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THE SCOTCH COLONISTS (Castalia
[to New Brunswick in 1873]
Excerpted from the Report of the Hon. B.R. Stevenson, Surveyor General for New Brunswick.
Between the 1st and 10th of May , I was very much occupied in making preparations for the reception of the Scotch colony, whose sailing had been announced. Arrangements were made with steamers plying on the river St. John for the transport direct from the Anchor Line steamer Castalia up river to Kilburn's Landing.
The backward Spring presented many anxious considerations for the comfort of the colonists on their arrival.
In view of the absolute impossibility of getting, in one day, from the bank of the river at Kilburn's to their houses, by any means at out disposal, I secured from the Dominion Government a number of militia tents for accommodation, for a short time, in case of bad weather on their landing.
The suggestion was made, and by many urgently pressed upon me, that arrangements be made for the accommodation of the women and children either at St. John or Fredericton while the men went forward to the colony and got their houses thoroughly prepared for their reception. While at first disposed to accept this suggestion, I finally determined to take all forward, believing that in their wives and children they would find strength and firmness to face the many difficulties I knew were before them. The experience I had afterwards with them satisfied me that I was correct in this determination; and I gladly bear testimony to the perseverance, determination, self-sacrificing energy which many of the wives manifested in this matter, as largely contributing to the very decided success of the colony. [arrangements continued below] The following is an interesting sketch of the leave-taking and voyage of the colony by George Troup, Esq., written while crossing the Atlantic:-
The CASTALIA, May, 1873
THE GATHERING OF THE COLONISTS.
The parties of emigrants who had resolved to form the New Kincardineshire county in New Brunswick began to leave their homes on Friday, the 25th of April, and an agreement having been made for a special train on the Caledonian Railway, from Aberdeen to Glasgow, the first party consisting of 120 individuals from Kintore, an ancient, although a small borough and parish on the Don, at the entrance of the Garioch, one of the more fertile districts of Aberdeenshire, left their old homes by the Great North of Scotland Railway, soon after 6 a.m. on the morning named. They were joined by a much smaller party at Buxburn, a station near Aberdeen, almost in the suburbs of that city, connected with the largest paper manufacturing works in the world. The emigrants have been almost exclusively engaged in agriculture, with the exception of two from the paper works, who may some day assist in the conversion of New Brunswick wooden pulp into paper, now that the process is found to be practicable and profitable, and is favorably regarded in the Province.
A large number of persons assembled at 8
a.m. in the Aberdeen station to witness the departure of the emigrants,
and the addition to their numbers from the parishes around the city was
equal to that of the two proceeding detachments. The train left exactly
at 8 a.m., and a few minutes had cleared the boundaries of the city, crossed
the Dee, and was in the Mearns or
for it will hereafter require the prefix, denoting antiquity, especially if its descendant or namesake attains the celebrity in well-doing anticipated from the character and skill of its founders. Much interest has been felt for several months in the movement in Kincardineshire; and although a small county, it has had placed upon it the labors connected with this emigration. Through its boundaries--some 34 or 35 miles--the special train for the far west was the object of much enthusiasm.
hung out or were waved from the remote houses visible on the line. Field laborers paused in their work to telegraph their good speed to the wanderers. Especially at Stonehaven and also other smaller stations within the county, the special train gathered length of carriages, and while many partings were sad to see, sadder to feel, yet the public evidently believed that old acquaintances and friends were parting from them, and old associations for new scenes, but for their good. It is difficult in a new country to sympathise fully with the feeling that an old countryman has for the hills and glens, the tarns and lakes and streams of home; but then the home has gathered up and concentrated the poetry, the history and traditions of more than two thousand years of great struggles and hard work on the material objects around, and made old cairns classical. Then there are those old churchyards, those Saxon "God's acres" to part with, and all that they contain; but other spots will succeed to and be very like them in new lands; for the lands are very new indeed where these acres have not been trenched. The destiny and privileges of Britain include these partings as paragraphs in its daily chronicles; and old Kincardineshire may feel that it is doing well its part of the work, and will be able to say to New Brunswick "A party of emigrants equal in all respects to those we commit to your charge never before left our old shores for the new."
