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Immigration Quotas, Ellis Island and Other Events of 1923

The following information has been extracted from a variety of newspaper sources including The New York Times ; The London Times ; The Toronto Globe ; The Express, Lock Haven, Pennsylvania

     Index | March 02 - June 26 | July 01 - August 16 | August 17 - December 28

New York Times, August 17, 1923
Washington Thinks Geddes Report Fair
Immigration Officials Are Not Disposed to Dispute Its Accuracy
Davis Withholds Comment
But Another Official Agrees With British Suggestion of Sifting Immigrants Abroad
Washington, Aug. 16.–The report on conditions at Ellis Island, made to his Government by Sir Auckland Geddes, British Ambassador, was before James J. Davis, the Secretary of Labor today, but Mr. Davis was not prepared to make any statement concerning the report until tomorrow. The other directly interested party, W.W. Husband, the Commissioner General of Immigration, is now on leave in Vermont.

Informal opinion at the Department of Labor seemed to be that the Geddes report was not only courteous but a comprehensive and generally fair statement of conditions at the island.

“When the Ambassador said that the real trouble with Ellis Island was that one half the people there should never have been allowed to reach the island he stated just what we have been contending for,” said one official. “That particular utterance reached the heart of the whole matter.”

There is no disposition among officials to dispute the accuracy of Sir Auckland’s observations concerning conditions at Ellis Island. Department of Labor officials, however, were quick to point out that in making public this report, the British Government had failed to recognize the fact that the Government of the United States was not called upon, under existing international practice, to maintain the Ellis Island station at all.

The Government, one official stated, under the law and international practice, was not required to bear the expense of a detention station. All other countries of the world, a high Government official asserted, required the steamship companies bringing in immigrants to take full responsibility for them until they were definite rejected or accepted.

Attention was directed today to a recent statement by Commissioner Husband, in which he declared that the maintenance of hotel facilities for immigrants was a duty which should devolve upon the steamship companies and was in no way a part of the responsibility that should be assumed by the Government. Department of Labor officials say that the word “maintenance” as it appears in the present act of Congress authorizing the activities of the Bureau of Immigration is erroneously employed.

Under the interpretation accepted in the past, the steamship companies were required to furnish only food for the immigrants. According to Mr. Husband they should be compelled to furnish housing and to defray the cost of guarding the prospective immigrants, as well as all other expenses incident to their arrival and detention.

The cost of this service as now maintained by the Government at New York, Boston, New Orleans, and other ports is declared to be in excess of $1,000,000 annually. According to Mr. Husband, this cost constitutes virtually an American subsidy of foreign shipping. If the recommendation of Mr. Husband should be accepted by the higher authorities, the steamship companies might be asked to take over Ellis Island and the other stations now under Government administration and to compensate the Government by reasonable rentals.

Those who are opposed to Mr. Husband’s view, however, point out that immigrants are required to pay a substantial head-tax and argue that the only reasonable basis for collecting it is the assumption that it will defray the expenses incident to the detention of prospective immigrants.

It is denied at the State Department that there has been any representation to any foreign Government concerning the status of prospective immigrants, it was pointed out, however, that treatment of British subjects at the station was in no wise different from that accorded those of other countries, and that on account of the fact of similarities of language British immigrants probably suffered less inconvenience than those of any other nationality.

Back Geddes’s Criticisms
London Papers Renew Complaint About Ellis Island Conditions

London, Aug. 16.–(Associated Press). The British Government has been justified in making complaints on behalf of many Englishmen against the conditions at Ellis Island, in the opinion of most of the afternoon newspapers, which comment today on the report of Ambassador Geddes of his visit to New York’s immigration station.

The Star, admitting the difficulties of handling large mixed crowds, says no excuse can suffice for accommodations so dirty and “in some cases so foul that only a Government paper would be allowed to print the details.”

“Clean immigrants and dirty ones, gentle and coarse, honest and criminal, are crowded together in circumstances extremely odious to the better kind,” says The Star. “These things occur under the shadow of the Statue of Liberty. They are to thousands the first taste of that freedom which is the boast of ‘God’s own country.’ What a pity that America’s moral lectures to the naughty effete of old Europe have to cross such a dirty doorstep.”

The Pall Mall Gazette thinks Ambassador Geddes is not the man to say a single harsh word against American institutions which could be avoided, adding that Americans who read his criticism of Ellis Island will realize that he condemned nothing that is not revolting to the instincts of civilized men.

“The Americans are great organizers,” the newspaper adds, “and the immigrant cages at Ellis Island are in some respects as wonderfully organized as the Chicago stock yards. The defect of the system is that it brings human beings together like cattle, ignoring the infinite gulf that separates degradation from decency.”

The editorial complains that self-respecting Englishmen are herded with the lowest classes of other countries. Pointing out that Ambassador Geddes urges that the admissibility of every individual should be settled before he leaves his native country, the paper adds:

“It is simply playing with human misery when an American Consul grants a visa to a would be immigrant and simultaneously writes to this Government recommending that he should not be admitted.”

Robert P. Skinner, the American Consul General, when this excerpt from the editorial in The Pall Mall Gazette was shown him, gave the following statement to The Associated Press.

“Suggesting that American consular officers play with human misery by granting visas with one hand while secretly recommending that the intending immigrant be rejected is without justification.

“It is true that consular officers do not possess legal authority to refuse permission to the immigrant to depart, indeed, Governments other than that of Great Britain have expressed objection to the exercise of such authority. All intending immigrants are examined, and when reasons develop why they should not be admitted into the United States they are definitely warned and are recommended not to make the journey.

“The difficulty is that the numbers desiring to depart are so great that in few cases are they willing to act on such warnings. Not only are warnings given, but each and every intending immigrant has his attention drawn to the law itself and states under oath and in writing before the visa is granted, that he is familiar with the whole position.

“He declares furthermore that he realizes that, if found to be of a class prohibited from admission, he will be deported, and he states: ‘I am prepared to assume the risk of deportation and compulsory return in case of my rejection at an American port.’

“While it is to be regretted when any individual meets with disappointment in connection with contemplated residence in the United States, it is not fair to attribute such disappointment to the consular officials.”

Hint Of Geddes Retiring
London Again Hears a Report That His Health Demands It

London, Aug. 16.–It is reported here that Sir Auckland Geddes is not likely to return to America as Ambassador. Since his return he has been in an institution near London taking a special treatment for his eyes, and his general health also is said to be poor. So far no one has been mentioned as his successor, but he is likely to be a professional diplomat.

New York Times, August 17, 1923
Sails On Time Despite FireBlaze on Liner Mongolia Conquered After Hour’s Fight

None the worse for a fire which raged for an hour and a half early yesterday morning in No. 3 hold, the American Line steamer Mongolia sailed on schedule time in the afternoon with fifty-one cabin passengers. The fire was discovered while the crew were putting down the hatches. The blaze started in a pile of hides and cocoa mats, and the crew tried to extinguish the flames with live steam.

This method proved ineffective and an alarm was turned in, bringing the fire boats John Purroy Mitchel and Thomas Willet to aid the land engines. On account of the dense smoke it took the firemen an hour to get the fire under control.

Toronto, Globe, August 17, 1923, page 1
Say Geddes Report Is Designed To Halt British Rush To U.S.
Officials Admit Accuracy of Statements, But Surprised at Ambassador’s Action
Burden of Ellis Island

(Special Despatch to The Globe.)
Washington, Aug. 16.–Considerable surprise was manifested in high official circles today at the action of the British Government in making public the report of Sir Auckland Geddes, Ambassador to the United States, concerning alleged conditions at Ellis Island. Regardless of what conditions may exist at Ellis Island, it was declared, it is hardly the function of the Ambassador of Great Britain to the United States to give directions to this Government as to how it shall conduct its own internal affairs.

Alarms at Exodus to United States.
Strongest suspicions were expressed that the whole matter of the publication of the Geddes report to Lord Curzon was due to the fact that the British Government is disturbed at this time because of the tendency on the part of British citizens to emigrate to the United States. It is well known that world-war veterans in England have for months been in destitute circumstances, and that, despite the efforts of the Government to encourage a migration to Canada and to Australia, many of the most desirable class of British subjects have indicated an intention of going to the United States. Numerous speeches delivered in the House of Commons, and sundry interpolations of Government policy with regard to the emigration, have made it perfectly clear that the British people are deeply alarmed lest the flower of their young manhood shall be drawn to the United States, rather than to the British Dominions of Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.

Do Not Dispute Statements
There is no tendency among officials to dispute the accuracy of the observations of Sir Auckland Geddes concerning conditions at Ellis Island. Department of Labor officials, however, were quick to point out that in making public this report the British Government has failed to recognize the fact that the Government of the United States is not called upon, under existing international practice, to maintain Ellis Island at all. It therefore appears that in the eagerness of the British authorities to condemn Ellis Island and the United States authorities who are responsible they have in reality wished upon themselves a new burden of which they formerly were ignorant.

Not Required to Bear Expense
This means that the United States Government under the law and international practice is not required to bear the expense of the detention station at Ellis Island. All other countries of the world, it was asserted by a high Government official, require the steamship companies bringing in immigrants to take full responsibility for them until they are definitely rejected or accepted.

The cost of this service, as now maintained by the Government at New York, Boston, New Orleans and other ports, is in excess of $1,000,000 annually. This cost constitutes virtually an American subsidy of foreign shipping.

London, Times, August 18, 1923, page 7
Ellis Island Conditions
U.S. Comment On Sir A. Geddes’s Report

(From Our Correspondent)
New York, Aug. 17.
The condemnation by Sir Auckland Geddes of the conditions at Ellis Island drew both approval and denial from the authorities here. Two former Commissioners of Immigration practically supported Sir Auckland Geddes’s view, while Mr. Henry Curran, the present Commissioner, strongly denied the allegations.

A former Commissioner, Mr. Frederick Wallis, said:–
No one can picture the heart-breaking scenes of anguish at Ellis Island. It is literally a vale of tears. Sometimes it is necessary to carry people bodily and place them in the ships; many attempt suicide. Families are divided–husbands and wives separated, children torn from their parents. I have seen a thousand people sleeping on the cold floors in winter without clothing. Sir Auckland Geddes should be commended for his frankness.

Mr. Robert Tod, another former Commissioner, said that he concurred in many of Sir Auckland Geddes’s recommendations. Larger grants of money were needed to improve the conditions. Mr. Curran characterized the British Ambassador’s criticism as pure propaganda and added:–
The report is grossly misleading and out of date, because it is issued eight months after his visit. While a few of his remedial measurers are sound, the majority are based on conditions which do not exist to-day.

New York Times, September 1, 1923
9,000 Immigrants Here in New Quota
Liners Race to Quarantine to Assure Landing of First Arrivals at Ellis Island
Work Expected to Continue Well Into Next Week–Closed on Labor Day

In the race of lines at midnight to be the first to reach Quarantine with immigrants seeking admittance to this country under the September quota, the Drottningholm of the Swedish-American Line was te first to arrive there, at 12:01. It was followed by the two Greek liners, Byron and Washington, one minute later, the Fabre liner Braga from the Mediterranean, the Baltic American liner Esthonia [sic] from Libau, and the United States liner America from Bremen arriving in the order named a few minutes later. The Cunarder Berengaria, from Southampton, was the sixth to anchor.

