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January 7th - May 27th | June 10th - August 5th | August 19th - Dec 23rd

Canadian News and British American Intelligencer 1857

(Published every alternate Wednesday)

January 7, 1857

We have most satisfactory accounts of the result of the past navigation season in a commercial point of view. It appears that the ships arrived from sea at Quebec were 907, with an aggregate capacity of 471,444 tons; against 677 in 1855; with a capacity of 346,449 tons, showing an increase, in 1856, of 230 vessels and 124,995 tons. The distribution of these arrivals was-833 British vessels, comprising 436,593 tons; 38 Norwegian, 17,730 tons; 15 American, 8,596 tons; 8 German, 3,015; 6 Prussian, 2,056 tons; 2 Swedish, 1,450 tons; 2 Portuguese, 470 tons; 1 Hanoverian, 296 tons; 1 Sardinian, 238 tons; and 1 Danish, 1,000 tons; the average capacity being 550 tons. The number which took back cargoes of timber were 860, in addition to 42 new ships launched during the season, forming together 433,824 tons. The number of passengers landed in 1856 was 22,439 against 21,274 in 1855; of these 10,353 were from England, 1,688 from Ireland, 2,794 from Scotland, 4,537 from Germany, 2,806 from Norway, and 261 from colonies. In addition to the general trade, that with the other British colonies in North America was, in 1856, 127 ships, 8,434 tons, against, in 1855, 121 ships, 8,910 tons.


Emigration For 1856

The number of persons who have left Liverpool during the year 1856 was 128,566, of whom 112,716 took their departures in 317 vessels, termed emigrant ships or vessels "under the act" of an aggregate tonnage of 434,473 tons, and 15,850 persons in 319 vessels, of an aggregate tonnage of 336,211 tons, "not under the act." The emigration of 1856 exceeds that of 1855 by 8,448. The following table shows the destination of the 317 ships "under the act," and the number of passengers who proceeded to the various foreign and colonial ports under the inspection of the Government officers:

Destination

Passengers

Cabin

Steerage

United States 1,119 84,714
Canada 24 4,475
New Brunswick 9 89
Newfoundland 53 121
New South Wales 21 3,139
Victoria 709 15,501
South Australia 0 388
Tasmania 8 1,176
New Zealand 44 1,087
South America 1 38

Of these 112,716 persons, 37,996 were English, 5,519 Scotch, 61,828, or more than one-half Irish; 5,254 natives of other countries; the remainder, 2,119, being cabin passengers, who are not classified. The following table shows the destination of the 319 vessels "not under the act," and the number of persons proceeding to the various places noticed in the first column:
Destination Passengers
Cabin Steerage
United States 8,138 2,695
Canada 1,905 705
New Brunswick 64 248
Nova Scotia 11 32
Newfoundland 15 0
Prince Edward's Island 36 18
New South Wales 47 1,112
Victoria 131 302
South Australia 9 20
Tasmania 0 6
New Zealand 9 0
British Guiana 31 0
West Indies 22 0
South America 153 43
Africa 20 0
Cape of Good Hope 19 5
East Indies 44 0

These figures show that about one-half of the emigration to Australia and the whole to New Zealand is composed of Englishmen; more than two-thirds of that to the United States is composed of Irishmen. The Mormon exodus continues on the increase; the number who have sailed from Liverpool for American ports, on their way to Utah, during the past twelve months, being upwards of 4,000. Accounts from the Great Salt Lake show, however, that considerable numbers are continually leaving "the New Jerusalem,"-some for California, and others to more decent cities in the United States.

Quebec

There were 42 vessels built at Quebec during the past season, comprising a tonnage of 33,235. There are now upon the stocks thirty-seven vessels, of an aggregate tonnage of 27,115 tons. Many of these vessels are of very large size-indeed, exceeding 1,000 tons, while very few are under 500. The business of shipbuilding is very important to Quebec, giving employment, as it does, to a large number of shipwrights and artisans at the dead season of the year-when all other business is either interrupted altogether or very much curtailed, to the very great inconvenience of a large number of that class.

The season has been remarkably fine and clear, thus enabling vessels to get away in good time. The wrecks have also, we are happy to find, been comparatively few this season.

By a telegraphic despatch received at Quebec from Washington, we learn the following intelligence, which may have an important bearing on the present state of Atlantic steam communication:-

Mr. Stuart presented the memorial of Edward R. Collins and associates, contractors for carrying the mails between New York and Liverpool, setting forth that the original contract does not enable them to keep up successful competition with the British line, sustained as it is by the increase of Government support. They express an unwillingness to surrender to England the great national ocean supremacy they have won, and desire, if it must be surrendered, it shall be done by hands other than their own, and ask, inasmuch as they embarked in the enterprise at the solicitation of our Government, that Congress may pass a law to terminate their contract and dispose of their ships, so they be relieved from their undertaking without loss.

Their memorial was referred to the Post-office Committee.

According to the Quebec Mercury, which states that its authority is undeniable, the Cunard Company have already concluded arrangements for their steam ships to take in and discharge at Point Levi; and further, that an English company is ready to undertake the immediate construction of docks on the opposite side of the river.

The Chicago Tribune has the following, based upon the supposition that Mr. Cunard is to run a line of steamers to the St. Lawrence next season:-

Canada is all alive. We have mingled with no people and met with no advisers of the people more wise and energetic than the people and their advisers over the border. Rival cities may conflict; Upper and Lower Canada may stand seemingly hostile in alluding to each other; but neither this conflict nor this hostility can stop the progress of Canada or its development, socially and commercially. On the contrary, the geographical position of the country, overriding social jealousies and sectional feeling, will lead ultimately to a unity of feeling and action, which will end in making Canada one in affection and in interest.

Suppose the Cunarders as regular in arrival and departure to Quebec and Montreal as they are to Boston and New York, and what must follow? That the facilities of trade with the West will be increased-the St. Lawrence and Welland canals will be enlarged-river difficulties overcome, so that the direct trade between Chicago and the St. Lawrence will become a large and increasing trade. Let us look at this a little. There is now a line of fifteen or sixteen propellers irunning [sic] between Chicago and Ogdensburg, and we learn that the company are building some six new propellers for the coming spring. These will all trade more or less with Canada; probably the larger portion of their cargoes go to Canada. Now, if there were a direct line to Montreal and Quebec, transshipments at points on the line, or for the Cunarders, would be avoided, and much time as well as expense saved thereby. To the establishment of this commercial course it is necessary that the St. Clair Flats should be deepened and the St. Lawrence and Welland canals enlarged. The former will be done by our people or the Government; the latter accomplished speedily by the Canadian Government.

The weather has been intensely cold. On Thursday morning the 18th ult., the thermometer stood at 25 degrees below zero.


The Atlantic Telegraph

The great circle distance between the two shore lines of Cape Race, in Newfoundland, and Cape Clear, in Ireland, being 1,600 miles, it follows that this level bottom occupies all but 3,000 miles of the entire distance across, and this being near the shores is comparatively shallow. The deepest part of the North Atlantic is between Bermuda and the Grand Banks, and, in a vertical line, the bottom here is about nine miles below the tops of the highest mountains in the world. There are now 700 men employed in Newfoundland and Cape Breton on the telegraph line, which, from the point where it connects with the Nova Scotia line, to St. John's, N.F., is about 600 miles, the distance across from Ashby Bay, Cape Breton, to Cape Ray cove, in Newfoundland, being 85 miles. No doubt, next summer the attempt will be made to lay the cable across from Newfoundland to Ireland. It is somewhat doubtful, even if all other difficulties are surmounted, whether this long circuit or sub-marine telegraph line can be successfully worked, as it is found difficult on land to work through a wire more than eight or ten hundred miles. In case of this failing, the Canadian line will then probably be put down. This line will start from Quebec, running along the banks of the St. Lawrence, and terminating at the eastern extremity of Labrador. From thence it passes by a submarine cable to the southern point of Greenland, then up the eastern coast to a point nearest Iceland, then across that strait by a submarine cable to Iceland, which it crosses from west to east, then by another submarine cable to the Faroe Islands, whence it is proposed two lines shall diverge, one eastwardly to Norway and the other southwardly to the northern coast of Scotland. In this route the land stations are separated nowhere by a space exceeding five hundred miles.-Morning Chronicle.


Emigration Agents

The authorised [sic] agents in Canada, appointed by Government to protect and advise all emigrants, are, at Quebec, J. Buchanan, Esq., Her Majesty's Chief Emigrant Agent, and Mr. J. Sinn, a native of Germany, to act under Mr. Buchanan, for the purpose of advising and protecting German emigrants. There are also Government Emigrant Agents at the following places:-Montreal, Mr. A. Conlan; Toronto, A.B. Hawke, Esq., chief agent for Upper Canada; Hamilton, Mr. W. Freehaup, German and English agent.-Canada Company's Pamphlet.


...It is probable that some arrangement will be made next year to give us a weekly instead of a semi-monthly line of Atlantic steamers. Various rumours have been afloat for some time as to the intentions of the Cunard Company, and of an agreement they are alleged to have entered into with the Imperial Government to run a line of steamers to the St. Lawrence; but they all want confirmation. What may be relied upon is this-and it has not yet found its way into the papers,-that Mr. Cunard has written to the Canadian Government on the subject. He has not, however, made any direct proposition himself, but invited one from them. He sets out by assuming that the Canadian Government are desirous of obtaining the service of a weekly line, and then says that on being officially assured that such is the case, he will be ready to make a proposition. On the other hand, Mr. Hugh Allan, of the Canadian Ocean Steam Ship line, has been here, attempting to induce the Government to increase the subsidy to £50,000. currency a year. I believe nothing has been settled in regard to the matter, although it may, I think, be taken for granted that the service will be doubled by the establishment of a weekly instead of a bi-monthly line. Mr. Cunard counts somewhat upon the number and class of vessels at his command, alleging the advantage that would arise from his being able to prevent any interruption in the service by any accident to a particular vessel as a reason for our Government preferring an agreement with him. There are not wanting persons who look upon the movement of the Cunard Company as merely intended to get rid of an opposition line; who believe that if he could get the contract for a year, or term of years, the other line having been driven out of the field, he would then withdraw his St. Lawrence line. This argument, however, is met by those who believe in the superiority of the St. Lawrence route by the allegation that it will attract ocean steam ships, and prevent any such disastrous result as the withdrawal, in any event, of ocean steam ships therefrom. If ocean steam ships were self-supporting, this argument would be irresistible, but so long as a system of subsidies exists, it will depend rather upon who is willing to pay the largest bonus than which is the best route, to decide the rivalry of different lines. At present, the Collins Company is not satisfied with its subsidy from the American Government for his line; and has petitioned Congress, declaring that it cannot any longer perform the service for the money, and praying that the nation may become the purchaser of their ships. It may be, however, that this is only a ruse to obtain a renewal of the subsidy, at a moment when there seems to be something like a mutual desire to get rid of subsidies to Atlantic steamers. The Collins vessels are built in such a way that they can be used for war purposes by a little alteration, if necessary; and if the nation is to buy them at all, which in a time of peace is not likely, it could only turn them into war steamers. Vanderbilt, the owner of another and a superior line of Atlantic steamers, only asks that all subsidies shall be abolished. When this is the case, the time must be approaching when Atlantic steamers will have to stand solely on their own merits.