PERTH TO GLASGOW.
After the train passed over the North-Esk
into Forfarshire only a few families joined at different stations; and
after the Tay was passed and Perth, the older capital of Scotland, none
joined. The scenery around Perth is fairer than the fair city itself,
and it's only a moment's thought, but a multitude of centuries and generations
are embraced within the thought of this moment: "What vast changes have
come over the scene since the Roman legions looked down from that southern
hill, and shouted
Out of the long dark tunnel that extends from Perth to the Brig 'o Earn, and the old "north countrie," was left behind for ever by many of the emigrants. A short time brought them to the Allan Water, celebrated like the Earn in their old songs, but brawling on merrily by the side of the line, dashing through beneath it at one point, flashing up in a twinkling at another: then turning away at a great bend, as if frightened at the fiery horses, and next creeping quietly back to take one more curious look at the intrusive strangers: the Allan Water having put the constructors of the railway to a huge cost in bridge building, by way of return, accompanies their trains down to the still and quiet Forth, to the battle-fields of Scotland's independence. Train and water rush on together past old Dunkeld with that wonderful cathedral whose unknown architect Ruskin so much admires, as a man unequalled in our art degenerated times. Past the Bridge of Allan, a town unknown to even comparatively Scotch Gazetteers--the Bath or Cheltenham of Scotland--suddenly raised into a magnificent place by Edinburgh and Glasgow, as a fashionable resort for the citizens who are weak and also wealthy: and that is the Wallace monument on the hill to the left--the most useless of all turrets, said an English gentleman, for all Scotland is the proper Wallace monument--and Stirling Rock and Castle is on the right, and bye and bye the Forth is crossed, the river that from the Roman times downwards has cost much blood to those who sought to cross it in wrath--and far away to the left are "the links of Forth," and that blue ridge on the horizon is Arthur's seat, hanging over Edinburgh. But the train rushes on madly past mining villages, through clouds of smoke from clay kilns and iron furnaces, on and on to Glasgow, for "the express" follows closely, and must not be delayed by "the special."
Thanks to "the Caledonian," the party passed a pleasant day. On the 180 to 200 miles travelled on that line no over-crowding was necessary. Carriages were supplied in abundance, with the utmost accuracy to a minute, and attention on the part of the officials of all classes at all stations to the passengers, whom they were unlikely soon to see again, marked the journey to the Buchanan Street Station.
The only delay occurred at this point, for although Captain Brown, of the Anchor Line, had ordered a sufficient number of omnibusses to convey the party at once through Glasgow to Mavis Bank, on the south side of the Clyde, where the outward Anchor steamers are berthed, yet some person in the omnibus office had supposed that the number exceeded the necessity of the case, and 4 to 5 in the afternoon came before all the passengers had got through the city to the steamer. All the luggage had been sent forward on a previous day, and the berths and passengers' tickets being numbered, the party soon got all into their places on board the Castalia, a very fine steamer that had just completed the first voyage out and in. [Castalia was commanded by Captain Butler.]
All the arrangements had been systematically made and were as systematically pursued; and the entire "flitting" and "location" of the passengers on board were completed with remarkable regularity, and in a brief time.
CAPTAIN BROWN AND THE ANCHOR LINE.