Immigration Commissioner Henry H. Curran announced that because of a half holiday today at Ellis Island he did not believe that more than 1,200 of the 9,000 immigrants due to arrive from Europe will be admitted to the Island for inspection. The Island will be open tomorrow but will be closed on Labor Day. The Commissioner said that every effort will be made to expedite the work.

It will take several days to examine all the aliens arriving for the September quota, but the officials are becoming used to handling the rush.

New York Times, September 1, 1923
Ship Lines In Joint Service
White Star and American Arrange New York-Hamburg Schedule

The International Mercantile Marine announced yesterday the inauguration of a joint passenger and freight service between New York and Hamburg by the White Star and American lines. Under the arrangement the White Star Line will transfer its German business from Breman to Hamburg, where it will share with the American Line its new terminal at the Ross Quay, described as one of the best in Europe.

The White Star Line will dispatch its ships on dates alternating with those of the American Line, thus making a combined English and American flag service. The first sailing by the White Star Line from New York in the new service will be that of the Canopic, on Oct. 18. The Pittsburgh will follow on Nov. 8. The American Line’s first sailing will be that of the Mongolia on Oct. 25 to be followed by the Minnekahda, Nov. 1.

The American Line has been operating a second and third-class cabin service between New York and Hamburg since 1920, with five ships. Three of these, the Finland, Kroonland and Manchuria, are to be transferred to the Panama-Pacific service for operation between New York and California ports beginning in October.

New York Times, September 2, 1923
Aliens On Four Ships Too Soon To Enter
Most of 1,896 Who Arrived Before Instead of After Midnight Must Go Back
Captains Dispute Time
Say Chronometers Showed Midnight Before Arrival–Estonia Reported 15 Seconds Early

Because the immigration authorities say that four steamships reached Quarantine on Friday before midnight, the 1,896 immigrants on board will be counted in the virtually exhausted August quota, which means that nearly all of them will have to return to their native land.

Commissioner of Immigration Henry H. Curran telephoned from Ellis Island to Commissioner General of Immigration Husband at the Department of Labor yesterday in Washington and asked him if he intended to enforce the quota law on the four steamships, which arrived a few minutes before Sept. 1. The Commissioner General stated that only aliens from countries whose quotas had not been exhausted would be admitted from these steamships. Vessels which arrived in Quarantine on the night of Aug. 31, he said, could not have their passengers counted in the September quota any more than if they had arrived days before.

Commissioner Curran said yesterday that it was deplorable that these immigrants had to be returned to their native countries, but he admitted that he could not set aside the ruling of the Commissioner General. He pointed out that the immigrants will have to suffer because of the eagerness on the part of the steamship owners to have their ships into Quarantine in order to land the passengers before the quota is exhausted.

Seven Ships Jammed in Channel
The Commissioner again alluded to the danger of having a number of steamships in such a narrow channel jockeying for a place of vantage to start in the race for Quarantine at midnight. In the case of the ship, the Greek liner Byron, the captain had to go full speed astern to avoid ramming a vessel ahead of him. After shifting his helm he had to go full speed ahead to prevent another vessel hitting his shp on the starboard quarter. At 12:45 P.M. Friday night there were seven steamships so close together that a biscuit easily could have been passed from one to another along the line.

The four steamships which the official observer says crossed the imaginary line between Fort Wadsworth and Fort Hamilton before midnight on Friday were the Esperanza of the Ward Line, 11:55 P.M.; the Braga of the Fabre Line, 11:56 P.M.; the Greek steamship Byron, 11:57 P.M.; and the Estonia of the Baltic-American Line at 11:59:45, fifteen seconds before midnight.

The Esperanza from Cuba and Mexico brought 40 Spaniards, 3 Greeks and 46 Portuguese who are above the August quota and will have to go back by the Commissioner General’s ruling. One of the Greeks was here before for the July quota and arrived too late. His wife gave birth to a son on the immigration barge that was conveying her to Ellis Island from the ship, and the family went back to Cuba.

The Fabre liner Braga from Constantinople brought 7 Africans, 62 Albanians, 1 Egyptian, 21 Greeks, 10 from “other Asia,” 27 Syrians, 168 Turks and 4 Palestinians. The month’s quota for Albanians is only fifty-eight, so there was a surplus of four even if the Braga had reached Quarantine after midnight. The Greek liner Byron from Patras and other ports in the Levant had 464 Greeks, 219 Turks, 25 Albanians, 9 Syrians, 6 from “other Asia,” 5 Palestinians and 1 from Egypt.

The Estonia of the Baltic-American Line from Libau and Danzig had 509 Russians, 250 Poles and 11 from Danzig. The Commissioner said that some of the aliens from Russia and Poland could no doubt be admitted under the exempt clause, but very few, as the quotas for these countries were exhausted for August.

The captains of the four steamships went to Ellis Island yesterday afternoon and had a conference with Commissioner Curran in which they assured him positively that they had not left their anchorage in Gravesend Bay even a fraction of a minute before midnight. They took the time from the ships chronometers, which the captains insisted must be correct to the second or their navigation would be at fault.

Esperanza Led Dash
Apparently the Esperanza was the cause of the other ships getting under way before their time. There was a strong flood tide running, and the stern of the Ward steamship drifted over the imaginary line, according to the observer, who was looking through his binoculars, and the other three vessels quickly followed suit, it was said. The masters were on their bridges, watches in hand, with the pilots waiting for the hour. The passengers were all on deck, watching the race which meant so much to them, and the crew were standing by their stations.

Captain Jurgensen of the Estonia said that he stood by the door of the wheelhouse where the chronometers were in their boxes and called out each half minute from 11:55 P.M. to midnight to Petersen, the pilot.

The time given by the Western Union observer at 1:15 A.M. yesterday for the steamships passing in to Quarantine was: Esperanza and Drottningholm, 12:01; Byron and Washington, 12:02; Braga, America and Estonia at 12:03 A.M., which is the time fixed by Captain Jurgensen in his statement to the Commissioner of Immigration.

Captain Jurgensen also said that the time of the arrivals given by the Western Union observer and the Postal observer agreed with that of the masters of the four ships.

Commissioner Curran said that the captain had placed this information before him but that he preferred to accept the statement of the official observer on the beach at Fort Wadsworth that the liner was fifteen seconds ahead of time when she went over the line. The Commissioner added that the immigrants from the Estonia had complained when they reached Ellis Island that no food had been given to them on the ship after 5 o’clock in the morning. Crackers and milk were ordered for the women and children soon after they reached Ellis Island.

The first ships officially over the line at the proper time were the Swedish-American liner Drottningholm at five seconds after midnight, the United States liner America one second later, and the Greek steamship Byron at 12:01:15. Steamships which arrived later with immigrants were the Cunarder Berengaria at 1:40 A.M., the anchor liner Tuscania from Naples, at 4 A.M., and the Chicago from Havre, at 7:04 A.M.

“Picture Brides” in Tears
The White Star liner Celtic and the Cunarder Carmania were diverted to Boston to relieve the jam at Ellis Island. The Samaria of the same company was the first to reach that port after midnight with 1,479 immigrants, mostly British. There were a number of Greek girls on the Byron who were coming here to get married and had made their arrangements with the husbands-to-be through the usual medium of letters and photographs through the professional marriage brokers. They were in tears yesterday when told that they would have to return to Greece without even being able to see their fiancés.

Thirty-two stowaways, fourteen of them Germans, were taken to Ellis Island yesterday and will be deported. The Swedish-American liner Drottningholm brought back thirty-four Finns for the third time and the agents hope that they will be able to get into the United States this trip after being sent back and then transferred to another ship in midocean and sent back to Finland again.

The Cunard Line made arrangements yesterday with the Radio Corporation of America to install high-powered sets on the two liners, Berengaria and Tuscania, to entertain the immigrants over Labor Day, as they will not go to Ellis Island today. Radio is a novelty to the majority of the newcomers. In addition to the immigrants on the Esperanza, Byron, Braga and Esthonia there were 5,000 more passengers on the America, Berengaria, Chicago and Drottningholm, making a total of 6,896 for the day.

New York Times, September 2, 1923
Beach Pollution Laid To Big Liners
Merchant’s Association Report Says Garbage Comes Mainly From Steamships
Officials Deny Charges
Say Refuse is Dumped at Sea–Governor Silzer Also Criticises Statement

The large transatlantic liners and coastal vessels which, owing to the immigration rush, collect at the entrance to New York Harbor at the end of every month are chiefly to blame for the garbage polluting New Jersey and Long Island beaches, according to the statements made yesterday by Edward Hatch on behalf of the Pollution Committee of the Merchants’ Association of New York, of which body he is the Chairman.

The Pollution committee, in an effort to clear the City of New York from the responsibility of contaminating New Jersey and Long Island Summer resorts and in reply to the allegations of Governor Silzer of New Jersey that the pollution is almost entirely due to the methods adopted by New York’s Street Cleaning Department, further suggests of the thousands of seagulls, who ordinarily consume hundreds of tons of waste daily, had bearing on the garbage situation.

Both Governor Silzer and officials of the leading transatlantic steamship lines characterized the statements of the Pollution Committee as an attempt to shift the blame.

“I have not counted the number of seagulls which infest our coasts,” said Governor Silzer, “but I have the number of scows which dump New York garbage near the shores of New Jersey and I do know that they have recently increased in number from three to seventeen....

New York Times, September 3, 1923
4 More Ships Bring 2,280 Immigrants
They Are Detained on Board Until Room Can Be Made at Ellis Island
1,500 Others Are Landed
Five Hundred Held to Await Figures in Quotas–Curran Denounces Quota Race

Four steamships arrived yesterday from Europe, bringing 594 first and 1,897 second class passengers who were landed at the piers, and 2,280 third-class passengers who will be detained on board until Wednesday morning, when there may be room for them at Ellis Island. The vessels arriving were the Red Star liner Belgenland, Anchor liners California and Columbia and the Holland-America liner Ryndam.

Three hundred immigrants were landed yesterday from the Swedish-American liner Drottningholm, mostly Scandanavians, and 600 from the Fabre liner Braga, composed of all nationalities from the eastern end of the Mediterranean.

About 500 Greeks, Albanians, Syrians, Palestinians, Armenians and Maltese were sent back to the Braga to wait for official figures from the Department of Labor in Washington showing what quotas have been exhausted. So far Commissioner of Immigration Henry H. Curran at Ellis Island has not received any dispatches concerning the quotas.

The Commissioner sent a letter yesterday to Robert H. Farley, Traffic Manager of the International Mercantile Marine Company and Chairman of the Transatlantic Passenger Conference, thanking the steamship companies who helped to reduce the number of vessels in the quota race from Gravesend Bay into Quarantine at midnight last Friday night, by diverting their vessels to Boston and other ports. He also named seven vessels–the Ward liner Esperanza, Fabre liner Braga, Greek liner Byron, Baltic-American liner Esthonia [sic], Swedish-American liner Drottningholm, the United States Lines steamship America and the Greek steamship Washington–which he described in his letter as elbowing their way in like so many barnyard inhabitants at the suspicion of food. The Commissioner added:

“We are all familiar with the peril to human life that accompanies these savage pursuits of a few dollars. Fortunately the number of steamship still willing to indulge in such indecent rivalry was reduced to seven. I am sorry to find an American ship right in the middle of the disgraceful brawl.”

