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Settlers to Liberia (1843-187?)

(project in progress)

The following information is taken from The African Repository, and Colonial Journal (later just The African Repository). The publication documents the activities of the American Colonization Society. The publication first appeared in 1825 monthly until 1839, “The tenth volume was completed in ten numbers, in order that the subsequent volumes might commence with the beginning of the year. From February, 1839, until February, 1842, both inclusive, it was published semi-monthly. Volume 15 was, however, completed in nineteen numbers, one number only having been issued in each of the months of January and July of that year, (1839) and the publication of the second number for November and the two for December having been suspended in consequence of the destruction by fire of the materials in the office of publication. Volumes 16 and 17 contained twenty four numbers each, and volume 18 fourteen numbers; the monthly issues having been resumed in March 1842; since which time it has been issued regularly every month–each volume commencing with the beginning of the year, and containing twelve numbers.” [January 1855] It contains letters and reports of the Society. It also contains the names of many of the vessels used to carry the emigrants to Liberia.

The organization used a vessel they called the Liberia Packet but not always.

Selected news items extracted from New York Daily Times [NYT], have been inserted chronologically in indented text.

January 1843
“ By the brig Hope I shall send you two or three barrels of sugar from the farm of as good quality perhaps as you will get anywhere.” page 17

“The Schooner Regulus.–In my communication 15th April, I informed you I should send the schooner to America in all of the month of May. The death of Captain PRESTON on the 16th May, the chance of selling the schooner for a good price, and the opportunity of shipping produce to America immediately have caused me to alter the arrangement.

On the return of the schooner from Sinou, Captain PRESTON (who had remained at Monrovia on account of ill health) was dead. The mate’s health was very poor, and he the only navigator on board. I thought it unsafe to despatch her for the United States under such circumstances. As Mr. TEAGE was anxious to have a vessel of her class, I consented to sell her for four thousand dollars payable in Palm oil.

As we cannot get Captain PRESTON’S account ready to go by this vessel (as there are some amounts unsettled) it will be forwarded to you by the brig Grecian, of Philadelphia, or the brig Harriet, of Baltimore, to sail from the coast in two or three weeks. I shall try to make arrangements here to pay off the crew. The Regulus is to be put under the colonial flag.

We are now shipping from the warehouse on board the brig Hope, of New York, about nineteen thousand gallons of Palm oil, (including eight thousand five hundred gallons from Mr. TEAGE received in payment for the schooner Regulus) and twenty-five tons Camwood. We have used every effort to make as large a shipment as possible....” page 17 - letter signed by J.J. ROBERT

Rhoderic Dhu arrived March 19th, 1842 – “Your letters of the 27th and 30th of April [1842], referring to despatches forwarded by the U.S. ship “ Vandalia,” are also received.” page 19

“The necessary preparations for the comfortable accommodation of the emigrants, by the “Mariposa,” and your instructions in reference to those sent out by Mr. McDONOGH, shall receive immediate attention. I regret that we could not have received earlier notice of your intention to establish a settlement at Blue Barre, to make the necessary arrangements with native chiefs...” page 19

“The Vandalia remained some ten or twelve days, during which time the captain and other officers visited the shore frequently, and appeared highly gratified with the condition of things in the Colony. I found Captain RAMSAY, and indeed all the officers, very kind, gentlemanly, and well-disposed towards the Colony.

...Captain RAMSAY very kindly offered to take me to Cape Mount,...But his wish to proceed as fast as possible to Berriby to look after the murderers of the master and crew of the American schooner, Mary Carver, would prevent his giving me as much time as would be required at this season of the year ...” page 21

“On the 21st inst., [Aug. 1842] the ship Mariposa, Capt. B. SHUTE, arrived bringing despatches from Washington, to 20th June, and your letters from Norfolk, of July 1st, 3rd, 4th and 6th, with two hundred thirty-two emigrants, two of the original number having died on the passage, a young woman and an infant, the former of pleurisy and the latter of measles.” page 23

“...That he said to Captain DENMAN of Her Majesty’s Brig Wanderer who called to thank me for the attention to one of Her Majesty’s subjects thrown on our coast in distress.” [This was Captain James L. MERRITT and his vessel, which was wrecked, was the Niger. The report is about the looting of the cargo from this vessel.] page 26

“An English schooner, the “Royal Albert,” from Liverpool, consigned to Mr. TEAGE, was wrecked on the beach ten miles below this place, on the evening of the 1st inst. [Oct. 1, 1842] The next morning early, I was on the spot with some thirty armed men, and succeeded in landing most of the cargo; I remained there about forty-eight hours, until the property was secured, without losing by theft ten dollars’ worth. I am determined, so long as I may be trusted with the management of the affairs of the Colony, never to have another “Niger” scrape.” [Joseph J. ROBERTS, Governor of the colony of Liberia] page 29

February 1843
“ From the Liberia Herald, Oct. 31, 1842.
Arrived at this port 19th inst., from Bassa, and the leeward coast, brigantine Atalanta, of Philadelphia, Joseph R. BROWN, master.