The partners of the Anchor Line have taken a deep interest in this movement, from its projection by Captain Brown of their line, who has expended a large sum of money in carrying out his scheme, and six months of his time; and time to any gentleman in his position is not less valuable than money. Somewhat similar schemes of emigration have been devised and explained by philanthropic politicians, but to him belongs a very large measure the credit of practically showing how emigration to the waste lands of the south-east, the south, the east, and especially the west, may be useful to the "Home," "Colonial" and "Imperial" interests; and how emigration may become a stream of moral and vigorous life into our untilled regions.
of Anchor Line steamers from the Clyde is a daily event, and vary rarely indeed are the ladies--the wives and daughters of the partners--seen on deck of a departing emigrant steamer, but a feeling deeper than curiosity and nobler by much attracted several of these ladies, who watched the proceedings with warm interest. Towards the evening the Rev. Dr. Adams, the convener of the Free Church Colonial Committee, came on board the Castalia to bid the emigrants farewell. He read them the 23rd Psalm--addressed them in kind and weighty words of both encouragement and warning and engaged in prayer for them and theirs, for their safe guidance to their new homes--their happiness and prosperity in them--and over all other progress their growth in grace, and their preparation in and through the Redeemer for that immensely greater journey than the contemplated voyage, which all must take. It was gratifying to notice how the voice of devotion hushed the bustle and noise not merely on the ship, but among the multitudes who crowded the Quay on business or from curiosity. Towards 11 p.m. the Castalia left its moorings at Glasgow and passed down the Clyde to the tail of the Bank, opposite Greenock, remaining there until 11 a.m. on Saturday morning.
The Castalia is the first emigrant vessel that ever left a British port with an equal number of emigrants, but without a single case of intoxication among them. No other ship since the arrival of the Mayflower has brought to America an emigration so completely of a family character; and no vessel has ever conveyed so many young children to a port in America--for the Castalia sailed with 198 children under 12 years of age, and has arrived with 199. Its emigrants are almost exclusively in families, and hereafter emigration to the new County of New Brunswick will probably be confined to families or married persons. No party of the same magnitude could have been more agreeable or so united. Several families of emigrants, unconnected with the colony, were on the Castalia, but necessarily 90 to 95 per cent. for New Kincardineshire.
DOWN THE CLYDE.
The Castalia having dropped down to Greenock, or the Tail of the Bank, on Friday evening, sailed on Saturday the 26th April, at 11 a.m., in a fine April day; although in London frost was dimming the hopes of the market gardeners and snow covering their early crops; while farther north than Glasgow, or even Aberdeen, wild winds has swept the waters and caused sorrow on the shores of the Moray Frith.
All great Scotch and English cities have a tendency to go out of town. A long street of villas and gardens; here and there a village, which is really a town of some importance stretches along the Clyde for forty miles, and the river is merely a rather broad road between the rows. Glasgow has been joined by Greenock, Paisley and the iron districts in the construction of the extra-mural street, divided by the broad and crowded water way, backed by stupendous hills and rugged mountains; piled in positions that induced the late Emperor Napoleon to call the Clyde the natural arsenal of the British Empire. To many north-eastern emigrants the sail and the scene were as novel as they could possibly be to visitors from the ends of the earth.
TO THE FIRTH OF CLYDE.
On passing the Cumbraes and the Kyles of Bute and having got out beneath the shelter of the blue and rugged Argyleshire mountains; achieved a little earlier; the voyager may creep close to Arran and find some fence from the cold north wind which was blowing in great strength on that Saturday evening.
ON THE SEA.