His reference was to the America, of the United States Lines, which reached Quarantine, according to the official observer for the immigration Commissioner, at 12:06 A.M.

The race to Quarantine to be first over the imaginary line between Fort Wadsworth and Fort Hamilton concerns only the countries at the eastern end of the Mediterranean which have very small monthly quotas. These include: Albania 58, Armenia 46, Greece 613, Palestine 12, Syria 177, Egypt 4, other Asia 19, Turkey 531, and Bulgaria 33. The quotas of the big countries like Great Britain, which has 15,168, France 1,146, Italy 8,141, and Germany 13,521 are not exhausted until a week or more after the first of the month so that there is no need for their steamships to race into Quarantine. The agents divert them to other ports to relieve the congestion at Ellis Island. This takes away the trains, including the ___ transportation from New York.

The immigrants from the Drottningholm who landed yesterday were of a very good type, the Commissioner said, and at least 95 per cent, of the 900 were admitted. He praised the perseverance of the thirty-two Finns from the Swedish steamship who were admitted to the United States yesterday, to their great joy, after they had been sent back twice and had made a change of steamships in midocean. There were thirty-four originally, but tow of the Finns lost heart when they were deported to Gothenberg the second time and decided to live in their own country.

The twelve transatlantic liners which have docked in the port of New York since shortly before midnight Friday, with approximately 12,000 immigrants, are the Braga, Washington, Estonia, Byron, Drottningholm, America, Berengaria, Tuscania, Chicago, Belgenland, Ryndam and the California. The Esperanza from Vera Cruz brought only forty-nine immigrants.

Samuel Gompers made his annual pre-Labor Day visit to Ellis Island yesterday. The station will be closed today.

New York Times, September 3, 1923
Train Brings Immigrants
Three Carloads Due Here Today From Boston

In order that the immigrants who landed in Boston yesterday from the White Star liner Celtic and the Cunarder Carmania should be taken care of when they arrived by train in New York, Miss M.D. Browne of the Travelers’ Aid Society said last night that six workers had been sent to Boston on Saturday to meet them. A telegram from Boston yesterday stated that three carloads of the immigrants would reach the Grand Central Station here early today.

Miss Browne said that she did not know how many immigrants there would be, but it had been estimated at 900. The Travelers’ Aid Society, she continued, was sending additional workers to the station to meet them, including interpreters for those who could not speak English, who would assist them to find relatives and friends. It was expected that some of the immigrants would be without money, as they had intended to land here and meet friends with funds at Ellis Island.

New York Times, September 4, 1923
3,000 Aliens Arrive
1,375 Held on Berengaria to Be Shifted to Carmania

The 1,375 aliens who arrived on Saturday Berengaria from Southampton and Cherbourg and had to be kept on board, will be transferred at 6 A.M. today to the Carmania, as the Berengariais due to sail at noon for England.

Three thousand immigrants arrived yesterday from Europe on the Leviathan of the United States Lines, the French liner Savoie and the Royal Mail liner Orduna, and will go to Ellis Island tomorrow, it was said.

An appeal on behalf of the 1,896 immigrants who arrived a few minutes before midnight on Friday and were ordered excluded by the Department of Labor, was made in a telegram sent yesterday by ex-Representative F.H. LaGuardia to Secretary of Labor Davis, asking him to admit these immigrants with the September quota.

New York Times, September 4, 1923
Leviathan Brings 2,650 Passengers...

The United States Lines steamship Leviathan arrived at 5 P.M. yesterday from Southampton and Cherbourg with 800 first, 580 second and 1,261 third class passengers, making a total of 2,650 instead of 3,000, as stated in dispatches from London a week ago. The liner also brought seven stowaways, young Englishmen who had come with the hope of getting work in America.

Gibbs Bros., who operated the ship for the three voyages she made to Southampton and back, turned over the control to the United States Line at midnight.

Captain W.J. Bernard, U.S.A., who has handled the Leviathan every time she has arrived or sailed since her first trip as a transport on Nov. 17, 1917, docked her yesterday and then resigned as marine superintendent. He will resume his army duties today.

Captain Bernard said that during the war he handled 2,747 steamships and that not one of them went to sea or returned in better condition than the Leviathan was in at present. His experience at sea in transports and naval vessels covered thirty-five years in all parts of the world. American ship-masters and officers in the merchant service, he added, were handicapped in keeping discipline on board their ships by the laws of this country which, he charged, favored the crews.

Freylinghuysen Returns
Among the first cabin passengers were ex-Senator J.S. Frelinghuysen of New Jersey, Senator John W. Harreld of Oklahoma, Judge R.H. Lovett, Assistant United States Attorney General, Louis Wiley, and Marcus Loew.

Another passenger was Frederick W. Upham, Treasurer of the Republican National Committee. He said Chicago would be the scene of the 1924 Republican convention and predicted that President Coolidge would get the nomination.

Experienced travelers returning on the Leviathan, who had made the eastward voyage on the ship, said she was over-crewed. There were 1,355 in her crew, compared with 1,100 on the Majestic, in the victualling department there were 857 hands to look after 2,650 passengers, while the Berengaria had only 580[?] men, women and boys to take care of 2,800 persons.

This excess of crew on the Leviathan was not the fault of the heads of departments on board or the operators, it was said, but to friends of members of the Shipping Board, who wanted to send college friends to Europe on a free trip, and also to the American shipping laws, which demand that more men are to be carried in the stoke hole and deck department than are carried in foreign vessels of nearly the same size.

The passengers who went aboard at Cherbourg last Tuesday at 9:30 P.M. said they had been kept on the French tender since 1:30 P.M. without a chance to get food. The trip finished with a delay in Quarantine of four and a half hours because of the tide, so that when the gangway was hoisted at pier 86 two-thirds of the passengers made a rush to get ashore. This was checked by the ship’s officials.

Pass Baggage of 1,389 in Three Hours
Arrangements had been made on the pier by Alexander McKeon, Deputy Surveyor in charge of the customs, to expediate examination of the baggage of the 1,389 first and second cabin passengers. In three hours all the baggage had been passed except seven pieces belonging to Morris Volck, the son of Mme. Da Gama, wife of the Brazillian ex-Ambassador.

In the first cabin was Representative W.R. Wood of Indiana who studied the immigration question while abroad. He announced he would introduce a bill in Congress calling for abolishment of the quota method of restricting immigration.

Mr. Wood said he would propose a measure to place control of the number of immigrants to be admitted in the hands of the Secretary of Labor. Immigrants, he added, would be selected by their fitness, the Department of Labor being empowered to designate the countries from which they might come and the number of be admitted within a given period.

The proposed law, Mr. Wood said, would empower the Department of Labor to supervise the distribution of immigrants in this country, sending them either to factory or farm as the need might be.

Other passengers were Frank A. Munsey, the publisher, Charles D. Hilles Jr., a member of the Republican National Committee; William Miller Collier, American Ambassador to Chile; Mrs. Collier, Benjamin Thaw, recently appointed First Secretary of the Embassy at Santiago, Chile, and Mrs. Thaw, who was met at the pier by her sister Mrs. Reginald C. Vanderbilt, formerly Miss Consuelo Morgan.

Also arriving were Judge Robert H. Lovett, Assistant United States Attorney General; the Rev. Charles C. Albertson, Mrs. James M. Beck and Miss Beatrice Beck, wife and daughter of the Solicitor General of the United States; Judge William Blau, Captain C.C. Erskine Bolst, M.P.; Judge C.R. Bruce, Senator F.M. Davenport and family of Iowa; W.A. De Ford, Judge P.C. De Ford, Judge W.D. Dickey, Herbert DuPuy, Sir Thomas Esmond, Colonel and Mrs. Guy D. Goff and Colonel J.B. McLean.

Other passengers were John S. Sutphen, retired steel magnate; Mrs. Sutphen, and their daughter, Miss Jacinth Sutphen; Samuel Wallach, head of the New York chain stores of that name; S.E. Wertheimer, Lance Wolff, Mgr. J.F. Newcomb, Sigmond Von Rothschild, cotton factor of Houston, Texas; John Canada, counsul for the Missouri Pacific Railroad; Miss Genevieve Gibbs and Edward Hines and family.

Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Sloan of Nebraska also returned. Mr. Sloan was formerly a Representative from Nebraska who became interested in formulating legislation for the radication [sic] of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. He studied the treatment and handling of tubercular cattle on the Continent.

It is understood that William F. Gibbs, the head of the firm of Gibbs Brothers, will be retained by the United States Lines in an advisory capacity, as he had charge of the reconstruction work and drew up all the plans.

London, Times, September 7, 1923
Immigration Quotas Exceeded

(From Our Own Correspondent)
New York, Sept. 6
Four steamship companies which, through mistaken enterprise, attempted in the last few minutes of August to bring into New York Harbour 1,893 immigrants as part of the September quota and thereby exposed these passengers to deportation, were heavily penalized yesterday by the Commissioner General of Immigration.

Each of them–The Ward, Fabre, Baltic-American, and Greek Lines–was ordered to pay a fine of $200 (£40) for every immigrant thus brought in in excess of the August quota and, in every case, to refund the passage money. As the average passage money was £20 the total of the fines will reach something like $568,000 (£113,600).

At the same time it was ordered that all the immigrants involved are to be admitted into the United States [as part of the September quota], subject only to the ordinary tests of fitness.

‡Our Washington Correspondent states that appeals are regarded as certain, as all the masters contend that their time and not the Government’s time is correct, and that showed that the vessels passed in at midnight or after.

Toronto, Globe, September 7, 1923
Quota Law Incident

Washington has found a neat way out of what was described as “an impossible situation” at the port of New York with respect to violations of the immigration quota law, and which might have inflicted a cruel hardship on 3,800 human beings. Four offending steamship companies will be required to pay fines amounting to perhaps half a million dollars. Nearly a dozen steamers, laden with immigrants, swung at anchor Friday night just beyond the three-mile limit, waiting for September 1, because under the quota law only so many newcomers from certain countries may enter the United States each month. At three, four and five minutes to midnight, respectively, three steamers manoeuvred over the imaginary line, and, because they were unwillingly taken into United States territory before it actually was September, 800 Spaniards, Greeks, Turks and Albanians, men, women and children, were liable to be returned to their native countries. Fifteen seconds before it was September another ship with a thousand Poles and Russians crossed the line, and they, too, faced the same unhappy fate. Most of them had staked their earthly possessions on a voyage which they thought would give them a new opportunity to live.

The sea captains doubtless knew some of the quotas would be exhausted early on Saturday, the first of the month. Three offending ships alone carried 800 Spaniards, Greeks, Turks and Albanians, while the greatest number of these three nationalities the law allows in a month is 1,374. The first few ships in after midnight were practically certain to land their human freight; the others would have to sail eastward with the same cargo and no fares paid. Hence the hurry. The case of the ship with 1,000 Russians and Poles aboard, fifteen seconds too early, seems harder to understand, because the law allows the entry each month of 5,363 Russians and 6,229 Poles.