Ocean Steam Navigation

The attention of the shipping interests in Great Britain has been directed with great watchfulness to the steam communication, which was opened during the past summer by Messrs. Edmonstone, Allen, and Co., between Liverpool and Montreal. The recent movement of the Cunard Company in the same direction is a practical proof of the interest which their success has created. We can state upon undoubted authority that the British Government have entered into no contract with the Cunard Company to run screw steamers to Quebec, as has been erroneously alleged by several of our contemporaries; but that company have voluntarily determined, with the consent of the Montreal Company, to place four of their powerful screw steamers upon this route, to be in readiness to enter into engagements, if offered, with the Canadian Government to double the present line, as Messrs. Edmonstone, Allen, and Co., will probably not be in a position to run a weekly line of steamers without assistance from some quarter; and the Provincial Government could hardly enter into negotiation with any new company until the present contractors have had an offer of extension of the contract which has been so well and successfully carried out. It is not probable that the British Government would conclude an arrangement for this particular service with the Cunard Company, while, as they are of course aware, the Canadian Government are paying a large subsidy for the same objects. The attention of the Colonial Secretary was specially drawn to the advantages of the St. Lawrence line by several members of the Canadian Parliament, who were in England during the year, and particularly by Messrs. Young, Hillyard, Cameron, and Merritt; but it was evident that no aid could be expected from the Imperial Treasury for a new line, excepting that, possibly, if the matter were sufficiently pressed upon their attention, and equal or superior facilities shown to exist, the British Government might exercise the option-which we understand is secured to them under the Cunard contract-of dictating the ports to which these mail steamers should ply, by requiring them to make Quebec their destination during summer and Portland during winter, in place of Boston, as at present. There can be no doubt that the Cunard Company would scarcely desire to withdraw from the Boston route, as the moment their steamers were withdrawn some Boston company would certainly start up in their place. They have acted with their usual caution in placing their screw steamers on the Quebec line, thereby anticipating any action that the Imperial authorities may be disposed to take in changing any of their ports of arrival and departure on this continent. If first-class vessels are employed in the Canadian postal service, and we are thus enabled to compete in point of speed and certainty with the Cunard and Collins vessels sailing to and from United States ports, the way would seem to be already opened by the completion of our railroad communication between Detroit, Montreal, Quebec, and Portland, for an endeavour on our part to attract the European mails to and from the Western States to the Canadian route, in preference to the route via the United States through Boston or New York. The subject has already been brought under the notice of the British Government, and no difficulty need be anticipated in that quarter in obtaining the necessary consent to facilitate any new arrangement that may be required with the United States to allow their closed mails to pass through Canada on the same footing as our closed mails now pass to and from this province through the United States. The rate of postage by the Canadian line is much lower than by either the Cunard or Collins line, and if the time taken in the transmission of the mails were the same, the preference would necessarily soon be given to the provincial route. The true policy of Canada is to foster, by every means, the inland trade, and to facilitate the communication between the vast expanse of territory to the west and the Atlantic, through our own waters and over our own railways. With a line of screw propellers plying from Quebec or Montreal up wards, in conjunction with the ocean steam ships, we may hope at no distant day to see the St. Lawrence canals repaying the interest of the money expended in their construction and our lakes, roads, and rivers made the great highway to and from the Western States.-Toronto Colonist


Mr. S.P. Bidder, the General Manager of the Grand Trunk Railway, has arrived in England, with the view of making arrangements for his Through Ticket System from every shipping port of importance in Europe to any part of North America. Agreements have already been made by Mr. Bidder with all the leading railways of the United States by which passengers, whether emigrants or otherwise, will be passed to any part of Northern and Western America upon tickets issued to them in Europe. Thus passengers who purchase through tickets from the agents of the Grand Trunk Railway at Havre, Antwerp, Rotterdam, Bremen, and Hamburg, as well as at Liverpool, Hull, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Belfast, Dublin, Cork, Galway, or any other port which trades with Boston, Portland, Quebec, or Montreal, will be conveyed to any point in Canada to which a railway runs, or to any place in the United States where a leading railway has a station, without the trouble of making even an inquiry or the delay of a single unnecessary moment. Each passenger will be supplied with a ticket (authenticated by the signature of a duly authorised chief officer of the Grand Trunk Company), a map of his route, and even a time table, which, while he will be secured against all imposition, vexations, and delays after he lands, will tell him almost the very hour at which he will arrive at his destination. If this system be thoroughly carried out, it will tend to revolutionise the whole passenger traffic between Europe and America, as well as in America itself.

As we have already said, the initiation of this gigantic scheme is due to Mr. Bidder. Sir Cusack Roney, the present secretary of the Grand Trunk Company, has been appointed to co-operate with Mr. Bidder, as regards the European portion of the arrangements; and on the latter gentleman's return to Canada to resume his post as general manager, the former is to have, in combination with his present duties, the superintendence of this division of the system.


We have had no tidings of the America yet, now in her sixteenth day from Halifax; consequently we are without intelligence from England later than to the 3rd instant.


The Chicago Press states that the Canadian barque Chieftain has been chartered to go to Europe and back from that port early next season. She will take out wheat, and bring back salt or pig-iron. The price agreed upon for the voyage is 15,000 dollars. The Press adds: "This is no doubt one of the many vessels that will leave this port for Liverpool next season. It no longer remains to be an experiment-it is fast approaching a regular business. It is but a very few years since it was a "nine days' wonder" to see a Canadian vessel approach our city; and it will not be many years longer before Liverpool ships will grace our wharves as regularly as Canadian vessels now."

The Andrew Stevens, of Hamilton, has also been chartered to Mr. Patrick Barry, of the firm of Cameron, Barry, and Co., of Glasgow, for the sum of £3,000. (15,000 dollars) for the round trip from the port of Chicago to Cork, for orders-the charterer having the privilege of sending the vessel from thence to either of the ports of Liverpool, London, or Glasgow.


We are glad to perceive that the prospects of steam communication with the British North American provinces during the ensuing season are most promising. Messrs. Weir, Cochran, and Co., of Liverpool, have already completed their arrangements for a monthly line of steamers from Liverpool to Portland, calling at St. John's, Newfoundland, and Halifax, Nova Scotia. Agreements have been entered into with the Grand Trunk and other railway companies in the United States and Canada, as well as in Great Britain, to book passengers and goods through from the principal towns in both countries. It is also contemplated, at an early period, to add two additional vessels to this line in order to maintain a fortnightly communication. The first vessel is the Circassian, 2,400 tons and 350 horse-power, which will sail on the 11th of March, and she will be followed in April by the Khersonese. The Circassian is a new iron vessel, built expressly for the North American trade, and has superior arrangements for passengers. The berths for the first class will be found exceedingly comfortable, being placed in the centre of the ship, where there is the least motion. The Khersonese will have alterations to increase her speed, and will be much improved in her saloon and cabin arrangements, and the house on deck will run the whole length of the ship, similar to the Circassian, giving a spacious promenade on the top of it for first class passengers.


January 21, 1857

The following statistics appear in the Liverpool Customs' Bill of Entry:-
Countries Exclusive of

Returned Emgts

 Return
Cabin Steerage Emigrants Total
United States and British North America 2,050 703 4,057 6,829
Australia 120 247 479 846
Other countries 95 68 167 330
  2,265 1,018 4,721 8,005


New Invention in Photography-

Mr. Mayall has, after a series of successful experiments, made a valuable addition to the interesting art of photography. The photographic paper used for taking likenesses has been hitherto of a nature to prevent the exhibition of delicacy in the gradations of tones. The paper likewise is too absorbent to allow of transparent colour being laid upon it with accuracy and delicacy. Ivory, on account of its granulated surface was not adapted for the purpose of photography. Mr. Mayall has remedied these deficiencies by the production of a new material, which has all the appearance of ivory, without the granular surface. Sulphate of barytes is ground together with albumen, and then rolled out into slabs of the proper size and thickness for photographic pictures. The surface is then prepared like ivory. A negative image can be impressed upon this surface with a delicacy which has hitherto been unattainable, and the most shadowy tones are rendered with perfect accuracy. The work of the painter is thus rendered comparatively easy, and miniatures imprinted by photography upon this substance can be finished off by artists with extreme delicacy of execution, and even rivalling [sic] the productions of the most celebrated miniature painters. We are assured that by this process the picture withstands successfully the effects of any climate, a fact of some importance to those who may desire to take or transmit a likeness to our distant colonies.


The agents of the Montreal Ocean Steam Ship Company have purchased the property known as Jones' and Munn's wharves, at which the steamers of that line have moored while in this port. We are happy also to learn from the Quebec Colonist that there is a good understanding between the Cunard Company and the Montreal line, and they will run alternately and with a combined effort to make the St. Lawrence weekly line of ocean steamers the favourite line between the old and the new world. The purchase of the property above mentioned is in favour of the Quebec side of the river; but on the other hand, it is stated that a company, of which Mr. William Chapman, of London, and intend to ask for an act of Incorporation from the Legislature, to establish wharehouses, wharves, or docks at Chapman's Cove, and at which wharves, if the St. Charles Docks be not at once undertaken, the Cunard steamers will be located.


Emigration To Canada

It is obviously of the utmost importance to persons about to emigrate to be well assured as to the efficiency of the ships for a long sea voyage, and the completeness of the general arrangements. There is much to be considered and thought of; the efficiency of the ship-the mode of fitting and equipment-provisioning-the character of the captain,-and the position and standing of the owners. We observe that Mr. James B. Wilcocks, of Plymouth, has announced the arrangement of his line of "Plymouth Passenger Ships to Quebec," sailing in the coming spring and summer. It is now, we believe, some eight or ten years since mr. Wilcocks first gave his attention to Canadian emigration. He had been long engaged in Australian emigration, both as a Government service, and for private self-supporting emigration, when circumstances directed his attention to the inadequate means which were provided for the accommodation of the numerous persons from the West of England who were passing over annually to Canada. He at once entered into arrangements for the purchase of suitable ships, which were fitted and equipped under his own superintendence, and in these fittings he established alterations which were subsequently adopted by the Government, and made compulsory by the Passengers' Act. Since that period, Mr. Wilcocks has despatched annually large numbers of passengers, not only of the working classes, but those who can afford the better accommodation of chief cabin passage. For the ensuing season, it appears Mr. Wilcocks has placed on the berth four large ships capable of accommodating, with every comfort, chief cabin and steerage passengers. These ships embark their passengers at Plymouth, whence they are despatched direct for Quebec.


Advice To Emigrants On Arrival-

To the artisan and general labourer we would say, make the best of your way to the manufactories with which all the cities of the province abound. We would advise the intending settlers and agricultural labourers, as well as female servants, to immediately proceed to the office of Mr. Buchanan, in Quebec, where they will receive every information and assistance. In Montreal, Toronto, and Hamilton, sub-agencies of the emigration office are also established, where similar attention is afforded. The most eligible part of Canada for emigrants desiring to buy wild land is the western portion of the Upper Province-that section that lies between the waters of Lakes Ontario, Erie, and Huron; though the district around Sherbrooke, in the eastern townships, is particularly deserving the attention of emigrants of every class, as also the section on both sides of the St. Lawrence, between Quebec and Montreal. The country between Montreal and Toronto possesses great fertility of soil. Facilities of access to and from the land selected should be carefully ascertained, as this is a most important feature in the carriage of the produce, at all seasons, to the market.-Grant's Canada.


The Through Booking System Between Europe and America

In our last number we announced that a system had been organised by which passengers, whether of the first, second, or third classes, can be conveyed from most of the principal ports of Europe to any part of Canada, or to the leading cities of the United States. We are now in a condition to state the exact arrangements which have been made for effecting this purpose. They seem to be of the simplest, yet of the most complete character. We will take the case of an emigrant, who, having arrived at his port of embarkation, has decided upon taking his passage to Quebec, and thence proceeding by the Grand Trunk Railway to his destination in the Far West, which for the present we will assume to be Chicago. The agent of the ship will, for one payment, issue him a ticket, in which will be included the passage money across the Atlantic and the railway fare to his destination. One-half of the ticket will be given up to the captain or purser of the ship before he lands, and on presenting the other to the Passenger and Emigration Agent of the Grand Trunk Railway at Quebec, who will be in waiting on his arrival, it will be exchanged for a railway ticket.

By the arrangements made with about thirty Railway Companies, that ticket will pass the holder to any place on the American continent to which he has paid his fare.