The half way pillar between Ireland and Scotland,
Ailsa Crag, attracts all eyes. It was raised for the purpose when the
earth was formed, or when the fountains of the deep were broken up. A
look at the high, strong rock, alone in its majesty, towering over the
wide waters unmoved by storm or tempest, gives to any mind an idea of
Scott's accuracy even in his poetry, when he makes the Bruce say in his
last charge to his chieftains before Bannockburn--
"Lord of the Isles, my trust
The scenery of this Firth of Clyde is very grand. The Scotch land stretches like a semi-circle, or rather two-thirds of a circle, to the Mull of Galloway on the south. The Antrim coast of Ireland approaches to meet it within ten miles on the north, with also a bold and rugged front. Downshire stretches out to the south to within twenty miles with gentler shores and richer fields, with many little, pretty, shrub-hidden villas and villages before Belfast, built at the top of its magnificent Lough, can be reached. Round the Mull of Kintyre, away by Rathlin Isle, north and north against this sharp wind clearing the decks of the sickly and weak, far away from the Belfast Lough, and to me a multitude of pleasant memories--the Castalia speeds on: past the "False Giants Causeway" on to the "True"--may our life's progress ever so be, even if the current leads us round the elbow of a sheltering land--out in the dun night and its fading flight and its rising sea, on and on, though we float in a tempest, to the true in feeling and in heart. For a little longer Scotland struggles to break the north wind for her daughters and sons, by those long blue ridges, barely traceable on the northern horizon, al we shall see at this time of the clustering western isles, once the home of the Culdee Missionaries, out of which they sped as men equipped to raise the Christian light and its hope of progress on earth, and peace in heaven, over Scotland, England, and Western Europe. But we try to catch the outline of the Irish coast, by Ballycastle, the mouth of the Bann, Lough Foyle, and Donegal: finally, the light failed us sooner than the Irish hills, and in a dark and rough night those who cared to go on deck were told they could see the last light on European ground--the light of Tory Island--and so we parted from Europe, the smaller of the four great continents, yet the richer as yet of modern times in the great work of the world.
FROM LAND TO LAND.
The following day was cold and cloudy, with now north, next head winds, and occasionally part of both. The Castalia carried a multitude of whom few were inured to the sea, and many were prostrated by sea sickness, and there was abundant work for Captain Brown, who was in charge of the emigrants, and others in cheering and helping them. But when evening fell, those emigrants who stood out the sea, wished for a meeting consistent with the Lord's Day objects, and it was held in the saloon, which was crowded by men--scarcely a woman was able to be present--either from personal inability or the discharge of duties due to children or relatives. The last three days of April were clouded above, and the sea was slightly stirred by north and west winds, in which the Irish sea gulls disappeared, and left us solitary on the ocean, but our convalescents became daily more numerous and stronger, and an increase occurred among our children, previously 198 now made 199. [The baby girl born April 30th 1873 to Mr. and Mrs. Morrison, was named Castalia Butler Ferguson Brown Morrison. "Castalia" for the ship, "Butler" for the Captain, "Ferguson" for the Doctor, and "Brown" for Captain William Brown who organised the emigration.] May day came next, and at noon we were in latitude 51.33 N.: longitude 32.21 W.: and with rather pressing head winds our run for the previous twenty-four hours had been 152 miles, or 100 miles under the capacity of the Castalia, without any wind. May day was cloudless, as it should be; cold as it need not be; and still the wind rose against us as if to protest that we were not wanted in the west; so that the sea became a little more disturbed, and some of our people thought the swell high, but they were mistaken. Our run in the twenty-four hours to noon of the 3rd May was 236 miles, then the wind went clean in front of the steamer and made a rough tumbling sea, with plenty of pitching and rolling for some of passenger's sea feet: and trouble with dishes and food, all inclined to run in some way not wanted, and disinclined to steadiness. Matters became worse as the day wore on, the waves of the Atlantic rose in height, spread out in breadth, and got crested or streaked with white foam. During the night we had a heavy gale, and our progress was reduced to 105 miles for the day. The gale increased during the following night, and grew into serious work; but the moveables were all pretty well secured ere then, and early on that morning the wind began to fall and turn a little to the north, then farther, and at last got altogether out of the way--so that our progress at noon was 135 miles. In these two days one, and rather more than one, complete day of Castalia's average speed was lost. The sea did not sink quite as quickly as the wind. On the contrary, the Atlantic was tempestuous during the day; but to an amateur in pitching and rolling the exercise was not disagreeable, as the Castalia never jerks or jumps in the trials for which the ship is blameless. There is the smallest possible vibration in the working of the engine, and this quality originates in good workmanship, and the rolling is done with all the perfection of a spring well suspended and fixed to the solid earth. The day was dull to many of us, yet we had good meetings on that Sabbath, in the afternoon with the children and their parents in the large after steerage--in the evening in the saloon. Monday came, and the wind had a hold of the north. It was coming over ice, skilled men alleged, at any rate it was putting down or keeping down the sea, and on Tuesday it was said to be coming over Newfoundland, but the day was good, while Wednesday, Thursday and Friday were remarkably pleasant sailing days. Nothing in the matter of floating could have been pleasanter, and I remember no more beautiful weather on the water, than in these three days with the Castalia skirting Nova Scotia. Some feelings of gratitude mingled in this pleasure, for we passed, 100 miles east, the scenes of the lamentable catastrophe of the 1st of last April,** and as the means, we were grateful that our passage, nearly closed, had been made in a good ship and under most skilful and always watchful guidance. One of your pilots, Mr. Henry Spears, came on board at the head of your good bay, 70 miles from St. John, and brought Castalia to anchor near Partridge Island, at 1 a.m. on the 10th. - [George Troup Esq.]