Immigration officials were powerless. The quota law had stood the test of a Supreme Court hearing and had to be obeyed. The Commissioner of Ellis Island, helpless in the face of merciless legal verbiage, is reported to have expressed wonder if the human mind could devise a more spectacular method of cruel and unusual punishment than to send these 1,800 newcomers back to Europe just when they saw their promised land. Similar protests were echoed in the press, The New York Times observing: “It is an American interest not to appear in the eyes of the world as ready to insist upon the most absurd legal minuting.” Some person high up in Washington accepted this viewpoint, with the result that the 1,800 immigrants will not be disappointed, though doubtless put to considerable inconvenience and worry. The shipowners have to pay $200 for each alien in excess of the August quota, which probably will wipe out the profits of the voyage. Thus the incident ends happily because money and common sense prevailed over law.

The United States quota law, however it might have appeared in view of last Saturday’s application, indirectly affects Canada, though, unlike other countries, no limit has ever been placed on the number of Canadians the United States is willing to absorb. In times of unemployment, for instance, many Canadians find work over the border, and were a quota law enforced against this country there could be no such drift of the workless. In other words, the quota law, shutting out as it does hordes of foreigners and even brother Britishers, is of distinct advantage to this country in facing the unemployment problem, which everybody hopes will never become acute again. On the other hand, the lack of a United States quota law against Canada has undoubtedly lost us many citizens sorely needed here. It is not the kind of statute, however, we should like to see enacted with which to greet the newcomers to this country.

London, Times, September 11, 1923
Awaiting Admission To United States
Cost To Steamship Companies

(From Our Correspondent)
New York, Sept. 10
Between 10,000 and 12,000 immigrants in twenty-four ships are waiting in New York Harbour to undergo examination by the Ellis Island officials. This is the measure of the Island’s inadequacy to deal with the present flood of immigration. Some of these prospective citizens will pass through the admission mill to-day, some to-morrow, but it will probably be Friday before the last batch will be dealt with.

In the ships the immigrants are more comfortable than they would be on the Island, though on account of their anxiety they can hardly be happy anywhere till they know whether they are to be admitted or deported.

It is costing the steamship companies a pretty penny for all this delay–a dollar a day for every immigrant until he or she is out of their keeping. They keep immigrants in the ships that brought them until the vessel must start on the return voyage, then they transfer them to another ship. But when there is no other ship then the vessel must postpone her return voyage until Ellis Island is ready to deal with its immigrant passengers. Delays of this kind are especially costly. The steamship companies are preparing fresh remonstrances concerning burdens that are being put upon them. Some of them declare that they are willing to pay for additional inspectors on Ellis Island if the Government is held back from increasing the force by considerations of expense.

London, Times, September 22, 1923
Facilities At Ellis Island
American Official’s Criticism

(From Our Own Correspondent)
Washington, Sept. 21
An interesting pendant to the description of the conditions at Ellis Island by Sir Auckland Geddes comes in the form of a report by Mr. Wadsworth, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, which has been published here. Mr. Wadsworth’s opinion, briefly expressed, is that nobody visiting the Island “could fail to be critical, to a greater or less degree, of the facilities” provided there for dealing with immigrants.

He recommends that the Department of Labour and the Treasury should request an appropriation to cover the cost of additional buildings, on the understanding that the needs of the Public Health service would be first considered. Incidentally he would impose a penalty of one thousand to two thousand dollars on any steamship company seeking to land an immigrant whose condition was obviously such as not to meet the health requirements of the Immigration Law.

“Medical examination of immigrants,” says Mr. Wadsworth, “is of vital importance to the country. I would not recommend the easing of this examination in any way, and I am convinced that the so-called intensive examination should be made to apply to every incoming alien.”

London, Times, September 29, 1923
Immigrant Ships’ Race To New York
New Regulations

(From Our Own Correspondent)
New York, Sept. 28
Means have been found to stop the dangerous races of ocean liners carrying immigrants into New York Harbour at midnight at the end of every month. Hereafter each vessel is to pick up a pilot at the Ambrose Channel lightship. In the order of arrival there ships will be assigned times at intervals of ten minutes to go up to quarantine. Thus, if there is any racing to be first to bring immigrants into the United States under a new month’s quota, it will be in the open ocean, where there is room enough to avoid collisions, not in the relatively narrow limits of the harbour. The first ship in each month-end’s procession will arrive in quarantine at five minutes after midnight. There are eleven vessels carrying ten thousand immigrants for admission to the United States under the October quota now on their way to New York

New York Times, October 1, 1923
Cedric and Scythia Crash in Fog Off Ireland; Latter Is Slightly Damaged, Returns to Port

Liverpool, Sept. 30.–The Scythia, outward bound for Boston and New York, and the White Star steamer Cedric, inward bound, were in collision today during a fog off the south coast of Ireland, with slight damage to both liners.

As a measure of precaution the Scythia is returning to Liverpool with her passengers, to enable a full examination to be made of the damage, which is all above the water line.

Queenstown, Sept. 30.–After waiting outside Queenstown Harbor since early afternoon for the Scythia to arrive from Liverpool to embark passengers for New York, a tender with more than 100 passengers returned her at nightfall, and it was learned that the Scythia and Cedric, which arrived early this morning from New York and resumed her voyage for Liverpool, had been in collision in the Irish Channel.

A dense fog has prevailed here for the last few days, and liners have had to make the harbor entrance with the utmost caution.

New York Times, October 1, 1923
French Dirigible Flies 4,500 Miles
Aloft 118 Hours and 41 Minutes, It Breaks Record for Distance and Endurance
Started Cruise Tuesday
It Went South to the Sahara Desert, Returning by Way of Sicily and Corsica

Marseilles, France, Sept. 30.–The French dirigible Dixmude broke today all records for distance and endurance when it landed at the Cuers-Pierrefeu airdrome at 6:46 o’clock this morning, after an uninterrupted voyage of 4,500 miles, lasting 118 hours and 41 minutes....

New York Times, October 1, 1923
7,000 Aliens Due Today
Liners Have Agreed Not to Race to Quarantine

Nine steamships are expected to arrive in New York today, bringing about 7,000 immigrants from Europe. There will not be any race to reach Quarantine, however, by ships belonging to companies in the North Atlantic Passenger Conference. With the approval of Henry H. Curran, Commissioner of Immigration at Ellis Island, the steamships with immigrants on board will start at ten-minute intervals from the Ambrose Channel Lightship for Quarantine according to the order in which they arrived off the lightship.

The ships include the Anchor liner Columbia, from Glasgow and Moville; the Baltic-American liner Polonia, from Libau; the Cosulich liner President Wilson, from Piraeus, Naples and Trieste; the George Washington of the United States Lines, from Bremen, Cherbourg and Southampton; the French liner Paris, from Havre and Plymouth; the Cunarder Carmania, from Liverpool and Queenstown, and the Royal Mail liner Orca, from Hamburg, Southampton and Cherbourg.

New York Times, October 2, 1923
Aliens Brought In Without Any Race
The Ships Enter at Fixed Intervals With October Immigrant Quota
Curran Praises Method
Passengers Number 13,146 in All, of Whom 7,781 Were in the Steerage

Ten steamships arrived in New York yesterday bringing 13,146 passengers from all parts of Europe for the October immigrant quota, of whom 5,365 were in the first and second cabins, which entitled them to land at the piers if they passed the health officers and the immigration inspectors. The remaining 7,781 in the steerage had to wait on board for their turn to be taken to Ellis Island.

Owing to the plan suggested by the twenty-six companies belonging to the Transatlantic Passenger Conference and approved by Immigration Commissioner Henry H. Curran, the racing into Quarantine that took place on the first of the three previous months was eliminated. The six liners, Polonia from Libau, Presidente Wilson from Naples, George Washington from Bremen, Paris from Havre, Carmania from Liverpool and Mount Clay from Hamburg, which were assembled outside the Ambrose Channel Lightship before midnight on Sunday, started in at ten-minute intervals with the Polonia in the lead.

Commissioner Curran, who watched the ships from the observation post at Fort Wadsworth, said that it was very orderly and put an end to the desperate scrambles of previous months.

In a letter to the Passenger Conference Mr. Curran congratulated it on the success of the new arrangement.

Only 1,400 immigrants were taken to Ellis Island yesterday from the steamships Polonia and Presidente Wilson and it will be about a week before all are examined. The customs officials had a heavy day, as they had 5,365 cabin passengers landed on the piers and had to keep inspectors and appraisers crossing the Hudson in motor launches.

New York Times, October 3, 1923
ZR-1 Speeds East At 60 Miles An Hour
Navy Dirigible Is Crossing Ohio on the Return From St. Louis to Lakehurst
Greeted By Din In Chicago
Throngs in the “Loop” See It Pass–Airship Due Her Early This Morning

Cleveland, Ohio, Wednesday, Oct. 3.–The navy dirigible ZR-1, which left St. Louis at 9:30 o’clock Tuesday morning on the return trip to Lakehurst, N.J., passed over Cleveland at 12:15 o’clock this morning.

The ZR-1 passed over Toledo at 10:30 P.M., travelling at about sixty miles an hour....

New York Times, October 4, 1923
Travelers’ Aid Swamped
Landing of Immigrants at Boston Increases Work Here

The detouring of boats from New York to Boston with immigrants arriving under this month’s quotas is doubling the tripling the work of the Traveler’s Aid Society, and friends are saying that a street drive for finances should be made for the organization.

The immigrants, not meeting friends who were looking for them at the New York docks, come on by trains as well as boats from New Bedford and Fall River, and yesterday the society’s headquarters at 465 Lexington Avenue were swamped with Armenians, Greeks, Czechs, Russians, Turks, English, Scotch and Irish.

The society’s representatives detailed to the docks and trains work eighteen to twenty hours on rush days.

New York Times, October 6, 1923
Mauretania Darts Between 2 Storms
Has Fairly Smooth Voyage and Brings 1,681 Passengers
Armour Is Optimistic
Chicago Packer Says Stories of Europe’s Impending Ruin Are Unfounded

The Cunard liner Mauretania arrived yesterday from Southampton and Cherbourg with 1,681 passengers, 6,500 sacks of mail and 68 boxes of gold consigned to New York banks after what the officers described as a fairly smooth voyage for this season of the year. Captain Arthur H. Rostron appeared to have dodged his way across between the tail end of the hurricane and the commencement of the equinoctial storms....

Toronto, Globe, October 17, 1923, p. 1
Will Make Two Ocean Trips To Gain Entry To The States
British and Russian Immigrants Deported So They May Return in Time For November Quotas
New York, Oct. 16.— When the Berengaria sailed today she carried back to England the largest number of immigrants ever deported under the 3 per cent. quota law. They were 566 Russians and British, who arrived here on the Berengaria and the Caronia after the October quotas for their respective countries had been exhausted.

By an arrangement between the immigration officials and the Cunard Line, these immigrants will be transferred immediately to the Carmania when the Berengaria reaches England, and taken back to this country, in the hope of entering them under the November quota.

If they fail to arrive in time they will have to wait until next July, as the quotas for the year for both Russia and Great Britain will be exhausted next month.

The situation is one of the most extraordinary which has ever arisen under the present immigration laws. It was brought about by an accident.