To enable the Passenger and Emigration Agent at Quebec to know what passengers he may expect, the agents at the different European outports are, as soon as each vessel sails, to advise the central office of the Grand Trunk Railway Company in London of the names of the passengers in her who have Through Tickets, their class, and the destination of each person. These particulars, having been registered in the London office, will be despatched to Quebec by the weekly steamer, so that the Agent will not only know, much in advance of the ship's arrival, the exact number of persons he may expect by her, but will have also had ample time to prepare their railway tickets. He and his staff will personally superintend their landing and the clearing of their luggage at the Custom-house. This accomplished, they will be conducted to the Railway Station which is along-side the landing jetty at Quebec. There the passengers will find refreshment rooms provided, with every accommodation and description of food suited for each class, and those of the emigrant class will be protected from the extortion and villanies to which they are now subjected at every landing port on the American continent.

The railway distance between Quebec and Montreal is 168 miles. There will be one intermediate stoppage, of an hour's duration, for refreshment, a similar one at Montreal, and the same at distances varying from 100 to 120 miles throughout the entire journey. Including these stoppages, the running time of the emigrant trains is fixed at 20 miles an hour, and as the distance between Quebec and Chicago is about 1,007 miles, the time occupied in the journey will be less than 2½ days. Last year, emigrants could not have completed one-fourth of that journey in the same time by the St. Lawrence steam boats.

The Canadian system of railways ceases at Detroit, 730 miles from Quebec. When the Victoria Bridge is completed the same cars (each capable of comfortably accommodating 80 passengers, and each fitted with a female waiting room) will uninterruptedly traverse that distance. Until that period arrives, the connection between the opposite banks of the St. Lawrence at Montreal will be maintained by powerful steam ferry boats.

On reaching Detroit the passengers will be consigned by the Emigration Officer of the Grand Trunk Company (who will have had previous intimation of their coming, by telegraph) to the Central Michigan Railway Company, which leads direct from Detroit to Chicago, through the state of Michigan in the United States. At Chicago they will be met by another agent of the Grand Trunk Company, specially appointed for the purpose, who will forward all those persons whose tickets entitle them to go to St. Louis or to the other important towns on the Mississippi.

It must be remembered that all these arrangements are carried out on the responsibility of the Grand Trunk Company, which affords a protection that emigrants have never had a chance of obtaining up to the present time.

The fare of the emigrant passenger between Quebec and Chicago will be £1. 17s. Sterling. Each adult is allowed 150 lbs. Of luggage free, and for all surplus there is a very reduced scale of charge. Children under twelve pay half fares, and have an allowance of 75 lbs. Of luggage free. Children under three, in company with their parents, travel free.

Precisely the same arrangements have been established for emigrants and others who make the sea passage to Portland or to Boston. The former city is one of the termini of the Grand Trunk Railway. It is 292 miles from Montreal, and is consequently 124 miles further from Chicago than Quebec. Boston is 105 miles from Portland, with which it is connected by railway and by an extremely will conducted line of steam ships. As both these ports are open during winter, emigration can be as actively carried on, if desired, at that period of the year, by means of these ports and by the Grand Trunk Railway, as during the open navigation of the St. Lawrence.

It may be as well to state that Mr. Webster is the emigration agent of the Grand Trunk Company at Quebec, Mr. Miller at Portland, and Mr. Brooks at Boston.

February 4, 1857

The Montreal Ocean Steam Ship Company's screw steamer Anglo-Saxon left the Mersey on Wednesday, for Portland, United States, with the monthly mails for the Canadian provinces, a full complement of passengers, and a large cargo of merchandise.

February 18, 1857

The following is a list of the passengers per John Owens, from Liverpool for St. John's, New Brunswick:--

Cabin-Mr. Salmon, Mr. H. Allan, Miss Bunington, Mr. John Dunlop, Mr. John Dunlop, jun., Mr. James Johnston, Captain Cooper, Captain Cameron, Professor Miller. Three passengers in the steerage.

The following is a list of the cabin passengers on board the Canadian Company's new steamer Indian, Capt. Jones, which left Liverpool for Portland on the 11th inst.:--

Mr. Edmistone, Mr. Gillmoor, Mr. Foalds, Mr. Balmer, Mr. Chalmers, Mr. Stevenson, Miss Townsend, Mr. J. Renaud, Mr. and Mrs. Rollo Campbell, Mr. Wardlaw, Mr. Henderson, Mr. Coker, Mr. Smith, Captain M'Arthur, and twenty steerage passengers.


As a consequence of such severe weather as that lately experienced, the railroads through-out the country have been "nowhere" -mails most irregular. The America's did not reach Montreal until just one week after her arrival had been telegraphed at Halifax. The Persia took four days to reach this from New York. As is usually the case, the difficulties and delays have been greater on the American lines than on ours. We look the difficulty in the face, and prepare for it with any quantity of snow ploughs for clearing the track, and by the construction of snow fences where drifts are likely to prove troublesome; our railroads are, therefore, seldom or ever out of time to anything like the extent that they are in the United States. The broad gauge of the Grand Trunk is also, no doubt, conducive to this.

March 4, 1857

The Montreal Steam Navigation Company's screw steam ship North American, Captain Grange, left Liverpool on Wednesday, with the Canadian mails and passengers for Portland, state of Maine.

The following tables furnish the date of departure and the length of voyage on each trip of the Canadian mail steamers, together with the average of their passengers for the entire year, compared with the average of the passengers of the other principal lines of Atlantic steamers. It will be observed that, taking the passages out and home, the Canadian steamers have been surpassed only by the Cunard line to New York; that they have beaten the Boston Cunard ships on both trips; have kept pace, within 3½ minutes per trip, with the Collins lines on the westward route; and have, in going eastward, only been beaten by the New York Cunard ships by one minute per trip:-
Steam Ships Departure from Liverpool Passage
Days Hours
North American* April 23 14 1
Canadian† May 7 13 10
Indian‡ May 21 12 11
Anglo-Saxon Jne 4 & 13 12 2
North American June 18 11 20
Canadianƒ July 2 12 10
Indian July 16 10 19
Anglo-Saxon July 30 10 5
North American Aug 13 10 12
Canadian Aug 27 12 23
Indian§ Sept 10 12 9
Anglo-Saxon Sept 24 11 13
North American Oct 8 13 9
Canadian Oct 22 10 12
Steam Ships Departure from Montreal Passage
Days Hours
North American May 25 11 7
Canadian June 7 11 3
Indian June 21 10 10
Anglo-Saxon July 5 10 2
North American July 19 11 1
Canadian Aug 2 11 19
Indian Aug 16 10 20
Anglo-Saxon Aug 30 9 23
North American Sept 13 11 5
Canadian Sept 28 10 19
Indian Oct 11 10 7
Anglo-Saxon Oct 25 10 16
North American Nov 8 12 22
Canadian Nov 22 12 22

Average passage

Westward Eastward

12.20½

11.2

The average passages of the Atlantic steamers for the year were-
  Westward Eastward
Boston Branch 13.7 11.12½
New York Branch 11.22 11.13
Collins' steamers 12.16½ 12.8
Bremen steamers (Southampton) 15.01 4.12[sic]

  * 33 hours in the ice
  † 15 hours in the ice
  ‡ 10 hours in the ice
  ƒ 11 hours in fog
  § 10 hours in fog

The New Steam Line-

The magnificent iron screw steam ship Circassian, belonging to the "North Atlantic Steam Navigation Company," now lies in her berth in the Wellington Dock to receive cargo, and will sail on the 7th inst. for St. John's, Newfoundland, Halifax, N.S., and Portland, United States, and will doubtless prove one of the fastest ships connected with the Canadian trade. She is divided into six compartments by five water-tight bulk heads, all double plated on the outer edge, three of which are carried to the upper deck. She is fitted with a pair of beam engines, constructed by Messrs, Randolph, Elder, and Co., Glasgow, and has a house on deck forming a promenade of 230 feet. The main saloon for first-class passengers has been designed and executed in artistic style. The sleeping berths have been placed in the midships, thus avoiding the motion and noise of the propeller, usually so much complained of by passengers.


Of the German emigrants landed from the Golconda, a large number have been engaged by the Acadian Charcoal Iron Company, comprising among them many excellent tradesmen. About sixty of these men were sent off on Friday to the company's works at Londonderry and Nictau, which are now in active operation. The company agrees to give allotments of land and other privileges to these settlers. We understand that these men have been selected by two officers of the British German Legion-one a regularly bred mining engineer, engaged by the company, who came out in the last November steamer.-Halifax Morning Chronicle.

Winter In Nova Scotia-

The weather, for the portion of winter which is already past, has been changeable to an unusual degree. Violent storms of snow, rain, and brief periods of fine weather follow each other in rapid succession. The most remarkable thing about the present winter is the mildness of the weather in Halifax, compared with that of almost every other place on the continent outside of Nova Scotia. Throughout the United States, Canada, and New Brunswick the cold has been painful. At Calais, Maine, Woodstock, N.B., and at several points in Canada, the mercury has not unfrequently been down to 38 deg. below zero, Fahrenheit's thermometer. The cold has been nearly as intense throughout the whole of New Brunswick, Canada, and the Northern States, whilst in Iowa the mercury has frozen. In the middle and southern States, the cold has been, for that climate, quite severe; and there is scarcely a port north of Charleston the navigation of which has not been impeded by ice. Here our winter has been one of only average temperature. Once, in December, the mercury was 14 deg. below zero; and we believe it has since been as low as 8 deg. below. This comparative mildness is of course owing to the peninsular conformation of Nova Scotia and the rarefying effect which the vicinity of the ocean has upon climate. This province never is and never can be subject to the extremes of cold which occur in other parts of the continent near the same latitude, a fact which shows that Halifax is, in this one respect at least, if not in many others, without an equal in North America in its fitness for a commercial entrepot and packet station. Boston harbour is frozen up so firmly that people are crossing upon the ice, and a channel over five miles long had to be cut to get the English steamer out. The same operation was there performed thirteen years ago. The people of Portland, by way of maintaining the reputation of their harbour, have kept a powerful steamer plying about in it constantly, during the colder weather, to keep it from freezing-or rather to keep the ice broken. Halifax harbour has not been frozen since the Cunard steamers commenced running; and it is now as open as at Midsummer. We observe by the Cape Breton News that even the harbour of Sydney, so far to the north of us, is open to navigation.-Acadian Recorder.

Ads...

Emigration to New York,
DIRECT FROM BRISTOL
THE FINE FAST-SAILING and coppered Ship Osprey, 1,200 tons burden.
Richard Keats, Commander; to Sail on the 10th of April, 1857. This well-known and favourite Ship will be fitted up in the same comfortable manner as usual, and will be punctually despatched. All the Provisions supplied will be of the best quality.

Passengers can, if they wish, book through to their destination in the States, thus saving expense and detention at New York.

For particulars apply to Mark Whitwill and Son, Shipowners and Brokers, Grove, Bristol.


DIRECT STEAM COMMUNICATION WITH CANADA
By the
Anchor Line of Steam Packet Ships,
Sailing Regularly Between
GLASGOW, QUEBEC, AND MONTREAL.
Ships Tons Class Commanders
United Kingdom 2,000 12 Years A 1 J. Henderson
John Bell 1,800 12 Years A 1 J. Alexander
Tempest 1,500 12 Years A 1 J. Morris

These high-classed Clyde-built Screw Steam Ships are intended to be despatched at regular intervals during the season. They afford an excellent conveyance for fine goods, and are fitted in the most approved style for passengers.


THE SCREW STEAM SHIP
TEMPEST, James Morris, Commander, will sail for Quebec and Montreal on Saturday, 11th April.
FARES
First Cabin...13 Guineas. | Second Cabin... 10 Guineas
Intermediate Cabin... 7 Guineas
Including an abundant supply of provisions, properly cooked.
Each ship carries a duly qualified Surgeon
Freight of fine goods, 50s. Per ton of 40 cubic feet, with 5 per cent primage. Coarse goods and dead weight per agreement.
Railway charges on Goods to Glasgow paid by the Ship
For freight or passage apply to HANDYSIDES and HENDERSON, 45, Union-street, Glasgow; or to CAPPER and WOOLLEY, 157, Frenchurch-street, London.
Passengers, Luggage, &c., by these Steamers, can be booked by the Subscribers to all the principal towns in Canada and the United States, via the Grand Trunk Railway, at through rates.
London, March 4, 1857.