** [reference to the loss of the White Star
Line ship Atlantic on the 1st April 1873 on the rocks
off Prospect, Nova Scotia with the loss of over 500 lives]
[continued] On the morning of Saturday the 10th May, I received information that the Castalia, with the colony on board, had arrived in St. John. Her arrival was signalled by rockets sent into the air from on board, and a boat with the steamer's agent and one or two other gentlemen was soon alongside. By five o'clock the colonists were nearly all on deck, presenting a remarkably healthful and tidy appearance after their sea voyage. Dr. Harding, the Quarantine Officer, boarded the Castalia shortly after five, and examined the colonists as well as the crew. The inspection over, he briefly addressed those on board, remarking that he had seldom the pleasure of examining so healthy a lot of persons after an Atlantic voyage. The cleanliness of the vessel, both above and below decks, and, her admirable facilities for ventilation, were worthy of every praise. The purity of the atmosphere between decks was such as he had never before found with anything like so many persons on board, especially at so early an hour in the morning. He concluded by expressing his gratification at seeing so valuable an acquisition to the population of the Province, and hoped that their future would be crowned with abundant success. Between seven and eight o'clock the Castalia was boarded by Hon. Mr. Willis, Robert Shrives Esq., Dominion Immigration Agent, and other gentlemen; soon after the steamer Olive which was to convey a portion of the colonists up river at once, was alongside, and, at the same time, members of the "St. Andrew's Society" put in an appearance. The Castalia then weighed anchor and, convoyed by the Olive steamed toward the city. As she approached flags were raised, and other signs of welcome were displayed. Before the ship was made fast to the wharf the work of transferring a portion of the colonists to the Olive had begun, and in an hour about two hundred of the people were on board that steamer. Before the fasts were let go for the up-river trip, a large number of colonists were assembled on her saloon deck, where George Troup, Esq., a Scottish gentleman who had come over to the Province in the Castalia to enquire into its merits as a home for emigrants, was called to the chair.
[Ed: speech by Rev. R.J. Cameron with the response by George Troup Esq., excluded here]
Hon. Mr. Willis, Capt. Brown, the President and officers of St. Andrew's Society and other gentlemen remained on board the Olive until she reached Indiantown, where the colonists on board were transferred, with their effects, to the steamer David Weston. The exchange being effected, the latter steamer proceeded to Fredericton, Capt. Brown going with the people, the other gentlemen remaining behind.
The up river trip was made in good time, the David Weston arriving at Fredericton a few minutes past six on Saturday evening. The people of Fredericton had assembled in considerable numbers to welcome the colonists, headed by the Mayor, and as soon as the boat neared the wharf most enthusiastic cheering greeted them, to which a hearty reply was given from on board.