The immigrants left England on the Scythia of the Cunard Line. On her way to New York the Scythia came into collision with the Cedric of the White Star Line, had a hole stove in her bow and had to put back. The passengers were then transferred to the Berengaria, which arrived here Friday, and the Caronia, which arrived Sunday [page torn] vessels being too late [page torn] October quotas....

Toronto, Globe, October 18, 1923
Canada Welcomes Those Extra Quotas
No Need for Britishers, Turned Back by U.S. Rule, to Return Home

(By F.C. Mears)
(Staff Correspondent of The Globe)

Ottawa, Oct. 17.–An interesting situation has been created for the Department of Immigration and Colonization here by a provision just made effective by the corresponding department in Washington. By this provision any immigrant who lands in Canada, whose destination is the United States, and who is outside the quota allowed by the United States from the immigrant’s country, cannot enter the United States, and cannot, if he remains in Canada, make application for entry into the United States for one year. If, however, he returns to his native country he may then make a new application within a month.

The Canadian authorities, however, have made it known that if these immigrants who were destined for the United States, and who cannot enter there because they landed in Canada, and because they exceed the quota, are of British origin, they will be allowed to remain in this country.

Toronto, Globe, October 18, 1923
Intending Settlers Are Alone Welcome
Immigrants Using Canada as Temporary Resting-place Are Not Wanted

(Canadian Press Despatch)
Halifax, N.S., Oct. 17.–In connection with the question of transatlantic liners landing at Halifax, immigrants who started for the United States, only to find that their entry to that country would be prevented owing to the fact that the month’s quota had been filled. E.A. Saunders, Secretary of the Halifax Board of Trade, has received a telegram from Sir Henry Thornton, President of the Canadian National Railways, stating that the Immigration Department at Ottawa had issued instructions two weeks ago to their agents at Halifax to permit the landing of British subjects destined to the United States, but prevented from entering that country, because of an exhausted quota, providing they fulfill all Canadian immigration laws and desire to settle in this country.

Toronto, Globe, October 31, 1923
The most exciting sport along the Atlantic coast is not rum-running, but beating the quota law. Even the Aquitania is engaged in the business of getting immigrants into New York harbor before the number of each nationality permitted under the law be land in November is exceeded.
New York Times, November 1, 1923
11 Ships To Bring Quotas Here Today
As Many More Have Been Diverted to Other Ports to Relieve Congestion
Racing Is Again Avoided
Immigrants for Ellis Island Number Around 10,000–Majestic Docks Tomorrow

Eleven steamship with immigrants for the November quota are expected to arrive here today and eleven other liners have been diverted to Portland, Boston, Providence and Philadelphia to lighten the congestion at Ellis Island. It is expected that there will be about 10,000 immigrants on the ships without counting the cabin passengers and aliens who are allowed to land under the exempt clause.

About 1,500 of the immigrants will be taken to the island today and 2,000 a day commencing tomorrow until the November quota will have been cleaned up. Since last Saturday the number of arrivals in this port of all classes has been very light, which has given the staff at Ellis Island an opportunity to enjoy a little rest.

There was no racing into port last night, as the steamship companies had arranged that the time should be taken passing the Ambrose Channel Lightship.

The Byron of the National Greek Line from Piraeus was the first to enter Quarantine. Other vessels expected to reach their piers during the day are the Albania, Celtic, Cleveland, Columbia, Conte Rosso, Orca, Patria, President Arthur, Volendam and Suffern.

The White Star liner Majestic will not dock until tomorrow forenoon and has the largest number of passengers she has ever carried, 2,625 which includes 1,418 third class.

The Cunarder Berengaria will also arrive tomorrow with a large number of passengers.

The liners which have been diverted to other ports are the George Washington, President Polk, Tuscania and Seydlitz, to Portland, Me.; the Madonna and Asia to Providence, and the Carmania, Franconia, Baltic and Martha Washington to Boston. The Lithuania will go to Philadelphia.

The George Washington and President Polk of the United States Lines and the Cunarder Tuscania and North German Lloyd liner Seydlitz will land 4,200 passengers in Portland today and tomorrow.

Four Liners to Dock at Portland
Portland, Me., Oct. 31.–Four liners, bearing a total of 4,363 passengers including immigrants, are to dock here tomorrow and Friday. The President Polk of the United States Lines, with 550 passengers steamed into the inner harbor this morning, and is awaiting docking facilities.

The George Washington with her tonnage of 25,596 gross tons, is another to come here and dock Friday, and she is the largest ever to visit Portland.

Among her 1,738 passengers are U.S. Senator Robert M. LaFollette and Jules Jusserand, Ambassador to the United States from France.

Boston Awaits Immigrants
Boston, Mass., Oct. 31.–Thousands of aliens will be landed at this port tomorrow and Friday, eight liners bringing them in. Among the ships due is the White Star liner Baltic, and one of the cabin passengers is John S. Sargent.

The first vessel scheduled is the White Star Megantic, which sailed from Halifax. She has 300 cabin passengers and 898 in her third cabin. The other vessels include the Devonian, the Samaria, the Martha Washington, the Carmania and the Franconia. More than 5,800 aliens are aboard the Samaria, Carmania and Franconia.

New York Times, November 1, 1923
Two Liners Take Americans Abroad
Charles L. Kragey, Minister to Finland, Returns to Post on the Drottningholm.
Four Ships Due Today
Ambassador Jusserand Expected on the George Washington–Majestic in Tomorrow

Among the passengers sailing today for Gothenburg on the Swedish-American liner Drottningholm are Charles L. Kagey, United States Minister to Finland, who is returning to his post after a short vacation in Beloit, Kan.; Miss Stina Stael von Holstein, Fellow of the American-Scandinavian Foundation, who has been studying literature in this country; C.H. Rady, of the N.J. Keller Company, wood pulp merchants, and John H. Bolin, lumber man and general manager of the Sommers Bros. Match Company, Sandpoint, Idaho.

Leaving on the Panama-Pacific liner Finland for San Francisco via Havana and Panama are the following New Yorkers:
Mr. and Mrs. J.C. Anderson, .................

Lock Haven, Pennsylvania, Express, November 1, 1923
Philadelphia, Nov. 1.—More than 1,000 immigrants, passengers on the Danish liner Lituania,which crossed the "deadline" at Marcus Hook 55 seconds after midnight were today admitted into the United States. Commissioner Hughes, of the bureau of immigration, was authorized from Washington to release all the passengers, who included 90 Russian and German children orphaned by the war.

An inspector from the bureau of immigration here boarded the ship as she lay at anchor off Marcus Hook last night. He compared his watch with that of the vessel's captain and returned to the reporting station to clock the exact time at which the vessel officially entered this country.

Had the Lituania crossed the "deadline" one second before midnight, all the passengers would have been turned back, as the October quotas of the countries from which they sailed were exhausted.

New York Times, November 2, 1923
11 Ships Arrive In Alien Quota Race
With 14,000 Aboard They Are First in November Quota Dash
Bring 9,000 In Steerage
Six More Steamers, Carrying Large Numbers of Immigrants, Dock at Other Ports

Eleven vessels carrying approximately 14,000 passengers, of whom 9,000 were in the steerage, arrived here yesterday in the November quota race. At three minutes past midnight, when the Greek liner Byron passed the imaginary line at Quarantine, the steamers bearing aliens seeking admission into the United States, began arriving at short intervals. The Carmania, with 2,000 second and third cabin passengers, and the Martha Washington, with 860 aboard, put into Boston. One thousand immigrants arrived at Philadelphia on the Lithuania, 2,056 at Portland, Me., on the Tuscania and the Seydlitz, and 1,500 at Providence, R.I., on the Asia and Madonna.

The steamers reaching this port were the National Greek liner Byron from Piraeus, United States liner President Arthur from Bremen, Southampton and Cherbourg, Anchor liner Columbia from Glasgow and Londonderry, French liner Suffren from Havre, Fabre liner Patria from Mediterranean ports, Cunard liner Albania from London, the Holland-America liner Volendam from Rotterdam, White Star liner Celtic from Liverpool and Queenstown, Lloyd Sabaudo liner Conte Rosso from Naples and Genoa, Royal Mail liner Orca from Hamburg, Southampton and Cherbourg and the United American liner Cleveland from Hamburg.

At least nine yearly quotas were exhausted by yesterday’s arrivals, in the opinion of Henry H. Curran, Commissioner of Immigration at Ellis Island. The countries which probably will not be able to send any more immigrants until the fiscal year beginning July, 1924, are: Russia, Turkey, Greece, Portugal, “other European countries,” Egypt, Palestine and “other Asian countries.”

Because the first of the newcomers did not reach Ellis Island until noon, the officials did not handle the usual 2,000. Of the 800 who landed at the immigration station, 750 were admitted into the United States. About 1,000 arrived at the station last night in readiness for examination today.

United States Senator James W. Wadsworth, Chairman of the Committee on Military Affairs, spent yesterday at Ellis Island observing the method of handling immigrants.

23 Immigrants Escaped
Ellis Island Check-Up Revealed Disappearance From Italian Liner

News of the escape of twenty-three Italian immigrants from the liner Dante Alighieri on Oct. 10 became known yesterday. A check of records by immigration officials showed that of 132 immigrants returned to the ship to await examination, because of crowded conditions at Ellis Island, only 109 were sent back to Ellis Island.

A fine of $300 for each immigrant who escaped will be levied on the steamship company, Commissioner of Immigration Curran announced yesterday. Dominic A. Truda, local agent of the Transatlantica Italiana, vigorously denied reports that immigrants had escaped with the aid of passes which had permitted them to get by the guards at the gate.

New York Times, November 4, 1923
British Quota Full, 1,367 On Leviathan May Be Sent Back
Biggest American Liner Liable to $400,000 in Fines for Bringing in Excess
Problem For Washington
Law Gives Commissioners No Discretionary Powers in Regard to Admission
More On The Belgenland
Surplus Immigrants Whom the Law Forbids to Land Now Number Nearly 4,000

After making the quickest “turn around” ever known at Southampton, the American liner Leviathan reached this port at noon yesterday with 1,367 immigrants to find that the quota of British immigrants was exhausted for this year and she may have to put back to England with the entire company.

The United States Lines, which operate the great vessel for the United States Government, are subject under the law to an additional loss of about $100,000 for bringing in the excess aliens. The Secretary of Labor can fine the line $200 for each immigrant and require the refund of the passage money, approximately $100 for each. Such fines and refunds have been required in other cases of foreign lines which have raced here into American ports with inadmissible aliens.

Besides the excess immigrants on the Leviathan there reached this port yesterday and Friday British subjects aboard the Belgenland, the Berengaria, the Baltic and the Cleveland, who swelled the excess to 2,000. There are also others at various American ports.

Neither Henry H. Curran here nor the Immigration Commissioners of other ports have discretion in the matter, and the problem of what to do with the inadmissible applicants has been put up to William W. Husband. Commissioner General of Immigration in Washington.