Freight by the Mail Steamers to Halifax, Boston, or New York
is 3l. per ton, and 5 per cent. primage.
BRITISH and NORTH
AMERICAN ROYAL MAIL STEAM
SHIPS, appointed by the admiralty to sail
between LIVERPOOL and NEW YORK
direct, and between LIVERPOOL and BOSTON, the Boston
Ships only calling at Halifax to land and receive passengers
and her Majesty's Mails. The following, or other vessels, are
appointed to sail from Liverpool:-
AFRICA, for NEW YORK Direct, Saturday, March 7.
EUROPA, for BOSTON, Saturday, March 14.
ASIA, for NEW YORK Direct, Saturday, March 21.
Passage money, including steward's fee and provisions, but
without wines or liquors, which can be obtained on board:-
To Halifax and Boston, chief cabin, 25 guineas; second cabin,
15 guineas. To New York, chief cabin, 30 guineas; second
cabin, 20 guineas. Dogs, £5. each. Small parcels 5s. each and
upwards, according to size. These steam ships have accommodation
for a limited number of second cabin passengers.
For passage or other information apply to J.B. Foord, 52,
Old Broad-street, London; S. Cunard, Halifax; S.S. Lewis,
Boston; E. Cunard, New York; De Currie, Havre, and 17,
Boulevard des Italiens, Paris; G. and J. Burns, Buchanan-
street, Glasgow; or D. and C. M'Iver, Water-street, Liverpool.


Steam Communication between Liverpool and Canada.
The MONTREAL OCEAN
STEAM SHIP COMPANY'S first-
class powerful SCREW STEAMERS (under
contract with her Majesty's Provincial
Government for the conveyance of the Mails) are intended to be
despatched from Liverpool as under:-
CANADIAN, Wednesday, March 25.
Passage money to Portland, cabin, 18 guineas and 15
guineas; steerage, 8 guineas. Passengers can also be booked
through to the principal towns in Canada.
Apply in Glasgow to J. and A. Allan, 54 St. Enoch-
square; in Liverpool to Allan and Gillespie, Weaver-build-
ings, Brunswick-street; or in London, to Montgomerie and
Greenhorne, 17, Gracechurch-street.


These Steamers run in connection with the Pennsylvania
Railway Company, by which Railway, and others in connection
therewith, passengers can reach Chicago and the Far
West of Canada in less time and more cheaply than by the
Canadian route, and through tickets will be granted by them
to all the principal cities in Canada West, and the Western
States of America, offering considerable advantages to
passengers, both in regard to economy, speed, and comfort.
Steam to New York
The LIVERPOOL and PHILADELPHIA STEAM SHIP
COMPANY intended despatching their full-powered
Clyde-built Iron Screw Steam Ships from
LIVERPOOL to NEW YORK, as follows:-
City of Baltimore....Wednesday, Mar. 11
City of Washington.... Wednesday, Mar. 25
Kangaroo.... Wednesday, April 8
And every alternate Wednesday.
Cabin fares, 15 guineas, 17 guineas, and 21 guineas each
berth, according to the accommodation in the state rooms, all
having the same privileges in the saloon; and a limited
number of passengers, both for NEW YORK and
PHILADELPHIA, will be taken at EIGHT GUINEAS EACH.
For further particulars see Bradshaw's Guide; or apply to
William Inman, 1 and 13, Tower-buildings, Liverpool.


Emigration to Canada,
Direct from Bristol
The following SHIPS are
now Loading at Bristol for QUEBEC, and as
they will only take a limited number of Passengers
each, early application is necessary to secure
berths:-
Vessel Tons Burden Commander
Lady Seymour 1,200 J. England
Ocean Queen 1,000 R. Dart
Petrel 1,100 W. Lord
Lotus 1,100 F. Davis
Ant 1,000 W.H. Smith

To Sail early in April
Emigrants who wish to do so, can book through by the
Grand Trunk Railway of Canada to their destination.
Application to be made to Mark Whitwill and Son,
Shipowners and Brokers, Grove, Bristol.


For BERMUDA, the fine fast-
sailing Barque JOHN BARROW, A 1, 322
tons burden, John Bryant, Commander; lying at
Deptford. Goods to be sent to Custom House Quay.
Has accommodation for a few Passengers, to whose comfort
and convenience every attention will be paid.
For freight or passage apply to Charles Walton and
Sons, 17, Gracechurch-street, London, and 21, Water-street, Liverpool.


First Spring Ships and Regular Traders.
For Montreal, the well known
British-built Ship JOHN BULL, A 1 (built
expressly for the trade), coppered and copper-fastened,
486 tons per register, John Duffill, Commander.
Also, the fine fast sailing British-built Ship ALICE, A 1 (built
expressly for the trade), 473 tons per register, William
M'Vicar, Commander.
Both Ships are loading at the North Quay, London Docks.
Goods at risk of Consignees from Ship's tackle, and no damage
allowed for unless pointed out before the goods leave the Ship's side.
For terms of freight or passage apply to Temperleys, Carter,
and Drake, 60, Fenchurch-street.


EMIGRATION TO AMERICA
by the
PLYMOUTH LINE OF PACKETS.
Ships Commanders Tons Destination From Plymouth
Oriental H. Tom 1,200 Quebec April 8
Belmont G. Gilpin 1,200 Quebec April 13
Gipsy Queen ----- 1,400 Quebec April 14
Margaret Ann J. Symons 1,300 Quebec April 17

These Ships are first class, have great height between decks,
and every improvement which long experience suggests will be
introduced to secure the comfort of the passengers. They are
under the inspection of her Majesty's Emigration Officer.
PASSAGE-MONEY MODERATE.
First class cabin passengers will find unusually good accommodation
in their commodious poops.
For particulars apply to mr. James B. Wilcocks, Agent for
Emigration, Barbican, Plymouth.

March 18, 1857

We regret to find that the anticipations which were recently so favourable of a weekly steam communication direct from Canada during the open season are not likely to be realised; unless, indeed, the Canadian Government grant the moderate subsidy required by the Montreal Ocean Steam Shipping Company. The Cunard Company, we gather, do no intend to establish a St. Lawrence branch. The former company have offered to establish a weekly line for £50,000., very little more than a quarter of the sum paid by the English and United States Governments to the Cunard and Collin's lines. The Canadians are justly proud of their success in this enterprise, and the passages of the Montreal steamers will compare most favourably with the other lines. The average passages of the various lines of steamers between Great Britain and America give the following as the result:-
 
Westward
Eastward
Canadian Line 12.20 ½ 11.2
Cunard Line (Boston) 13.7 11.12 ½
Cunard Line (N.Y.) 12.16 ½ 11.13
Collins' Steamers 12.16 ½ 12.8
Bremen Steamers 16.0 14.12

This is most encouraging and satisfactory; but the success of the Canadian line is shown more decidedly by taking the average of both passages, for which we are indebted to the Montreal Gazette:
The Canadian Line, average of both passages is 23.22 ½
Cunard Boston Line 24.19 ½
Cunard New York Line 23.11
Collins Line 25.0 ½
Bremen Line 29.12


The Montreal Ocean Steam Shipping Company's screw steamer Anglo-Saxon, Capt. M'Master, arrived at Liverpool on Friday morning, after a rapid passage of twelve days, from Portland, having left that city on the afternoon of the 28th February. The following is a list of passengers:-

Rev. T. Pennifather, Mr. and Mrs. Aitkin, Mr. and Mrs. Savage, child and servant, Mr. and Mrs. Fife, Mrs. Black, Messrs. R.T. Emery, E. Berendry, H.M. Wilkinson, Henry Fitton, G. Baines, G. Warren, John Griffiths, James Colquhoun, J. Hartley, Henry Bashton, B. Widlock, G.M. Fyzyramski, Wm. Sewell, P. Mullin, W. Boyle, and John Innary.

The Indian, Capt. Jones, belonging to the same company, arrived in the Mersey on Tuesday morning from Portland, with advices from New York to the 3rd and Boston to the 4th inst., eleven passengers, and a full cargo. The Indian encountered very severe weather, and lost her foremast on the passage.

The steam ship Indian, belonging to the Montreal Ocean Steam Ship Company, Captain Thomas Jones, arrived at Portland on Tuesday, the 24th ult. She left Liverpool at noon on Wednesday, the 11th, making the passage, which was rather a rough one, in twelve days eighteen hours. The following is a list of her passengers:-

Robert Edminson, J.Y. Gilmour, John Foulds, Robert Balmer, James Chalmers, James B. Stevenson, Miss Emily Townsend, Ignace Renaud, Rollo Campbell, Mrs. Rollo Campbell, A. Wardlaw, John Henderson, George Cocker, John Elliott, Alexander Cowan, William Smith, Henry Foster, C.H. de Cazes, sen., L. de Cazes, C.H. de Cazes, jun., John Craig, John Hallam, Alexander Smeaton, N.T. Thackeray, Robert Wardrope, G. M'Carthy, Richard Smalley, Mrs. Smalley, George Mason, James Miller, James Waddingham, Henry Henderson, James Smith, John Johnston, Thomas Critchlow.

An address was presented to Captain Jones by the passengers, thanking him, in complimentary terms, for his courtesy and attention to their comfort.

The screw steam ship Circassian, belonging to the North Atlantic Steam Navigation Company, which sailed on the 7th inst. for St. John's, Newfoundland, Halifax, and Portland, returned to port on Saturday. Immediately after leaving the Mersey, the Circassian encountered a very strong gale, succeeded by heavy weather, in which she lost all her sails, had her decks swept, her topmasts carried away, and her bowsprit sprung. The repeated seas which swept her decks caused them to open, and, finding the Circassian in a leaky state, her commander, Captain Powell, very prudently returned to port. The royal mail steam ship Europa, Captain Leitch, was proceeding to sea when the Circassian steamed up the Mersey, and with that promptitude and desire to serve the interests of the commercial community which has always characterised the Cunard Company, their agent, Mr. D. Currie, volunteered to run the Satellite tender alongside, in order that the mails might be landed from the Circassian, and forwarded by the Europa, which courteous offer was declined by the post-office officials, on the ground that the Circassian only carried a ship letter bag, and they would require to telegraph to London for instructions.

The following is a list of the cabin passengers per John Barlow, which sailed on the 11th inst. from Liverpool for St. John's [sic], New Brunswick:-

Mr. Costa, Capt. L. Thomas, Mrs. Tobin and infant, Dr. T.A. Gregory, Mr. Archer, Mr. Davey; and 9 adults and 1 child in the steerage.


Remittances of Money

The best shape in which emigrants can take money to Canada or the United States, is in small draft or bill on some bank, or by letter of credit on the agent of the ship at the port of destination, or by paying any surplus he may have before sailing into some well-established bank, and taking a certificate of deposit therefor, which, besides being convenient for carriage, always serves as a sort of passport to the emigrant, who, when he presents it for payment on the other side, will receive all necessary information as to his future route. For sums not exceeding £20. it is advisable to take English gold and silver, which is always current in Canada or any state of the Union at 4 dollars 84 cents for the pound sterling, and 22 cents for the shilling-sometimes more, sometimes less, according to the rates of exchange. As the difference in making change is always to the loss of the buyer, and not unfrequently very perplexing, I would strongly advise all those who have money, on their arrival in Chicago, to proceed at once to the banking office of R.K. Swift and Co., corner of Lasalle and Randolph streets, or some other respectable broker, and get their English money changed into United States' currency. A little practice will soon make the stranger proficient in keeping his accounts on the "Yankee" plan, or at least render him too wide awake to be easily imposed on,-Hall's Ho! For the West!

