchell, Capt.
W.J. Butler, Mate
Sch. Mice Phbe 71 halifax Walter Mitchell, Mas.
Alan Stoddard, Mate
Sch. Wm. Boak 63 Halifax Ernest Garner, Mas.
John E. Parsons, Mate
Helena 38 Halifax Emanuel Legg, Mas.
Joseph Legg, Mate
Eclipse 52 Halifax Albert Garnier, Mas.
Imadie White, Mate
S.S. Goliath 144 Halifax W. Delouchry, Mas.
Lewis Smith, Engineer
Sch. Sphinx 62 Halifax Joseph Pieraway, Mas.
John H. Pieraway, Mate
- - Digby, N.S. James A. Hughes, Owner
- - Digby, N.S. H.B. Uller, Master Mariner
A.H. Burns, Master Mariner
Emma L. Gregory 75 Digby, N.S. William P. Burns, Mas.
Edward Slocumbe, Mate
Edward A. Horton 67 Digby, N.S. Joseph E. Snow, Mas.
Live Yankee 57 Digby Howard Anderson, Mas.
Sch. Greta - - D.C. Corbett, Mas.
Sch. Genesta - St. John, N.B. James Stewart, Mas.
Sch. Inglewoode - - Henry S. Seely, Mas.
S.S. Gothenburg City 1658 W. Hartlepool James Harrison, Mas.
M.E. Bayfield, Ch. Mas.
George Jack, 2nd Mas.
W.B. Lewis 1325 Yarmouth, N.S. B.F. Goullison, Master Mariner
E.F. Graves, C.O.
Aldwyth 218 Charlottetown, P.E.I. J.K. Wetmore, Mas.
William J. Rankin, Mate
Laura 329 Pictou, N.S. H.D. McArthur, Master Mariner
C.P. Cochran, Mate Mariner
S.S. Portia 733 Halifax Francis Ash, Mas.
W.H. Norcott, C.O.
Sch. Arthur 122 Halifax Thomas Desmond, Master Mariner
S.S. Miranda 734 Halifax Henry G. Leseman, Mas.
William J. Farrell, Mate
S.S. St. Pierre 275 Halifax J.P. Angrove, Mas.
R.W. Merriam, Mate
Valiant 88 Lunenburg Amnon Bitey, Master
Mahlun Conrod, Mate
Florence M. Smith 98 Lunenburg Kenneth Holland, Mas.
Gabriel Conrod, Mate
Sch. Bonus 86 Lunenburg George Kresor, Master
Edward Pealer, Mate
Niagara 73 Lunenburg Henry Gerhardt, Master
Jonas Gerhardt, Mate
Mellacoree 109 Shelburne, N.S. George J. thorbour, Master
Alexander Power, Mate
Energy 97 Lunenburg, N.S. Freeman Mader, Master
John Westhaven, Mate
Mary A. Troop 1118 St; John, N.B.[sic] V.J. Young, Capt.
V.E. Young, Mate


To the Hon. C.H. Tupper, Minister of marine:--

We, the undersigned, representing the shipping interest of Montreal, desire earnestly and respectfully to draw the attention of the Dominion Government to the urgent need for additional provision for the safe navigation of the Gulf and River St. Lawrence and the neighboring waters.

We respectfully submit that all such aids as have been provided by governments elsewhere ought to be provided here, and we would on the present occasion point out one special deficiency in Canada, namely, the absence of such information to mariners as is supplied by the Imperial Government through the Lords of the Admiralty in the Tide-tables of British and Irish ports. These tables, published annually, give not only the important facts connected with the change in the depth of water, due to the rise and fall of the tide at numerous points on the coasts, but also supply very full information about the currents in the waters surrounding the British Islands, whether due to the action of the tides, or influenced by atmospheric causes. Of the urgent need of similar information for Canadian waters, the annual wreck list published by the Government is sufficient proof. The losses caused by the want of adequate knowledge of the tides and currents in foggy or hazy weather are very great. Shipmasters are unanimous, as far as has been ascertained, in their anxious desire for information on the subject.

We would further respectfully urge, not only that action be taken in the matter, but that the action should be immediate; for, although one year's observations at fixed stations will, as we are informed, supply sufficient information to permit tables to be published for high and low water which shall be tolerably correct, yet the necessary observations on the currents will occupy some years, and every year before their completion will show its list of preventable wrecks.


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