Washington in a Quandary
Under the strict terms of the law Mr. Husband, too, is without discretionary powers, and according to information reaching this city last night the problem of how to handle the situation is causing grave concern at the capital. The plight of those who have reached here, aspiring to make America their home, is worse than it would appear to be at first glance, because exhaustion of the quota means that no more British subjects can be allowed to come in until July 1, 1924–seven months hence. Britain is allowed to send 77,000 emigrants to this country annually, at the rate of not more than 20 per cent a month. It has been the habit of the steamship companies to use up the 20 per cent month quotas, with the result that normally 100 per cent would not be used up until the end of November. Any slight excesses which might accumulate in the four prior months of the fiscal year, however, would apply against the November balance. That is what appears to have happened so early in this month.

Mr. Curran said last night that he could make little comment on the situation, as it was one with which his superiors would have to deal. He did say that as soon as their turns were reached all the British aliens now on ships in the harbor would be allowed to land at Ellis Island, examined and cared for there, pending receipt of instructions from Washington. If the Immigration Commissioner should find a way to admit them they will be all ready to be hustled through the gates. If not they will be loaded back on the ships which brought them and will have a free passage back to the land they had quitted.

Loophole May Be Found
Asked if he saw any hope of finding a way to let at least some of the excess applicants into the country, Mr. Curran said there always was a possibility of some “rebates” from the allotments for other ports and Canadian border line stations, the last mentioned being particularly flexible. So far as could be learned either here or in Washington, however, it did not appear that there was a possibility of sufficient rebates being found on checking all figures to make a loophole for any considerable part of the 2,000.

After a telephone conversation with Washington yesterday, Mr. Curran instructed the inspectors on the Leviathan at pier 86 to detain all British subjects except those who came as visitors or were entitled to land under the exempt clauses. Similar instructions were sent to the inspectors assigned to the Red Star liner Belgenland, which arrived at pier 59, North River, with 266 British subjects among the 1,999 passengers on board. Officials of the Red Star line asserted that the ship was entitled some allowance in time, as the Captain had left his course in mid-Atlantic to go to the assistance of the Dutch steamship Ary of Ternuezen, which had sent out S O S calls. Similar instructions were given to inspectors handling other ships involved.

Ten Quotas Exhausted
Besides that of the British Isles, the following quotas have been exhausted: Africa, Albania, Egypt, Greece, other Asia, other Europe, Palestine, Portugal, in addition to Russia and Great Britain.

The case of the Russians is equally bad with regard to the quota. The number left for the month of November was 3,284, which was exhausted on the first of the month, and 5,205 have arrived, which leaves 1,921 Russians facing deportation. There are 600 on the Berengaria alone.

A total of 2,269 aliens were examined at Ellis Island yesterday. They were brought from three ships, the Celtic, Velendam and the Patria. About 1,700 aliens spent last night on the island, the Commissioner said. Friday night, however, there were 1,900 aliens on the island, which was more than 400 in excess of the sleeping accommodations.

The situation in which the Leviathan finds herself aroused particular interest in shipping circles yesterday because of the manner in which she overcame a mishap to her turbines on her latest eastward trip. Forced to slow down for temporary repairs, she made the best speed she could on the last leg of the voyage, and reached Southampton at 9:30 o’clock on the morning of Oct. 27. She was due to sail at noon the next day. She departed twenty-six hours after her arrival there, 1,500 men and women having worked to unload her, make her ship-shape and take on cargo, passengers and mails.

Of the 800 detained at Ellis Island from the Greek liner Byron not more than fifty detentions were caused by excess quotas. All the rest were inadmissable, the Immigration Commissioner said, for various other reasons and certainly a large percentage of them would be deported. It will take a week at least to complete the examinations of the 10,000 immigrants who are now on board ships in the harbor.

British Aliens Detained
Many Will Be Sent Back, Says Commissioner General
Washington, Nov. 3.–According to the information here, the British quota was exhausted by applications made by steamship companies up to Friday night. It is possible that a surplus will be found to exist when these applications are reviewed, as the requests for admission are, as a rule, somewhat in excess of the actual number of prospective immigrants, but it seems improbable that there will be a sufficient number of “rebates” to make possible the admission of any large number of the 1,740 on board the Leviathan and Belgenland.

Until a final determination is made the British immigrants will be forced to remain on the ships, as requests for admission totaled between 10,000 and 12,000 within the last two days and there is not sufficient room to accommodate all applicants at Ellis Island. Commissioner Husband said that it would probably be Tuesday or Wednesday before it was known definitely how many of the British immigrants on the Leviathan and Belgenland would be admitted. Unless it is found that there are sufficient “rebates” to take care of these immigrants, Commissioner Husband said, they probably would have to return to their native homes.

Hurry To Brother’s Hanging
Immigration Officials Speed Two Italians on Way to Chicago

The gates of the detention pen at Ellis Island were opened some hours ahead of time yesterday for two Italian brothers who had hurried to this country, bound for Chicago, that they might see their elder brother hanged in that city. When detained on board a liner in the harbor yesterday they clamored for immediate admittance.

The attention of immigration officials was attracted by their grief and an interpreter was sent for. It was then learned that the hanging was set for Monday and unless they were permitted ashore forthwith they would not be able to reach Chicago in time to witness it.

They were taken to Ellis Island and quickly put through their examinations. When released they hurried to the ferry, and made all speed from the Battery for Chicago. Their names were withheld by the immigration authorities.

New York Times, November 4, 1923
34 Nations Agree To Custom Reforms
Elimination of Many Vexatious Obstacles in Trade and Travel Effected.
Our Observers Take Part
Many of the Changes Decided On Were Suggested by Chamber of Commerce Here

Washington, Nov. 3.–Elimination of many vexatious features of customs regulation and customs house procedure in international trade is looked for in a convention to be signed by thirty-four nations....

When this convention comes into force, some of the following improvements in customs matters will be accomplished:

...customs inspection of travelers’ baggage on trains crossing European frontiers will take place on the trains, rather than requiring passengers to get out and go to the custom houses....

New York Times, November 4, 1923
Lloyd George Sails, Sorry To Leave Us
Hopes to Return Soon to See More of the West and South
Compare Favorably With English–“Really Seem Glad to Hear You,” He Says
David Lloyd George is on the ocean homeward bound. After his four weeks speaking and sightseeing tour in the United States and Canada, he sailed for Southampton at noon yesterday on the White Star steamship Majestic, accompanied by Dame Margaret and Miss Megan Lloyd George, his wife and the daughter, as well as other members of the party that had accompanied him to America....
New York Times, November 4, 1923
Majestic Sails; Here Only 26 Hours
Liner Makes Quick Work of Taking Great Stores on Board
Carries 731 Passengers
E.R. Stettinius, Going Abroad, Is Optimistic About Business Conditions for Rest of Year

The White Star liner Majestic sailed at noon yesterday for Cherbourg and Southampton with 428 first, 133 second and 170 third-class passengers and 6,500 sacks of mail. She had been in port only 26 hours, during which she took on 7,500 tons of oil, 5,000 tons of fresh water, all kinds of stores and 500 tons of cargo, and had several thousand pieces of linen sent ashore, washed and put on board again.

Just before the liner was due to sail a young Hindu student presented his ticket at the third-class entrance on the pier. The clerk saw that the ticket had not been stamped at the British Consulate and refused to let the passenger go on board the ship. The Hindu became indignant and went to the office of John Watson, general superintendent, by which time the Majestic had left the pier. Mr. Watson told the passenger that nothing could be done until the ticket had been vised at the Consulate. This, he said, could not be done until tomorrow, as the passport office closed at noon yesterday.

The Hindu’s actions gave rise to a rumor that he had been put off the Majestic because he had been considered a dangerous person to travel on the same vessel as Lloyd George....

The corridors on the “C” deck were kept clear by New York City policemen for the first time in the history of the White Star Line, according to the veteran officials of the company, whose duty it was to scrutinize all persons who wanted to pass to the starboard side forward where ex-Premier Lloyd George’s suite was located.

When the Majestic moved out into the Hudson River the three great German-built liners were close together for the first time in this port. Their aggregate gross tonnage was 164,000. The Berengaria, formerly the Emperator, was made fast at the Cunard Pier, and the Leviathan, formerly the Vaterland, had just passed on the way to her pier.

New York Times, November 4, 1923
Offer 7 to 5 on G.O.P. Assembly Victory; Odds 1 to 2 on Democratic Judiciary Ticket

Up-State funds yesterday began to flow into the financial district in fairly large sums to be wagered on the election Tuesday.

Bets aggregating more than $15,000 were placed yesterday. W.L. Darnell & Co. announced they had an additional $7,000 to offer against $5,000 that the next State Assembly will have a Republican majority:...

New York Times, November 5, 1923
Davis Orders 4,000 Aliens Held Up Here Landed On Parole
Secretary of Labor Cuts Immigration Knot “for Reasons of Humanity”
1,367 On The Leviathan
Majority of Them Are From Great Britain–Russians Predominate on Other Ships
Foreign Nations Blamed
Congestion Could Be Avoided If Quota Law Were Regarded, Declares Davis

Nearly 4,000 immigrants facing deportation because they arrived here on ships after the quotas of their respective countries had been filled will be landed at this port from a half-dozen ships beginning today, in accordance with a decision reached last night by Secretary of Labor James J. Davis.

They will be permitted to land under parole. The 4,000 immigrants in excess of the quota includes 1,367, mostly British, immigrants, aboard the Leviathan, America’s largest steamship, and other thousands who came over on the Belgenland, the Majestic, Berengaria, Baltic and the Cleveland.

The Leviathan, which is operated by the United States Lines, faced a possible loss of about $400,000 because of the 1,367 excess aliens it brought to this port on Saturday. That loss probably would have fallen eventually on the United States Shipping Board, which owns the vessel. Under the law limiting immigration there is authorized a fine of $200 each against a steamship company which brings in aliens beyond the lawful quota. The Secretary of Labor also may require the transportation company to refund the passage money, about $100, to each immigrant barred. These fines and refunds have been assessed in some cases. In others the fines have been remitted.

The Secretary of Labor announced through Immigration Commissioner Henry H. Curran that a way had been found to land the excess immigrants. Announcement of the adoption of the parole as an expedient was made by Major Curran at the Republican Club after he had been in conference most of last evening at the Waldorf-Astoria with Mr. Davis and the First Assistant Secretary of Labor, E.J. Henning.

The cabin passengers of the numerous steamships now in New York Harbor will be landed first, because it is the custom for them to undergo medical and other examination on board ship. The second and third class passengers will go through the usual procedure and their admittance will require longer. Major Curran explained that everything would be put into shape at Ellis Island to expedite the admittance of the excess immigrants.

To Speed Up Examinations
By speeding up the processes of examination at the United States Immigration Station, Major Curran predicted that the last of the 4,000 immigrants would be landed by Saturday. The plan of landing the immigrants on parole was one that suggested itself almost simultaneously to Secretary of Labor Davis, Commissioner Curran and Assistant Secretary Henning.

Secretary of Labor Davis, as explained by Commissioner Curran, was here as a member of the party accompanying David Lloyd George, former British Premier. When the Secretary of Labor learned of the unusually large number of excess quota immigrants at Ellis Island facing deportation, he decided to remain in New York to study the problem.

Yesterday morning he and Assistant Secretary Henning went to Ellis Island with Commissioner Curran. They made an inspection of the immigration station to determine its needs particularly with reference to the request of Commissioner Curran for a Congressional appropriation of $1,500,000 to improve Ellis Island in various ways for the comfort of the immigrants landed there. The rest of the time was spent in discussing the difficulties of the surplus immigrants and in considering how their deportation might be obviated.