April 1, 1857

The Montreal Ocean Steam Shipping Company's screw steamer North American, which left Liverpool on the 25th February, arrived at Portland on the 11th ultimo. An address was presented to Captain Grange by the passengers. The following is a list of the passengers:-

Miss Lawless, Mr. Gundray, Mrs. Gundray, Mr. Fehland, T.J. Claxton, Thomas Slade, William Moodie, Mr. Harty, A. Crawford, Mrs. Hope and three children, J.H. Winn, Mr. Gordon, Mr. May, Roy Moldrum, Major Mercer, J.B. Davies, Mr. Charles, Miss Slade, J. Heron, Mrs. Heron, Mr. Seymour, C. Evans, Mr. Fourdrinier, Dr. Haslan, William Reid, Mr. Wolfe, J. Harcourt, Dr. Fellpot, Mr. Morton, J. Clark, Mr. Jesse, William Hall, Dr. Daggan, Mr. La Rue, Mr. Hodgkinson, Grace Adams, Miss Heabley, Geo. Harding, William and J. Barnby, E. Fierder [F. Derder?], J. Kidd, J. Wowswick, Mr. Bukwell, R. Penny, Mr. and Mrs. Buchanan, Miss Trion, Mr. Tulloch, Mr. and Mrs. M'Donald and daughter, T. Perrin, Mr. Burge, Mr. Case, H. Houle, J. Debor, William Bright, Mr. and Mrs. German and two children, John and Jos. Wood, Mr. and Mrs. Sykes and two children, Miss E. Huntley.

The Montreal Ocean Steam Shipping Company's screw steamer Canadian sailed on Wednesday from Liverpool, with 258 passengers for Portland, the mails, and a full cargo.

The account which we published in our last number of the injuries which necessitated the return of the screw steamer Circassian, was, we are happy to find, greatly overstated. It was owing solely to the fearful weather she encountered, and not from any defect in the machinery or hull of the vessel. She proved herself in all respects to be an admirable seaboat; her machinery worked with perfect regularity, and there was evidence, on the only day that the weather was comparatively moderate, that she could attain great speed in having accomplished 280 nautical miles. The Circassian had proceeded about 400 miles to the west of Tory Island, when she was struck by a heavy sea, causing such damage to her bulwarks, &c., as to induce the captain to return. We may state, also, that the passengers, both first and second class, signed a complimentary address to the captain on the day of the ship's return, in which they expressed their confidence in the captain and the ship. This was more fully proved by their sailing in her again. The ship was not strained in the least; she remained perfectly tight, and her machinery worked most admirably.


Hamilton

A dreadful calamity has befallen us. This city, and indeed the whole western section of the province, has suddenly been plunged into the deepest grief through a most lamentable occurrence. On Thursday evening last, the 12th inst., the train which left Toronto at 4.10 o'clock, and which was due in this city at 6, was precipitated through the swing bridge which crosses the Desjardines Canal, about one mile from the Hamilton station, and out of about 100 passengers not more than 30 were rescued alive. It may perhaps be necessary to state that the Great Western Railway runs along the foot of Burlington Heights, by the edge of the bay, for a distance of nearly two miles. At the point where the accident occurred, the Desjardines Canal enters the bay, and is spanned by a wire suspension bridge of about 250 feet in height-this bridge connecting the main thoroughfare with the city. Below this the railway crosses the canal by means of a wooden structure or swing bridge some sixty feet in height. On entering this bridge at the west end something must have impeded or otherwise obstructed the train in question, causing the bridge to give way, and thereby precipitating the train into the gulf beneath. The upper framework of the bridge did not give way, but the bed of the track, girders, and in fact the whole of the lower portion of the structure, wee pressed down bodily with the train. The locomotive and tender entirely disappeared in the water, and have not been visible since the accident. The train was composed of the engine, tender, one baggage and two passenger cars, both first class. The first car turned upside down in the descent, and as it was almost completely submerged after breaking through the ice, not a soul within it was taken out alive. The second car fell with one end resting on the first, and when first seen was lying at an angle of nearly 45 degrees. The passengers, strange to say, were not all thrown from their seats; some retained them until rescued, while others again, with the broken seats and stoves, were thrown into a confused mass at the lower end of the car. Only ten were taken out alive, the others of the saved having escaped by jumping as the train was going down. The cause of the accident has not been ascertained yet; some, however, attribute it to the weakness of the bridge, and others to the breaking of the engine axle. The coroner's inquest sat on Saturday, but nothing has thus far been elicited to attach blame to any one. The jury meet again to-morrow. The scene presented at the place of disaster was one of the most harrowing description, and has been visited by thousands. The excitement throughout the city has been most intense since Thursday evening, and there is, apparently, little abatement yet. We have lost some of our best and most estimable citizens by this sad calamity, and many a tear has been shed over their unhappy fate. The victims belonging to this city alone number seventeen, besides the wounded. The death of Mr. Samuel Zimmerman, the banker and contractor, cannot be regarded in any other light than as a public loss. He was one of the most prominent men of the country, and was identified in some way or other with everything of a public nature connected with it. He was best known through his connection with railways, and had long since earned the appellation of the Canadian Railway King. The following is a list of the killed and wounded:-

Killed:-Donald Stuart, merchant, Hamilton; A. Grant, Perth; J. Russell, contractor, Brantford; James Barr, merchant, Niagara; Marshal H. Farr, contractor, Hamilton; James Gannon, unknown; Samuel Zimmerman, of Niagara Falls; Thos. Benson, Port Hope; John Sharpe; the Rev. A. Booker, Hamilton; Erastus W. Green, Hamilton; Thomas Doyle; George Knight, fireman of the train; John Henderson, Hamilton; Mrs. Doyle and child, Hamilton; Edward Duffield; Mahaly Clare, 2 years (daughter of Mr. Clare, Hamilton); Captain Jas. Sutherland, Hamilton; Adam Ferrie, jun., Hamilton; D. Seend, Brantford; Mr. Jas. Ross, of Toronto; Hugh M'Evoy, Walpole; John Wilford, a miller, late of Buchinghamshire, England; Alex. Burnfield, engineer of the train, Hamilton; Mr. Barton, sen., of Stratford; R. Crawford, of Saltfleet; Henry Stuart, merchant, London, C.W.; Hugh M'Sloy, St. Catherine's; Timothy Doyle and Patrick Doyle, from Dumbarton; James Harkness, formerly band-master, of Toronto, late in the Rifles; Chas. Brown, firm of J. and C. Brown, Galt; John Wilford; Mr. Kendal, Toronto; Diana M'Figgan, Galt; Mr. Bradfield; Ellen and Mary Devine, sisters, Hamilton; Mrs. Howan and child, Weston; G.S. Sloan, Castorville (supposed); James Forbes, farmer, of Nelson; David Carks, Ingersoll; D. Witter, Markham; Mrs. Bradfield, Suspension Bridge; Colin Campbell, Campbellsville; R. Wade, of Cobourg; C. Caldwell, of Albion; Geo. M'Donnell, of Toronto; Geo. Darris, Port Nelson; Mrs. Duffin, Toronto; Mr. J. Major, Two Rivers, Michigan; Mr. Beck and two children, Hamilton; Mrs. Stevenson, Hamilton; Mr. Morley, Thorold.

The Rescued.-Mr. Muir; Mr. Urquhart, the express messenger; Mr. Richardson, the mail conductor; Mr. Doyle and two young cousins; Mr. Barton; Mr. Macklen; Mr. T.C. Street, the millionaire, Niagara Falls; Mr. Curtis (cannot survive); Mr. Clare; Mr. Woods; Capt. A. M'Bird; Mr. Hill; Mr. Williams; Edward M'Feely; C. Foster; John Henderson; James Barnes, collar-bone broken; Ferdinand Bagnier; Henry August, passenger from Toronto to Buffalo, who leaped off the first passenger car, about three yards from the bridge, uninjured. Mr. R.L. Hamblin, of Newcastle, C.W., not much hurt. He says he felt the first shaking of the train, then a shock, which must have been at the time the engine went through the bridge. He saw the car losing its horizontal position, and was pitched headforemost to the bottom. He was the first rescued. He describes the agony of the scene as intense. His clothes were completely covered with blood. W.W. Reid, Clifton, and John Smith, Michigan; H.M. Yarrington, Port Stanley; Royal Hill, of Toronto; Mr. George Havil, of Paris; John M'Collum; and a woman whose name has not been learnt.

The funerals of the victims of the late accident have nearly all taken place. Four were interred on Saturday, eight yesterday, and the remainder will take place to-day. All the bodies that have been identified have been removed by their friends, and five yet remain unclaimed. Sorrow has reigned supreme in our midst since Thursday night, and yesterday the spectacle was saddening in the extreme. It seemed as if the entire population of the city had turned out to follow the remains of the dead to their last resting-places. To-day all business is suspended, the same having been set apart by proclamation of the Mayor as a day of humiliation and prayer. All the churches are open, and a solemn sadness pervades the whole city. The visitation is indeed a sad and melancholy one. Mr. Zimmerman will be interred at Niagara Falls to-day, with masonic honours. A large number of people have left here to be present at the funeral. So strongly has the recent catastrophe preyed on the minds of all, that little else is thought of at present. The proceedings of the inquest will be narrowly watched, and nothing short of a thorough investigation into all the facts connected with the melancholy result of the accident will satisfy the public at large. The feeling in the neighbouring towns and cities is scarcely less intense than it is here, for none of them have escaped the dreadful calamity. Nearly every section of Canada West has had to mourn a victim to the fearful sacrifice. Time may soothe, but it never can wholly eradicate the deep feeling of sorrow occasioned by this, the most lamentable railway accident that has ever occurred on this side of the Atlantic.


Emigration

The Grand Trunk Railway Company have taken every excellent preparatory step towards the effectual carrying out of their plan of booking passengers of all classes through to their destination. They have caused to be published and circulated, as a supplement tot he CANADIAN NEWS, a "Tariff of Passenger Rates from Quebec, Portland, and Boston," to 135 principal stations in the United States. The table, in addition to the name of the station, gives the name of the State; the principal places on the various routes; and the distance of, and the fares to each of the stations from each of the cities above named. The Great Western Railway, next to the Grand Trunk, will reap the largest amount of benefit from the through-booking system, for the whole current of emigration will run via Toronto to Suspension Bridge, and those going to 66 of the 135 stations will use the Great Western Railway as far as Detroit. We presume that tables similar to the one issued in the CANADIAN NEWS will be placed in every railway waiting-room in Great Britain. This will doubtless increase the emigration from Great Britain to this continent, but some steps should be speedily taken to secure a large proportion of it for Canada. In the "general information" subjoined to the table referred to, we do indeed see it announced that "A.C. Buchanan, Esq., the chief emigration agent of the Canadian Goverment at Quebec, will be happy to afford information respecting the free grants of land made to settlers by the Canada ........


New Brunswick

We publish below a list of ships now building and for which preparations are making on the north shore of this province, from which it will be seen that a large amount of new tonnage will be in the market from that district during the current year:-

At Cocagne.-By Mr. D. Robertson, a ship of about 1,200 tons.

Buctouche-Mr. Macauley is building one of 1,300 tons; Messrs. M'Phelim are making preparations for one of 500.

Richibucto-Messrs. J. and T. Jardine have on the stocks one of 1,000 tons; Holderness and M'Leod one of 1,000 and another of about 500; Mr. John Power is building one of 1,000; Mr. Des-Brisay will launch one of 500.

Kouchibouguac-Mr. N.S. Caie has in frame one of about 400 tons.

Miramichi-Mr. A. Fraser is laying down one of 600 tons; Messrs. Gilmour and Rankin are building one of 700, and another of similar dimensions of 700; Mr. David Cassidy has one in progress of 100; the Miramichi Joint-Stock Fishery Company are building one, intended for mackerel fishery, of 70; Mr. Parker is laying down one of 200; Mr. Jas. Johnson has one building of 500; Mr. N.J. Fraser one of 500; Mr. Muirhead, one of 500 and another of 1,000; Messrs. Haws and Co. are proceeding with two, one of 1,050 and one of 500.