[Ed: speech by Lieut. Governor Wilmot, excluded here - the colonists remained in Fredericton on Sunday]
On Monday morning all were on board the steamer Ida Whittier, 195 in all. The day was fine, and a pleasant passage brings us up to Woodstock at 5 p.m., where large numbers had assembled at the steamer's wharf to welcome them. An hour was spent here, during which most cordial greetings took place between some of the colonists and personal friends whom they met. Being very desirous of reaching Kilburn's Landing early next day, we push on up the river until night-fall compelled the steamer to tie up at Mills', about 17 miles above Woodstock. I secured all possible accommodation at Mills'. But the night here was a very uncomfortable one. We were under way next morning at 5 o'clock, and at 11.30 arrived at Kilburn's Landing. Here many from the country side had gathered to welcome those who were now to be neighbours. Dinner was got on board the steamer, and in an hour all were landed.
The entire details of the labor connected with the location of these colonists were now, quite unexpectedly, cast upon me. That "organization of Captain Brown's association, thorough and perfect in it's minutest details"--as I thought when writing my last Report--and that degree of co-operation on the part of the colonists among themselves which I had been led to expect, were not practically worked out. The backward Spring had prevented preparations being as forward as was anticipated; and finding myself surrounded by so many men, women and children who were, to a very large degree, unacquainted with the reasons which had led to the apparent disappointment of the high hopes with which they were filled by the enthusiasm of Captain Brown and his associates, I was called upon the exercise a very great deal of patience: a most assuming manner in some cases, in others much firmness and determination, a diligence and anxiety for the comfort of all, and constant exhibition of kindness and conciliation and warmest sympathy for these colonists, whose welfare, as also the responsibility of the success of the Immigration Policy of the Government, largely depended upon my energetic action, and the success of my efforts in this, the most critical, period in the history of New Brunswick immigration.
With little practical experience of duties such as devolved on me, I was called upon to improvise near the river side accommodation and means for the housing and disposing of these people for a short time, as it was practically impossible to get all forward on the day of landing to the houses built for them. The baggage was much more than I had expected, measuring the quantity per head by the Danish immigration of last year. The stoves and furniture purchased by Messrs. Taylor and McHardy, which the colonists expected to find in their houses, were still at the quarters temporarily occupied by them as a store. The groceries, etc., which each colonist had arranged with them to be put up in parcels ready for delivery to them immediately on their arrival, were still in bulk. The details of the organization of a system that would quickly work out order in what was, apparently, great confusion were, however, soon determined. The men, obtaining of me information as to the house in which they were to be located, soon gathered their baggage together and such as was required for immediate use, together with the stove, were at once forwarded. Men were set at work putting up the stoves. Finding it impossible to procure teams to forward at once the number of women and children and the amount of luggage, I secured all the temporary accommodation obtainable near the river side, and by 3 o'clock Tuesday, 13th May, the day of their landing at Kilburn's, the parties were all quartered. The next day was occupied with the work of forwarding parties to their houses and making preparations for the arrival of the rest of the colony who had remained in St. John, spending Saturday and Sunday in a very agreeable manner. They visited different parts of the city, the banks, stores, etc. They were well received everywhere, the citizens of St. John evincing a disposition to make them feel as much at home as possible. On Saturday evening the Captain of the Castalia gave up the ships' deck to the citizens. The band of the 62nd Battalion was engaged for the occasion as well as a Highland piper. Ladies and gentlemen visited the steamer, and there was dancing for an hour or more. [Ed: On Monday morning, 12th of May, the remaining colonists were taken by the Olive through the Falls to Indiantown, and placed on board the Rothesay bound for Fredericton. They were accompanied by several members of the St. Andrews Society, and members of the Press. After spending the night at Fredericton they boarded the river boat City of Fredericton, spent Tuesday night at Woodstock and arrived at Kilburn on Wednesday 14th May, 1873. A decision was made to bring out more colonists the following year. Accompanied by Mr. George Troup Esq., 219 emigrants boarded the Anchor Line ship Sidonian and sailed from the Clyde on 30th April, 1874. The ship called at Halifax 13th May, 1874 and arrived at St. John 14th May, 1874. They settled at Kintore and Upper Kintore.]
Journal of the House of Assembly Province of New Brunswick 5th session 22nd Gen. 1874
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