“For Reasons of Humanity”
After this all-day conference with Secretary Davis, Commissioner Curran saw newspaper men and said:
“Secretary Davis asked me to make this statement on his behalf: He said that the law gives the Secretary of Labor a great deal of discretion which is exercised for reasons of humanity, and after going into every side of the thing we are all in agreement that the 4,000 excess quota immigrants should be admitted, and they will be.

“Tomorrow we will take the first and second cabin passengers and go as far as we can with them. I refer to those who are detained on ship solely because they happen to be excess quota immigrants. We will get through with them as speedily as possible, admitting them as fast as we can.

“The form of parole is quick action. It is a quick way to handle them. It cuts red tape. We will be able to handle the cabin passengers more quickly than the others because they are examined aboard ship, as you perhaps already know. The others, including the third class, will take their turn and they probably will not be reached for a few days. We probably will not get through with them before next Saturday.

“Secretary of Labor Davis asked me to state for him that it could all have been avoided if the foreign Governments limited passports to the number fixed by the immigrant quota which our law fixes for those respective countries.

“The Secretary of Labor is leaving town tonight. He goes to his home in Pittsburgh so that he can vote in Tuesday’s election. While in Pittsburgh he wanted it understood that he will do something besides cast his own vote. He says he will be active in fighting for the candidates whom he wishes to see elected.

“Personally, I am glad that the Secretary has decided to admit the large number of excess quota immigrants who are now waiting to be landed. I think it is a big thing and the right thing. I am in entire agreement with him.”

When Commissioner Curran was asked whether the Secretary of Labor had indicated how he would deal with excess quotas in future if the landing of the present excess is cited as a precedent by countries exceeding their limitations, he said that that question was one that would have to be threshed out in Washington.

First Assistant Secretary of Labor Henning stayed over in order to visit Ellis Island today and observe the workings of the immigration station when it begins admitting the 4,000 excess quota aliens. He will remain here for several days until the situation is relieved.

Clamor on Waterfront
Fully 15,000 relatives and friends of the 8,000 immigrants detained on the steamships made fast along the North River waterfront collected on the piers yesterday and held long-distance conversations in fifteen European languages. About 5,000 went to Pier 88, North River, where the Leviathan and the Cleveland were docked, and several hundred of them made trips in motor launches round the sterns of the ships for a better chance to talk with the immigrants on board.

Young men with powerful lungs rented their voices to those less gifted vocally at a rate of 50 cents for fifteen minutes and did a good business. These public bawlers have become an institution every Sunday along the North River piers from West Thirteenth Street to West Fifty-seventh Street. Next to English the Russian language predominated yesterday, especially round the bow of the Cunarder Berengaria which has 600 Russians on board, and the White Star liner Pittsburgh with 500 who had been transferred from the Majestic on Friday afternoon.

Many of these unfortunates have made two and some of them three attempts to enter the United States and have been turned back each time because the Russian quota was exhausted. They have sold their homes and all their property to raise the fares, plus $18 for head tax and passport visa fee. The detained Russians wept all day yesterday because they thought that they would be sent back once more to Europe and soon the throngs of friends ashore were also in tears.

The British immigrants, many of them good mechanics from Scotland, appeared to be in good spirits yesterday as they hung over the bows of the Leviathan, at the foot of West Forty-sixth Street, and the Berengaria and the Pittsburgh, lying at the Chelsea piers. The immigration authorities do not permit visitors to board the ships where immigrants are detained. The Red Star liner Belgenland, at Pier 59 North River, has about 1,450 on board, and yesterday gurgling protests in Flemish reverberated along that section of the waterfront.

New York Times, November 5, 1923
Celtic Sails On A Sunday
Is First White Star Liner to Leave Thus Since War Days

The White Star liner Celtic left at 3 P.M. yesterday for Queenstown and Liverpool. It was the first time a White Star passenger liner belonging to the company has sailed on a Sunday since the troop-carrying days of the war.

Among the passengers was a group of young Americans headed by C.S. Barry, on their way to the Standard Oil plant at Calcutta, India, after spending four months in the office of the company at 26 Broadway. They will travel to India via London and the Suez Canal, Red Sea and Indian Ocean.

During the three days the Celtic has been in port the longshoremen have worked day and night unloading 15,000 tons, loading the same quantity for the return voyage, as well as 3,000 tons of coal and 3,000 tons of water. John Watson, general superintendent of the piers, said it was a bigger task than turning the Majestic round in twenty-six hours.

New York Times, November 5, 1923
Wins, Loses, Rewins Air Record In A Day; 266 Miles An Hour
“Al” Williams in Race Sails at Bullet Speed Through Flock of Bombing Planes
Near Death In Swift Dive
World Speed Champion Checks Plane Within Ten Feet of Earth
Another Contest Today
Lieutenant Brow Will Try to Recapture Record at Mitchel Field
Twice escaping death, once in coming out of a dive only ten feet from the ground and again when he darted through a squadron of Martin bombers arriving at Mitchel Field, Lieutenant A.J. (“Al”) Williams, former pitcher of the Giants, yesterday won the international supremacy of the air by making an average speed of 266.68 miles an hour. Lieutenant Harold J. Brow, who is a brother officer in the Naval Air Service, made the fastest time on one lap, attaining a speed of 274.2 miles an hour over the three-kilometer course....
London Times, November 5, 1923
Immigrants Held Up At U.S. Ports
British Quota Exhausted

(From Our Own Correspondent)
New York, Nov. 4
The Leviathan arrived here yesterday with 1,359 British immigrants, nearly all of whom will probably have to be returned to England because the British quota is exhausted. There are also 600 other Britons in ships here, and in other American ports, who will be similarly debarred from entering the United States if the laws are strictly enforced. It will be seven months before there will be a new quota–the beginning of the new fiscal year, July 1.

The Commissioner-General of Immigration in Washington is trying to find a way out of the difficulty, but until the returns from all the entry ports are checked up, it cannot be known whether any immigrants now barred can be admitted through rebates.

The Leviathan, if subject to the same regulations which have been enforced against other ships bringing immigrants in excess of the quota, may have to pay a fine of $400,000 [about £88,000]/ The maximum penalty is $200 for each immigrant and the refunding of the passage money, which averages $100.

There are also 1,921 Russians facing exclusion, their quota of seven hundred being exhausted. The steamship companies are permitted to bring in any month 20 per cent. of each country’s quota, so that it is possible, as in the case of Britain and Russia, to exhaust the whole year’s allowance in the first five months.

Toronto, Globe, November 5, 1923
10,000 Immigrants Join Ellis Island
Three Thousand Applicants for Entry Face Deportation

(Special Despatch to The Globe)
New York, Nov. 4.–With Ellis Island jammed and more than 10,000 immigrants afloat on steamers in New York bay, one of the most serious crises in immigration history today faces New York immigration authorities. So important is the present situation, that Labor Secretary Davis came from Washington today, and, following a conference with Immigration Commissioner Henry Curran, stated he hoped to devolve some plan to relieve the situation.

There are 3,000 immigrants facing deportation, 2,000 of them from the British Isles, and it is hardly likely that any movement can be undertaken to extend the British quota, which is now exhausted for the entire fiscal year.

There are now 600 Russians, in additional to aliens from Africa, Greece, Portugal and Turkey, waiting in Ellis Island, which is housing nearly 2,000. Commissioner Curran is understood to be prepared to admit 1,500 aliens now quartered on Ellis Island. These are admissible, as they come from countries whose quotas are not exhausted, it was said.

New York Times, November 6, 1923
Says Unused Quotas May Admit Aliens
Assistant Secretary of Labor Finds That Other Ports Have Not Exhausted Allotments

F.J. Henning, First Assistant Secretary of Labor, discussing the congestion of aliens in excess of their quotas in an interview at the Hotel Astor yesterday, said that he believed a final tabulation of the number of aliens arriving throughout the fiscal year in the thirty ports of entry in this country would show that the quota allotments of some of the ports had not been used up. He predicted that the 4,000 aliens to be admitted on parole would be absorbed by the unused quotas of these immigrant-receiving ports.

“The 20 per cent a month quotas are distributed among the thirty stations on a guess,” he said. “It will take a month to check the figures of these ports of entry and I am certain that some of the quotas have not been exhausted and can be applied to the present situation.”

Mr. Henning said that the Secretary of Labor’s order permitting the aliens to land should not be construed as permanent admission. He said that if it were found, upon checking, that the quotas of the various countries had been exhausted, the paroled immigrants would have to go back.

“Will not this tangle be repeated when the quotas are reopened next year?” he was asked.

“In regard to this question,” he replied, “my answer is this: The European nations know our immigration laws better than we do. No alien need be held at Ellis Island if the country from which he came gave a thought about him.”

Mr. Henning said that Britain sent the best immigrants. He quoted Lloyd George, with whom he discussed the exodus of young Britons to the United States, as having said: “Britain is sending you the flower of British manhood. What a pity.”

“I told him,” said Mr. Henning, “that I wished the quota permitted more of his countrymen to come.”

New York Times, November 6, 1923
Our Muddled Immigration Law

The humanitarian motives which prompted Secretary Davis to admit “on parole” several thousand immigrants in excess of the allotted quotas will probably meet with public approval, although it may well be objected that such wholesale relaxing of the law in the case of these immigrants and not of others who had exceeded the quotas is in effect a form of discrimination. So also, other steamship lines which have been fined for bringing excess immigrants may call attention to the coincidence that half the immigrants now exempted came over in American vessels, and that the Leviathan has been relieved of paying a fine of about $400,000, thanks to Secretary Davis’s decision.

The important thing to note is the absurdity of a system which makes it possible for 4,000 persons to sail too late to be included within their quotas. In this connection Secretary Davis’s explanation is particularly to be regretted in that it adds to the confusion in the public mind without in any way contributing to a solution of the problem. Commissioner Curran is quoted as saying: “Secretary Davis asked me to state for him that it could all have been avoided if the foreign Governments limited passports to the number fixed by the immigrant quota which our law fixes for those respective countries.”

It would have been more pertinent had Mr. Davis pointed out that it could all have been avoided if the American Government had limited the number of visas of passports to the total fixed by the respective quotas. It goes without saying that it is not the duty of foreign Governments to enforce our laws for us. No Government can be expected to limit the number of passports to a figure fixed by some other Government. To suggest this is to endeavor to cover up one of the worst deficiencies in our quota law, which happens, at the same time, to be one of the easiest remedied. There should be centralization of control over the quotas. This cannot be in Downing Street or at the Qual d’Orsay, or even at American Embassies abroad. It must be in Washington, where alone it is possible to keep a running check on the numbers entering the United States from all parts of the world.

Secretary Davis was quoted last Summer as believing that greater cooperation on the part of the foreign Governments would also assist in the difficult task of selection. But why should a foreign Government help to get rid of its best citizens when it has long sought methods of shipping its undesirable ones? The situation is not unlike a common occurrence during the preparatory months of American participation in the war. Company commanders frequently received orders to transfer a stated number of good men for replacement purposes. The need of sending only men of calibre was particularly impressed upon them by their superiors. But rare indeed was that company commander who failed to use such an occasion as an opportunity to rid himself of the undesirable elements in his company.