Shippegan-N. Fruing and Co. are progressing with one of 250 tons.

Bathurst-Messrs. Ferguson, Rankin, and Co. have one on the stocks of about 200 tons; Messrs. Smith one of 600, and one of 150; Mr. S. Millar is building one of 150.

Restigouche-Messrs. A. Ritchie and Co. have nearly completed one of 350 tons, and are framing one of 900 and one of about 500.

...Nearly all of these will be launched and sent to sea early, making considerably more than an average amount of tonnage for the year.

Our correspondent informs us that many of the new vessels built on the north shore last season brought some of the best prices in the Liverpool market. The Algeria, built by Messrs. Ferguson, Rankin, and Co., at Bathurst, is mentioned as one that brought a high figure, and we believe this vessel will bear a favourable comparison with any colonial-built ship. We are also informed that scarcely any other material than hackmatack is used in the construction of the vessels which have recently been built on the north shore, and it is satisfactory to learn that ships built of this description of wood are getting to be more highly appreciated than formerly. The ship Clarendon, built at Miramichi by Messrs. J. Haws and Co., and recently stranded at Whitehaven, afforded a favourable opportunity for testing the strength of a good colonial-built ship, as from the length of time she stood the severe weather while she was being driven on the rocky shore, practical persons who witnessed it had a good opportunity of judging for themselves of the strength of one of our New Brunswick ships; and we believe the builders of the Clarendon have recently closed a satisfactory contract for a vessel of similar qualities, intended for the East India trade, which will be furnished with the requisite iron knees, and classed before launching.

April 15, 1857

As an illustration of the rapid improvement in the means of international communication in Canada, the following tabular statement shows the length of time taken to connect two extremes of the province by mail in the winter season of 1853, as compared with that of 1857:-
 From  To 1853
Days
1857
Hours
Quebec to Windsor 10 ½ 49
" London 9 45
" Hamilton 8 42
" Niagara 8 50
" Owen Sound 10 84
" Guelph 9 51
" Toronto 7 40
" Cobourg 6 36
" Belleville 5 34
" Kingston 4 31
" Brockville 3 26
" Ottawa 3 34

We learn from Newfoundland that at a special meeting of the Commercial Society of St. John's, it was agreed to recommend the Government to accept the offer of Messrs. Edmonstone, Allan, and Co., of the Canadian Steam Packet Company, to make St. John's a port of call between Liverpool and Canada, semi-monthly during the summer and monthly during the winter, upon the guarantee by the Government of Newfoundland of the sum of £10,000. annually.

The Montreal Ocean Steam Shipping Company's screw steamer North American, Captain Grange, from Portland, arrived in the Mersey on Friday night. She brings dates to the 28th March from Portland, Montreal, and Boston, respectively. The North American brings twenty-six passengers, and a large and valuable general cargo.

The following is a list of the passengers:-Mr. Simpson, Mrs. Simpson and daughter, Mr. T.W. Griffith, Mr. W.C. Evans and lady, Mr. Kemp, Mr. John Hooker, Mr. John Barker, Mr. Slatt, Mr. a. Leighton, Lieut. Douglass, Mr. Archdall, Captain Dalrymple, Mrs. Derbishire and child, Mr. Carruthers, Dr. M'Dowall, and ten steerage passengers.

The John Duncan sailed from Liverpool on the 13th ult. for St. John's, New Brunswick. Cabin passengers-Capt. Lyons, Mr. and Mrs. Brass, Mrs. Gray, and 25 in the steerage.

We observe from an announcement by Mr. Wilcocks, of Plymouth, well-known in connection with emigration, that the owners of the "Plymouth" liners have just purchased the fine clipper Cap Rouge, and will despatch her from Plymouth with passengers for Quebec at the end of the month. The Cap Rouge will form the seventh ship of this line for the spring voyages, and the fleet will convey to the shores of Canada a large body of fine, hardy, industrious farmers, labourers, mechanics, and others from the best rural districts-people who, we believe, will prove a valuable acquisition to the country they are about to adopt as their future home.

On the 17th ultimo the Eliza Mary, the first emigrant ship from Antwerp in connection with the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada under the booking-through system, sailed for Quebec. Among her passengers she carried 66 who availed themselves of the arrangements of the Grand Trunk Company, and took at Antwerp through-tickets to their destination. Of these, 41 were booked to Green Bay, in Wisconsin, a distance of 1,091 miles from Quebec, for £51. 12s. 6d.; and 23 to Chicago, in Illinois, 1,007 miles from Quebec, for £38. 17s. The system thus inaugurated will doubtless be made use of by many thousands during the present season, as through tickets to all stations on lines connected with the Grand Trunk are procurable at every British and continental port whence passenger vessels sail to Canada. The system, besides the economy of time and money arising from it relieves the emigrant from liability to fraud and deception.


Emigration From Norway To Canada And The United States

Information has reached this country that upwards of ten thousand Norwegians will proceed from Norway to Quebec during the present summer. Several of these will remain in Canada, but the larger portion will pass on to the north-western states of America. Sir Cusack Roney has left England for Christiana to make arrangements for the transit of those persons from Quebec to their destination, and also to disseminate information with reference to Canada on behalf of the Government.


Chicago, March 27, 1857
The present railroad system of Illinois embraces eight trunk lines of road radiating from this city to the west, north, and south, all of which connect at their termini, or by branch lines, with other roads, either now in operation, partially completed, or in course of rapid construction.

The first under notice is the Galena and Chicago Union, which runs almost due west 121 miles to Freeport, where it connects with the northern section of the Illinois Central Railroad to Dunleith and Dubuque, Iowa. At the last-named towns, which are situated within view of each other, on the east and west banks of the Mississippi River, passengers bound for St. Paul, Illinois territory, and other towns on the Upper Mississippi, will find a line of steam boats running daily throughout the season of navigation.

The Galena and Chicago Union has three important branch lines already completed and in successful operation. The first of these, the Fulton Air Line Railroad, leaves the main line 30 miles west of this city, and, running due west 106 miles, strikes the Mississippi River at Fulton.

Near this point, on the opposite side of the river, the Iowa Central, and Chicago, Iowa, and Nebraska Railroads are speedily progressing towards the Missouri River.

April 29, 1857

The Courrier du Canada says that letters have reached Quebec from Vancouver's Island, with dates to the 4th January. The summer had been cold, the crops short, and the population sickly. Gold had been discovered on the Tete Plate River, about forty miles above Colville's Fort. The miners were earning from four to six dollars per day, and all kinds of necessaries had grown extravagantly dear. A pound of tobacco brought ten dollars, and a bag of flour thirty.


The Montreal Ocean Steam Navigation Company's screw steam ship Indian sailed from Liverpool on Wednesday for Quebec and Montreal, with 218 steerage and 107 cabin passengers, and the Canadian mails.

The Canadian, also belonging to this line, which left Liverpool on the 25th ult, arrived at Portland on the 7th inst.

We have received from all the ports the most encouraging accounts of the great tide of emigration which is evidently setting in for the ensuing season to British North America. From Liverpool the emigration has far exceeded the expectations of the shipping houses. The steamers and sailing ships have all departed full of passengers, of a class well suited to the colony-mechanics, artisans, labourers, and small tradesmen. The emigration from Bristol to Canada has already been large this spring and of a superior class, consisting principally of small farmers and farm labourers from Somerset and Wilts, also miners from Cornwall and South Wales.

From Plymouth six ships have, up to the present date, been despatched by Mr. Wilcocks, full of passengers; and the large ship Cap Rouge, to sail thence this day, has been booked full for some time.

The spring fleet has just sailed for Canada from the north-east coast of Scotland, carrying out 1,500 passengers. They are chiefly agricultural labourers, and for the most part young and newly married people. Large sums of money continue to be received from settlers in Upper Canada who had previously gone out, chiefly from Aberdeenshire. From 200 to 250 passengers proceeded southwards from Orkney and Zetland last week. Of that number about 100 were from Orkney alone, and were mostly emigrants to America; the others, including from sixty to seventy Zetland seamen, on their way to Liverpool. The emigrants have sailed principally from Aberdeen. The City of Quebec, emigrant vessel, sailed from that harbour on Saturday, with 270 passengers. Close upon 600 persons have left Aberdeen within the last few weeks, to push their fortunes in Canada.

Complaints having been made to the Commissioners of Emigration that a circular recently issued by them, cautioning emigrants proceeding to New York or New Orleans against taking through tickets, has been interpreted as applying also to the through tickets of the Grand Trunk Railway Company, the Commissioners have issued instructions to all their officers at the outports, pointing out that the circular in question was not intended to apply to the route through Canada.

A number of the principal inhabitants of Woolwich, taking into consideration the distressing condition of the persons who have been discharged from the royal dockyards and arsenal, who are desirous of emigrating to Canada, have most humanely promised to head a subscription fund, which it is proposed to raise, so as to enable some 300 or 400 to emigrate free of the Government bounty. It is understood to be in contemplation to freight a couple of line-of-battle ships in which to convey the bulk of the necessitous to the home of their adoption. Each person employed in the royal arsenal has consented to contribute a half-day's pay, and the heads of departments have promised their support towards the above named fund. An influential meeting was held on Wednesday night, "for the purpose of considering and determining upon such measures as may be deemed expedient for rendering assistance to those of the discharged artisans and others who are desirous of emigrating to the colonies." The meeting was convened in consequence of an intimation from the War-office that, as a condition of the Government affording assistance to the men in emigrating, the localities which would by this step be relieved of their maintenance should show some practical proof of the interest they felt in the matter. The main object, therefore, of the meeting was to originate subscriptions, with the view of forming a fund to assist the men to emigrate. The chair was taken by General Sir W.J. Codington, K.C.B., M.P. A handsome subscription was entered into at the meeting, including £25. from Sir W. Codrington, and several of £5. each from the members of the committee and other gentlemen. Subsequently we learn that Government have declined to give any direct assistance, and, although it is to be regretted, there are weighty reasons in favour of this course. In reply to General Codrington, who wrote to Lord Panmure, expressing a hope that Government would contribute to this object, Lord Panmure says:-

"We cannot feel authorised in recommending the application of public funds to facilitate the emigration of the discharged labourers and their families. Were we to do this in the case of the men discharged from the arsenal, we must also do it in that of the men discharged from our dockyards, or reduced from any public department of labour; and we ought to have done it in the case of those unemployed workmen who lately assembled in large numbers in the metropolis, but who are, I am happy to say, now mostly absorbed in the labour of the country. I have every hope that the operatives discharged from the arsenal may find employment in the same way, and if not at so high a rate of wages as they received from Government, at all events at a rate which will enable them to support their families. While the Government cannot feel themselves justified in giving funds in aid of emigration, I may inform you that should any private subscriptions be made for that purpose, the Emigration Commissioners will be directed to give all the advice which their experience so well qualifies them to afford as to the best and most economical mode of applying such funds."


Sir R.J. Murchison, President of the Geographical Society, has received a communication from Mr. J. Ball, the Under-Secretary for the Colonies, stating that Government had agreed to propose to Parliament a vote for the North-West American exploring expedition, and that the expedition would proceed in about a fortnight, under Mr. Palliser, to its starting-point to the west of Lake Superior, for the purpose of surveying vast tracts of British North America, particularly the country watered by the affluents of the Saskatchewan, and with a view of examining the southern portion of the Rocky Mountains in our own territories, and possibly of discovering a new practicable passage to Vancouver Island. The expedition would be accompanied by Dr. Hector, who had been recommended as a geologist, naturalist, and surgeon; by Lieut. Blakiston, to take magnetical observations; and by a botanist.