The American Government cannot dodge the responsibility of properly administering the immigration law by laying the blame on foreign Governments. One of the most important measures to be assured in the new immigration legislation to come up in December is that there be a sufficiently competent check to prevent persons in excess of the quotas from sailing. That would eliminate most of the inhumane features of the restrictive system. But the control must be by our own Government.

Toronto, Globe, November 6, 1923
It looks as if all we need to launch a great immigration boom is a regulation for the admission to Canada of Ellis Island’s discards under the quota law
New York Times, December 1, 1923
Six Liners Arrive With Alien Throng
Immigration Gates Opened at Midnight for December Quotas
Barred Russians Ordered Deported, Although Canada May Be Willing to Admit Them

Six steamships anchored yesterday in Gravesend Bay with immigrants from various European countries to await midnight and then enter Quarantine for the December quota. They were the Estonia from Libau, Drottningholm from Gothenburg, Frederik VIII, from Copenhagen, Minnekahda from Hamburg, Providence from Naples and Palermo and the President Fillmore from Breman. Three other vessels with immigrants are expected to reach Quarantine during the morning. They are the Rotterdam from Rotterdam, Orbita from Hamburg and the Dante Alighieri from Naples and Genoa. The total number of passengers arriving today on the nine liners will be 256 first, 1,968 second and 4,253 third class, making 6,477 of all classes, of whom about 10 per cent are citizens of the United States. The Aquitania, from Southampton, will arrive tomorrow with 1,872 and the Hansa, from Hamburg, with 1,285.

The quotas for fifteen countries have already been exhausted. Italy’s total for the year is expected to be used up by Dec. 10 and Germany’s quota about the middle of January. Three liners, the Colombo from Naples, the Braga from Naples and the Azores and the Britannia from Naples and Palermo have been diverted to Philadelphia to avoid congestion at Ellis Island. Altogether more than 10,000 immigrants are expected to arrive in New York harbor during the first three days in December, which will fill up nearly all the quotas, immigration officials predicted yesterday.

Seventy-five Russians will be deported today on the White Star liner Olympic as in excess of quota, which leaves 500 remaining at Ellis Island from the liners Majestic and Belgenland whose cases have not been heard. Reports were received from Ottawa that Canada would admit the Russian immigrants who had been barred in New York for being in excess of quota, and Secretary of Labor Davis is reported to have said that he would agree to their going into Canada if it could be arranged. Joseph Barondess headed the Jewish delegation that went to Ottawa to make the appeal on behalf of these immigrants. As no word has been received from Washington by the steamship agents the seventy-five will be deported today.

It is expected that there will be several writs of habeas corpus served on the captain of the Olympic before she sails at 11 o’clock today from Pier 59, North River, to take some of the deportees ashore.

New York Times, December 1, 1923
Offers Plan To End Immigrant Frauds
McLaughlin Urges Law to Make Ship and Express Companies Responsible for Agents’ Acts
Will Help To Stop Evils
State Banking Superintendent Tells Investigators How Swindling Can Be Checked

Legislation requiring steamship and express companies to do business as principals and to be responsible for the acts of their sub-agents and employee on the premises where the agents do business, was recommended yesterday by George V. McLaughlin, State Banking Superintendent, as a step to curb swindlers who prey upon immigrants. Mr. McLaughlin was a witness before the Legislative Committee investigating exploitation of immigrants.

Mr. McLaughlin said he did not believe that supervision by the State Banking Department “would be of any use” in preventing frauds in money transmission. Infrequent visits by inspectors of the departments, he said, would not be sufficient. On the contrary, such supervision would give the agents a “cloak of respectability,” he said, and would relieve the companies of investigating the agents.

Alleged practices of Italian undertakers, as a result of which many families were said to have been left penniless, were described by Dr. Francis Auleta of 322 East 115th Street. “I know of one case,” he said, “where a girl 12 years old died. The family had a big funeral with two bands. A week later I was called to attend to another child in the family. They had no money to pay a physician or to buy medicine. They had to appeal to the Red Cross for help. They had paid $1,200–all they had–to the undertaker.

“One of the big costs of Italian funerals is bands. I know of one case where a man was a member of ten different societies and each society wanted to be represented at the funeral with a band. Friends of the family finally persuaded them to get along with four bands.”...

New York Times, December 1, 1923
Holiday Exodus To Europe Begins
Samaria, Olympic, Celtic, Leviathan and Savoie Sail With Cabins Crowded
Rumor Of A Race Is Denied
Tourists Leave for Southlands on Two Liners–Aquitania Gets in Tomorrow
Crowded cabins of five big liners leaving today for European ports indicated that the seasonal holiday rush abroad is already in full swing....
New York Times, December 2, 1923
Ship’s Brig Brings 3 As Mail Pirates
Minnekahda Lands Latvians Charged With Robbery on the Mongolia
Captured In Hamburg
Empty Mailbags Picked Up by Elbe Fishermen Gave Clue to German Police

The American liner Minnekahda arrived here yesterday with three Federal prisoners locked up in a specially constructed brig on the after deck. They are former members of the crew of the Mongolia and are charged with robbing the United States mails on the high seas. Because of the daring attempt made recently by a mail thief to escape from the Mongolia, the three men were guarded day and night on the voyage by two Hamburg policemen who turned them over to Post Office Inspector George F. Smith when the liner docked at Pier 58 North River.

The three men are natives of Latvia and the Post Office officials believe that they belong to a ring of mail robbers with headquarters at Riga.

The robbery of the registered mails on the Mongolia was discovered through some sacks being found floating in the River Elbe by German fishermen, who took them to the Post Office in Hamburg. The three men were arrested in Hamburg and locked up there for weeks while the German postal authorities gathered the evidence which was brought over by the Minnekahda to be used at the trial of the men here.

It was said that the men took the mail bags from the room where they were stowed on the Mongolia as the ship was nearing Cuxhaven and emptied them in one of the vacant after cabins. After taking the money found in the letters they placed the empty envelopes in the bags and threw them overboard with pieces of iron to sink them but they were not weighted heavily enough and several floated off Cuxhaven.

The men were arrested in Hamburg by the German police on suspicion after they had been seen in several cafes and beer gardens spending money recklessly. One of the prisoners told the Hamburg police that he had got about $500 and had several money orders uncashed.

New York Times, December 2, 1923
Good News For Postmen
Letter Carriers Will Get a Half-Holiday This Christmas
Letter carriers yesterday received an official communication from John H. Bartlett, Acting Postmaster General at Washington, that they will not have to work later than noon on Christmas Day this year....
New York Times, December 2, 1923
Nine Liners Bring 5,000 Immigrants
As Many More on Board Ships Due Here Today and Tomorrow
1,100 Already Admitted

Writs of Habeas Corpus Save 9 of 75 Russians From Deportation

Nine liners arrived yesterday from European ports, bringing 6,527 passengers, of whom 80 per cent are immigrants, chiefly Germans, Italians and Poles.

The first of the incoming vessels to reach her pier was the Baltic-American liner Estonia, and the first aliens to be landed at Ellis Island yesterday were 755 who arrived on the Drottningholm from Gothenburg and 1,046 on the Minnekahda from Hamburg, a total of 1,701 of whom, 1,100 were admitted and the remainder detained for various reasons for further examination.

The ships which arrived yesterday were the Estonia, Drottningholm, Minnekahda, Frederik VIII, President Fillmore, Rotterdam, Orbita, Dante Allighieri and Ausonia. The Cunarder Aquitania and the Hamburg-American liner Hansa are due today with 3,157 passengers, and 2,303 more will arrive tomorrow on the White Star liner Baltic, the Atlantic Transport liner Minnewaska and the Anchor liner California.

Commissioner Henry H. Curran estimated that the 10,000 aliens in the first three days of this month will all be examined at Ellis Island during the coming week. He predicted that the Italian quota would be exhausted by Dec. 10 and the German and Swedish quotas by the middle of January. The Polish quota also is nearly filled.

Of the seventy-five Russians ordered deported yesterday on the White Star liner Olympic for being in excess of the quota fifteen were taken off just before sailing time by writs of habeas corpus issued by Judge Augustus Hand of the United States District Court, which were served on Captain F.B. Howarth by Deputy Marshals who took the Russians off the ship and back to Ellis Island.

New York Times, December 2, 1923
The West Virginia Goes Into Commission
Great Warship Will Leave Norfolk for New York Within a Few Days
Newport News, Va., Dec. 1.–The battleship West Virginia left the plant of the Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company this morning for the Norfolk Navy Yard, where it was placed in commission late today....
New York Times, December 3, 1923
Pictures Pilgrims Facing Quota Law
What if Indian Officials Had Admitted Only Ten? Asks Rabbi Krass
Denies Jews Are A Nation
Tells Emanu-El Congregation That They Are a Divine Amalgam of Race and Religion

Denouncing the attempt to draw a distinction between Jews and Americans, Rabbi Nathan Krass, in an address before a congregation that filled Temple Emanu-El, Fifth Avenue and Forty-third Street, yesterday pointed out that the real Americans were Indians.

“Imagine what would have happened if a committee of Indian immigration officers had stood on Plymouth Rock, and, after admitting ten Pilgrim Fathers, had said, ‘Your quota is full. The rest of you go back to England,’” said Dr. Krass. “Yet we are all immigrants or descendants of immigrants. An American means any one who is born in America, or who, hailing from other lands, takes out citizenship papers and swears allegiance to the Constitution. This recent attempt to delimit Americans on the basis of religion or race is an outrageous insult to the intelligence of people of this land and treachery to the ideals of the founders of this Republic.”...

New York Times, December 3, 1923
Japanese Bow To Land Act
National Body Advises Respecting California Alien Law

San Francisco, Dec. 2.–The Japanese Association of America, at a special convention here yesterday, adopted a resolution authorizing all its executive committee and affiliated organizations to advise Japanese people under their jurisdiction to respect the California Alien Land law, recently upheld by the United States Supreme Court.

“Because of our faith in the spirit of America we felt deeply that our very livelihood was endangered by the enactment of the California Alien Land law,” the resolution stated in part.

“We though this law was in violation of the Constitution. If we had not looked to America with absolute faith in her spirit we would never have appealed to the Supreme Court for the better protection of our rights.”

Toronto, Globe, December 28, 1923
Aim To Hold World At Arm’s Length
U.S. May Apply Quota Rule on Immigration to Canada

(Canadian Press Despatch)
Washington, Dec. 27.–The House Committee on Immigration, which hopes to report a new immigration restriction bill soon after the holiday recess, is giving serious consideration to the plan of applying the quota rule which is now applied to European countries and the Eastern Hemisphere to countries in the Western Hemisphere. If it is applied to the Western Hemisphere Canada will be one of the countries affected.

It is asserted a large immigration from Europe is entering this country indirectly from Canada, Mexico, Cuba and parts of South America, and for this reason the application of the quota rule will be considered. If the plan of Chairman Albert Johnson of the House Immigration Committee passes, restrictions will be made more severe. Instead of 3 per cent., the yearly quota may be reduced from 3 per cent. of the number admitted from a country in the decade prior to 1910 to 2 per cent.

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