Mr. M. H. Perley, Government Emigration Officer at St. John, the capital of New Brunswick, has been some time in this country [England], occupied with business connected with the promotion of emigration to that part of our North American possessions. In furtherance of this object, he has issued a new edition of his useful handbook of information for emigrants proceeding to that province, of the resources and requirements of which no one can be better qualified to speak with authority. The mineral, forest, and agricultural recources of New Brunswick are so varied and rich, that many persons will probably be induced to make it their future country-the cheapness of land, its easy acquisition, and the demand for labour offering great attractions for emigrants of every class. We learn from Mr. Perley's little manual that the progress of agriculture causes a steady demand for labour in the rural districts, and that, for the last two years, farmers have suffered much loss and inconvenience from the inadequate supply of agricultural labourers and female servants. The latter class of emigrants are also much needed in the towns, where masons, bricklayers, carpenters, and joiners are in request, at good wages, and there is no lack of employment for smiths, iron-founders, millwrights, painters, tailors, and shoemakers. Unskilled labourers are sure of employment, and there is a great demand among farmers for boys. Large numbers of labourers are wanted immediately in New Brunswick on the railways now being constructed there by the Government, as public works; to these one dollar per day will be given from the moment of their arrival, with the prospect of continuous employment for a long period. Land of good quality may be bought at 2s. sterling per acre; and a practical agriculturist settling in New Brunswick, with a capital of £100., will in a few years find himself in easy and independent circumstances, and the larger his family the better off he will be.


The Navigation Opening

There was a break up of the ice on the River Richelieu on Tuesday, about five o'clock A.M.; it showed evident signs of decay, and by five P.M. the channel was clear. The ice was so rotten that it passed without the slightest damage to any of the vessels moored at Sorel. It is generally calculated that the St. Lawrence opens within a fortnight after the Richelieu, so that we may expect to see some of the steamers at our wharves by the 15th inst.-Transcript, April 4.


Hamilton, April 13, 1857

The emigration season had fairly commenced, and large numbers of emigrants are daily arriving by railway. The St. Lawrence or Quebec route is still closed, and is not expected to be open before the 1st proximo. Very few emigrants are yet coming by the Grand Trunk Railway, owing to the St. Lawrence being closed, while, by the Great Western, they are arriving in considerable numbers. The greater number, however, thus far have gone through to the Western States. A very grave error appears to be committed by those who prefer the United States to Canada, since it is admitted that there is very little encouragement for emigration even in the Far West. A New York journal (the European), acknowledged to be good authority on such subjects, cleverly exposes the fallacy with regard to the Western States. In reply to an article which recently appeared in the leading journal it says:-

"If one of the editors of that paper had, in the course of his flying tour in the Western States, taken the trouble to inquire whether the small farmers of the Ohio, Indiana, or Illinois were in a condition to hire labourers the year round, he would have discovered that English agricultural labourers would be disappointed on emigrating to those countries. As to their becoming farmers that is totally out of the question. Not one man in six is a farmer in that part of the world. As to mechanics, there is no demand for them beyond the present supply, and throughout the United States women are unable to find profitable employment."

The case is different here, for it is a well known fact that the demand for labourers is much greater than the supply, especially in the summer season. The demand is on the increase, and the expectation of a large augmentation in the emigration from Europe this year has induced a corresponding increase in the want of labourers, as the expected increase in the emigration of the present season is fully relied on. A mistaken idea prevails in Great Britain with regard to the advantages which the United States are supposed to possess. The only states of any consequence to emigrants are Wisconsin and Iowa, and the territory of Minnesota. Land is undoubtedly cheap; but then it must be borne in mind that the facilities with which Canada is favoured are wanting in the Western States. It will be some time before the wilderness of Minnesota possesses the advantages now claimed for it; and as for Wisconsin and Iowa, the unsettled portions are too distant from the chief points of business, to which the settler must look in locating himself in a new country. There are no such disadvantages to contend against in Canada, now that the country has been opened up in almost every direction. The superior advantages which this province justly claims over the United States will yet be rendered more apparent if the Government should adopt the proposed plan of sending emigration commissioners to Europe; but it is not probable that they will do so this year, as the season is too far advanced to admit of the necessary preparations being made. Doubtless, however, something more will be done to facilitate emigration in the way of free passages, the matter now being before the Legislature.


The Circassian arrived at Halifax on the 5th inst., and, having discharged her cargo intended for this city, proceeded to Portland on the 8th. On the day previous Captain Powell entertained a select party on board that noble ship, consisting of leading members of both branches of the Legislature and several of the largest importing merchants.


The R.M.S. Osprey is at present undergoing a thorough repair at the Cunard wharf. Her hull and machinery are being put in the most perfect order. It is gratifying to learn that this can be accomplished by our own native mechanics, assisted of course by the engineers of the ship. To effect this, all the means and appliances have been set up in the Cunard stores on the wharf. Among the improvements contemplated is a saloon house on deck, upwards of fifty feet in length, which cannot fail to be a great comfort to passengers. The top-gallant forecastle has been raised and extended-for the purpose, it is assumed, of berthing her people in a more airy situation. This pretty screw steamer, always a favourite with the travelling public, will be rendered additionally so by the increased comfort which will in future be afforded to passengers.


Deaths

On the 29th ult, at Halifax, Douglas Nicholas Tucker, Esq., R.N., Assistant-Surgeon in her Majesty's steamer Columbia, aged 36 years.


We have the following from the St. John's (Newfoundland) Express of the 1st. Inst.:-

The fine steamer Circassian has fully come up to the expectations of the most sanguine. She left Liverpool on the 7th March, and, when about 200 miles off Torry Island, having encountered tremendous weather, lost sails and sprung her bowsprit, had to put back to Liverpool, where she arrived on the 14th. She again put to sea on the 16th, and arrived at this port in eleven days, having had heavy weather and head winds during greater part of the voyage, causing her to lie to on one occasion for eighteen hours. With moderate weather she could have made the voyage with ease in eight or nine days. Capt. Powell's fine qualities as a seaman and his urbanity to his passengers were equally conspicuous throughout the voyage. We regret to learn that a serious accident took place on board the steamer about eleven o'clock on Monday night-the bursting of the boiler by which the Circassian's winch was worked, by which the first and fourth engineers and one of the firemen were scalded, the first severely. It is expected the damage will be repaired so as to admit of the steamer leaving Halifax by three o'clock this afternoon.

May 13, 1857

The weather is described as very favourable. Several vessels have arrived at Quebec, and the navigation on the lakes, rivers, and canals is being resumed with great activity. Business is brisk at Montreal, but the accounts from the upper provinces are not so favourable. The causes, however, appear to be temporary, chiefly in the scarcity of money, which prevails more or less in all countries, and the recent unfavourable weather for agricultural operations. A change for the better has, however, just taken place, and the prospects of the ensuing season are, upon the whole, very encouraging.


We are glad to hear that the Wellington Emigration Fund is proceeding with its useful labours with the successful results which the energy and philanthropy of its promoters so fully deserve. In addition to the number of emigrants recently forwarded to Australia, another party, in all amounting to 70 persons, will be sent out to Canada on the 20th instant, being the first despatched to the British North American colonies under the auspices of the society.


The Montreal ocean Steam Ship Company's screw steamer Canadian arrived in the Mersey on Friday morning from Portland, which place she left at 3.30 P.M. on the 25th of April. The Canadian, which encountered heavy weather throughout the passage, passed two large icebergs on the 30th April. The Canadian brings 50 cabin and 32 steerage passengers. The following is a list of the cabin passengers:-

Messrs. P. Freeland, J.C. Small, R. Freeland, Geo. Raikes, John M'Donald, Rev. Mr. Marshall, Mr. J. Robinson, Mrs. Carter, Miss E. Carter, Miss Carter, Hon. J.H. Price and family, Mr. Date, lady and child, Mr. Wolsley, Mr. Mather and lady, Mrs. Shaw, two children and nurse, Mr. Burns, Mr. Thompson, Mrs. Spiers, Captain Darling, Dr. Alex. B. de Madai, Mrs. Fitzgibbon and child, Mr. William Robertson, Mr. thomas Hunton, Rev. D. Fraser, lady, child and girl, Mrs. D. Robertson, child and nurse, Sheriff Boston, Miss Boston, Miss L. Boston, Mrs. Judge Reid, Mrs. Workman, Miss Patrick, Miss Collier, Miss Lunn, Mr. R.W. Briggs, Mr. W.W.C. Little, Mr. W.B. Imrie, Mrs. E. Knipe.

The steam ship Anglo-Saxon, Capt. M'Master, sailed on Wednesday from Liverpool for Quebec and Montreal, with the Canadian mails, passengers, and cargo.

The screw steamship Circassian, Captain Powell, sailed on Tuesday last from Liverpool for St. John's, Newfoundland, Halifax, and Portland, with a considerable number of passengers and a full cargo.


The first ship from sea, the City of Toronto, arrived at Quebec on the 20th inst., followed next day by the Shandon. The first arrival last year was the Queen of the Lakes, on the 28th April. The first named vessel came through the north channel of Anticosti, and encountered no ice, but was beset for four days in it at the mouth of the river. The Khersonese arrived at Portland, via St. John's Newfoundland, and Halifax, on the 23rd inst., and brought a large number of passengers.


First Arrival From Sea

The ship City of Toronto, from the Clyde, in twenty-one days, arrived in port yesterday afternoon, and has been moored at Taylor's slip, Point Levi, on account of the quantity of ice which still remains floating in the stream. She is an Upper Canadian built vessel, has a general cargo for Quebec and Montreal, and has made a very rapid passage, having sailed on the 28th March. The first arrival last year was on the 28th April, when the ship Queen of the Lakes came to anchor in our harbour. The City of Toronto was the first square-rigged vessel built west of Kingston, and has justified the prediction which we made as to her sailing qualities in a description of the vessel, published in the Chronicle of the 24th August, 1855. Last year she made the voyage to Quebec and back again to England in two months and eighteen days, and we have little doubt that, under her present commander, Capt. William M'Neill, she will nobly maintain the reputation of Canadian ships. As the harbinger of what, we have reason to hope, will be a brisk and profitable business season, we hail the presence of the City of Toronto in the St. Lawrence, and would direct our readers who desire further information as to her voyage to the report under the head of shipping intelligence.-Morning Chronicle, April 19.


The Khersonese arrived at Halifax on the 21st ult.

The Mic Mac arrived at Halifax, from the Clyde, on the 16th ult., after a rapid passage of only eighteen days. The White Star came in on the following day, in twenty-three days from the Thames; the Elizabeth came in on the same day, twenty-eight days from Cardiff, with a cargo of railroad iron, &c., and proceeded up to Richmond.


Deaths

Drowned, when attempting to land from the R.M.S. Europa, Mr. Stephen Jones, boatswain of R.M.S. Delta, a native of Liverpool, England, aged 25 years.

Newfoundland

By the North Atlantic Steam Navigation Company's screw steamer Circassian, Captain Powell, which arrived on Sunday at Liverpool from Portland, we have advices from St. John's, Newfoundland, to the 24th ult. The Circassian made the passage from Newfoundland to Holyhead in 7 days 21 hours.

She brought forty passengers, including his Excellency the ex-Governor Darling, family, and suite, but no specie. The Circassian encountered south-easterly and easterly winds during the entire voyage.

The submarine telegraph between New York and Newfoundland is out of order.

The Khersonese, screw steamer, from Liverpool, belonging to the same company, arrived at Newfoundland in nine days from Liverpool, notwithstanding some detention off the port by the fog.

May 27, 1857

At a meeting of the subscribers to the Manufacturers' Relief Committee of 1842, held last week, the very munificent sum of £3,000. was voted to the Wellington Emigration Fund. A considerable portion of this handsome subscription is to be appropriated to promoting the emigration of the discharged workmen from the Royal Dockyards and Arsenal at Woolwich, whose distressing circumstances have recently excited so much attention. The Woolwich committee have in consequence received the handsome subscription of £2,000. from the Wellington Emigration fund Committee. The amount now in hand will enable the committee to provide the means of emigration for 800 persons, and arrangements are now in progress for sending out to Canada the first instalment of emigrants, consisting of 450 men, women, and children. The number of applications for free emigration received by the committee exceeds 2,000.

The Wellington Emigration Fund despatched their first batch of emigrants to Canada on the 21th inst., in the Envelope, which sailed from Gravesend that day. The party, which consisted of thirty-nine men, fourteen women, and one child, equivalent to 60½ statue adults, was sleected by Captain Neale Porter from the unemployed workmen of the metropolis. Captain Porter personally superintended the departure of the emigrants, from whom the committee of the Wellington Fund have received the following admirable letter of thanks:--

Gravesend, May 21, 1857.
My Lord and Gentlemen,-We, the undersigned emigrants on board the ship Envelope, beg most sincerely to thank you for the kind assistance you have rendered us, and to assure you that we fully appreciate that kindness; that by your kind exertions we are enabled to proceed to a country where we shall be enabled to procure that labour which we are unable to get in England, and, instead of the prospect of poverty and starvation we have we have felt, we now enjoy a prospect of comfort in the land we are going to.

We beg most sincerely to thank those gentlemen who have so kindly assisted us in our passage, outfit, and accommodations that we now enjoy. We beg to assure those gentlemen who advanced the money that it shall be faithfully repaid as soon as our improved circumstances will permit of our doing so (in the colony), and by that means we hope to convince you of our honesty. We also feel it our duty to our fellow-workmen at home, and thereby secure the confidence you have place in us.

In conclusion, we beg to inform you that the benefit we receive will be felt by our families and connections with gratitude; and their wish, as well as ours, is, may you be rewarded by long life and happiness for your noble exertions for our welfare.

Signed by the Emigrants sent out to Canada in the ship Envelope. [no names given]

To the gentlemen composing the Committee of the Wellington Emigration Fund.

All persons interested in the British North American provinces will be glad to learn that the directors of the Grand Trunk Railway Company of Canada have announced in their circular for the ensuing month that arrangements have been entered into with the proprietors of the Great Eastern, so that this mammoth steam ship, of 22,000 tons burden and 2,700 horse-power, will make her first voyage to Portland, state of Maine, in connection with the through booking system instituted by this company for the conveyance of passengers to Canada and the Western States.

The number of emigrants to Canada and to the Western States by the Canadian route is largely on the increase, and it will become more so now that the advantages of this communication are beginning to be appreciated. The total number of passengers despatched to Canada, via Portland and Quebec, between the 4th April and the 29th May, by Messrs. Sabel and Cortis was 3,878, and to New York over 8,000, of which fully three-quarters went to Canada, owing to want of means of direct communication.


The Montreal Ocean Steam Shipping Company's screw steamer Indian, Captain Jones, arrived at Quebec on the 4th of May. The following is a list of her passengers:-

Mr. Wm. Hissey, Mr. Passmore, Mr. Leboutillier, Mr. H.C. Davidson, Mr. Chas. Champion, Mr. and Mrs. Kidner and three children, Mr. Simpson, Mr. Marquis, Mr. Taylor, Mrs. Taylor and four children, Mr. W.C. Menzies, Mr. W.D. Henderson, Mrs. Bernard and three children, Mr. Daniels, Mrs. Daniels, nurse and child, Mr. Nicol, Mr. Lemesurier, Mr. T. Walkering, Mr. Beaudry, Mr. R. Dench, Mr. Laurent, Mr. Shipman, Mr. Leach, Mr. J.M. Jarvis, Mr. Humphreys, Mr. Neil, Mr. Walds, Captain Peebles, Dr. Ward, Mrs. Bernard and servant, Mr. Megone, Mr. Wright, Mr. Jackson, Captain Vivian, Mr. C.W. Wilson and Mrs. Wilson, Dr. Ross (39th Regt.), Mrs. J. Russell, Mr. Balantyne, Col. Gordon, Mrs. Major Campbell and servants, Mr. Lockwood, Mrs. Blackburne, Mrs. Forbes and two children, Mrs. and Miss Crawford, Major Campbell (Supt. Military Prisons, Canada), Lieut. Cornwallis (39th Regt.), Lieut. Woodruff (39th Regt.), Lieut. D'Estrange (17th Regt.), Lieut. Lunard (9th Regt.), and Mr. Peake (Clerk of Works);-total, cabin, 113; steerage, 220.

The Montreal Ocean Steam Ship company's screw steamer Canadian, Captain Ballantine, sailed from the Mersey for Quebec and Montreal on Wednesday morning. The Canadian took out 128 cabin and 250 steerage passengers.

The screw steam ship Khersonese, belonging to the North Atlantic Steam Navigation Company, arrived at Liverpool on Friday. She left St. John's, Newfoundland, on the 10th instant. She brings about £2,000. in specie and 35 passengers, 18 of whom were cabin and 17 steerage passengers. On Sunday, the 17th instant, about 9.30 P.M., while a strong breeze was blowing and the ship was going about 13 knots per hour, all of a sudden the engine went rapidly round. The ship was stopped, and it was found that the screw was gone. She proceeded under full sail, and was towed into the river, where she arrived at ten A.M. Previous to the accident, she had been making good speed, having on one day completed 360 miles. Subsequent to the accident, she was detained by light winds until Thursday, when a fresh breeze sprung up.

The weather has been very wet, cold, and backward. Not the slightest sign of vegetation as yet; cattle in many parts of the country suffering from want of fodder-there is as yet no pasturage. The trees show as little sign of budding as telegraph poles. Farming operations are very much in arrear, and the country is saturated with water. There is, however, signs of a change just now; when it does come, summer will be upon us at once, so sudden and quick is the transition generally. Buffalo harbour is reported entirely blocked by the ice, and no movements possible for the large fleet shut up in it. From present indications, it is not expected that the navigation will be opened there much before the middle of this month.

Our port [Montreal], after its long torpor, is again alive with the bustle of commerce. Since my last the following ships have arrive:-Queen of the Lakes, Shandon, City of Toronto, Toronto, Montreal, St. Lawrence, Cambria, Anglesey, City of Quebec, and America. The steam ship Indian is also again at her old berth, having made a very good run out of twelve days. She brought 113 cabin and 220 steerage passengers; her mails and passengers were in Montreal the day after those of the Africa, which sailed from Liverpool four days before her,-another fact to be noted by those who are desirous of saving time and expense. The steam ship Caledonia has also arrived in port, and is now lying near the Indian. This vessel made rather a long passage, and had to put into Sydney, Cape Breton, for coal, having run short of fuel. She is a fine-looking vessel, although somewhat smaller than those of the Canadian line.

The following vessels had arrived:- [Quebec] On the26th April, the Queen of the Lakes and the Montreal, both from Liverpool, and the St. Lawrence from the Clyde; on the 1st May, the Kjolner from Norway, the Anglesea and Caledonia from Liverpool, and the City of Quebec from Glasgow; on the 4th May, the Indian, screw steamer, from Liverpool, and the Cambria from Glasgow; on the 5th May, the America and the Toronto from Liverpool, the Lord Byron from Algeria, and Maria from Glasgow, the Bothnia from Lisbon, the Adam Lodge from Carthagena, and Primrose from Limerick; on the 6th, the Eliza Mary from Antwerp.

The Caledonia, screw clipper, from Liverpool, the Siam and the Stafford, both from Liverpool, and the Ann from Donegal, with 13 cabin and 153 steerage passengers, arrived on the 8th May, and the steamer Lebanon from Woolwich on the following day, with Captain O'Connell's 7th Company, 3rd Battalion, and Captain Forde's 1st Company, 4th Battalion Royal Artillery, who are to be stationed in Canada.


Nova Scotia

A sad accident occurred on board the ship Favourite, John Pearson, master, while on passage from Liverpool, G.B., to this port. The captain's wife, Mrs. Pearson, was missed one night, and on search being made it was found that the unfortunate lady had fallen through the hatch in the cabin, a distance of nearly 20 feet. It is stated that after being taken up she lingered about a week, and finally expired at sea some days before the ship reached this port. Mrs. Pearson is described as a most amiable person, and her untimely death is deeply regretted by all on board. She was about 30 years of age. Her remains were landed here on Saturday last. We learn that no blame for carelessness can be attached to anybody for leaving the hatch open, and that it was probably owing to the action of the sea and the working of the ship, which caused it to be loosened and moved out of its place.-Chronicle, April 27.

Marine Items-The Brigantine Lady Seymour, coppered and copper fastened, has been sold at private bargain, by the house of Messrs. Allison and Co., to William Full, Esq.-Most of the spring ships from Britain have arrived, all of them in short passages, but the best runs have been made, so far this season, by Mic Mac, from Glasgow, White Star, from London, and Wolfe, from Liverpool. The latter is, as usual, in capital order, and a credit to the port from which she sails.-The sharpshooters arriving at this port for supplies for prosecuting the fisheries, during the present season, are fully maintaining their well-earned reputation. But even the smartest of these clippers will have to grease their heels if they hope to surpass some of the old craft. We have just now in our mind's eye one of the latter, a schooner called the Margaret, Green, master, some eight years old, which this season accomplished the round trip hence to Philadelphia and back in twenty-four days, although she had considerable detention in port and at the breakwater. This Margaret has been a remarkably fortunate vessel ever since she came off the stocks, and probably no vessel of her class has ever been less expensive in her outfits for the time being. She is now taking in cargo for a trading voyage to the Labrador coast.-Some of our water-side people noticed the other day three clipper schooners passing up the harbour, stem and quarter, in the following order:-1st, Leading Star; 2nd, Shooting Star; 3rd, Brilliant Star; and, shortly after, the White Star (barque), from London.

New Brunswick

Missing Vessels-We regret to state that no accounts have been received from several vessels which sailed from this port early in January last, and taht there is too much reason to fear they suffered shipwreck in a dreadful gale on the 3rd or 4th of that month. Among the vessels unaccounted for is the brig Chieftain, Capt. M'Carthy, which sailed hence on the 2nd of January, for Montego Bay, Jamaica, and had not arrived there when eighty-five days out. The vessel was owned by mr. J.V. Troop and others, and her cargo belonged to mr. George Hume, a man of colour, born in this city, who, with his mother, brother, and other relatives, were passengers, intending to to [sic] take up their residence in Jamaica, having disposed of their property here, which was considerable. Another vessel, the brig Rocroy, Capt. Scott, for Barbadoes, sailed in company with the Chieftain, and the same uncertainty exists as to her fate. She was owned by Messrs. J. and T. Robinson. Mr. Gifford, formerly postmaster at Richibucto, who was on his way to the West Indies for the benefit of his health, was a passenger on board the Rocroy. A third missing vessel is the new brig Blackbird, Capt. Brier, which sailed from London on the 3rd of January, and had not been reported in the English papers up to the latest date. The friends of the passengers and crews of these vessels are not without hopes that the sufferers may have been taken off the wrecks, and that they will yet be heard from, but at present the most gloomy forebodings are entertained by many. The ship Elizabeth Bentley, Capt. Beyea, which sailed hence for Liverpool 2nd January, encountered the gale in which it is feared the above vessels suffered more severely. The ship succeeded in getting into Lisbon in a very disabled state, and has been condemned. We understand Capt. Beyea writes that the gale was most terrific, and exceeded anything he had ever witnessed.-St. John's Courier.

New York Times, May 28, 1857 page 1 (transcribed and submitted by Harry Dodsworth)

Number of emigrants arrived to May 20, 1857 ..... 42,257
Number of emigrants arrived since to May 27 ........ 8,994

New York Times, June 1, 1857

SMALL-POX AT QUARANTINE - The ship Navigator, Captain Buckhold, from Antwerp arrived at Quarantine on Sunday last, bringing 200 passengers, seven of whom were sick with malignant small-pox. The vessel and passengers will be detained at Quarantine till the period for the appearance of new cases shall have passed. In the meantime the passengers will all be vaccinated, and the vessel will be thoroughly fumigated and otherwise cleansed. It is reported that small-pox prevails at many of the European ports, and the report is probably true from the frequent importation of cases lately.

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