Captain BROWN reported, the Vandalia, U. States sloop of war, sailed for America, 5th inst. The commander was unwilling to remain longer as the ships stores were reduced to 50 days supply on an allowance to each man of only two thirds his daily rations.

We understand nothing was effected towards the punishment of the savage pirates at Half Bereby who seized the Mary Carver and murdered the crew.

Capt. R.T. SIMS of the American barque Rhoderic Dhu, captured one of the ringleaders who is now in custody at Cape Coast Castle. After he was taken he acknowledged his participation in the crime and that he shared largely in the plunder.

Credit is due Cap. S. For detaining the culprit and the readiness he showed in furnishing the evidence in his power.

The documents were sent to the Secretary of State, by the Atalanta which sailed on the 23rd inst.

...The Schooner Royal Albert, on her passage out, spoke the brig Princess Victoria, off Cape Finisterre.” page 62

“The late Mrs. Elizabeth DAVIS, of Montgomery County, Maryland, directed by her will, that two thousand dollars should be paid into the Treasury of the American Colonization Society, for the advancement of its great enterprize, and her respected son, A.B. DAVIS, Esq., Executor of her estate, has promptly fulfilled the benevolent purpose of his revered parent....” page 63

March 1843
“ ...Anxious to comply with the philanthropic views of this gentleman [John McDONOGH, Esq., of New Orleans] as well as to aid many applicants for a passage for various sections of the Union, the ship Mariposa, was chartered and ordered to New Orleans, whence (after her outfit with all needful supplies, and the embarkation under the superintendance [sic] of the

Rev. Wm. McLAIN, the Treasurer of the Society, of seventy-nine persons, liberated by Mr. McDONOGH, and one other respectable colored family,) she sailed on the 9th of June, for Norfolk, to receive there her complement of emigrants. This fine ship sailed from Norfolk, on the 7th July, with a very intelligent and select company of two hundred and thirty-four emigrants, from the States of Louisiana, Alabama, Missouri, Illinois, Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and the Territory of Iowa, and after a voyage in all respects auspicious, arrived at Monrovia, on the 21st August....

Of the other emigrants by the Mariposa, eighty were from the State of Tennessee, (more than twenty of them emancipated, and to some extent assisted by generous masters) and most of them by their agricultural, and mechanical knowledge, well qualified to overcome the difficulties which emigrants to new countries must inevitably encounter.

Seventeen, all with one exception liberated slaves, were from the State of Virginia.

Fourteen liberated by the will of the late Thos. BLACKLEDGE, Esquire, of North Carolina, were not only supplied by this will with the means of emigration, but also with eight hundred dollars to enable them to commence with comfort and cheerfulness, their new mode of life.

Ten were from Murfreesboro, North Carolina, emancipated by the will of the late Mr. BROWN, of that place, and some small provision made for their benefit. Two enterprising, free colored families, comprising fourteen persons, having experienced much unkindness from the people among whom they had resided, came by the way of New Orleans, from Illinois to Norfolk, that they might embark for a land of real freedom. Another family of four persons travelled by land from the Territory of Iowa, and took passage in this vessel.

A venerable colored minister of the Baptist Church, from Alabama, who had received his freedom as the reward of merit, embarked with his wife and three children, in the hope that his other children (for whom he has paid more than $7,000) will yet follow him. These with a family of six persons from Louisiana, and the superintendents of the company, Messrs. Harris & Brown, completed the number of this expedition...” pages 75-77

Slave Trade–The Fantome 16, Commander P.G. HAYNES, took a prize into Rio De Janeiro on the 2nd of September having on board 337 slaves. Captain FOOTE of the Madagascar, on the 22nd of May, landed a party of marines on the African Coast, near the Congo, destroyed several barracoons and took 956 slaves. They afterwards landed at Ambrig and took 260 slaves. These slaves have been sent to St. Helena.” page 91

April 1843
“ The Presbytery of New York has just received under its care Mr. James M. PRIEST, a licentiate of the West Lexington Presbytery, and will ordain him on Sabbath evening next in the Rutgers-street Presbyterian church, (Rev. Dr. KREBS’) services to commence a half-past seven o’clock....Mr. Priest was raised as a slave. He belonged to a pious lady who desired to emancipate her slaves and send them to Africa. With a view to this good object, she sent out Mr. Priest to Liberia to examine the colony and bring back a report of the land. Since his return he has been educated, and now goes forth as a missionary of the Presbyterian Board, to preach the everlasting Gospel in long benighted Africa.” page 129

May 1843
A Spanish Slaver Escaped With Impunity!–A letter from on board the U.S. Ship Vincennes, states that on the 29th February, they overhauled a schooner with three Spanish Custom-House Officers on board, having Spanish papers and Spanish colors, which prevented their seizing her. She had 550 slaves on board–thirty-four had died–two jumped overboard in frantic despair;–she was twenty-eight days from the coast of Africa, making for Cuba. The vessel was built in New York in 1835 or 1836!–New York Observer.” page 158

“Captain DAYLEY, of brig Ceylon, arrived at Salem from Africa, reports, as we learn from the Salem Register, that the barque Roderick Dhu, of Providence, commanded by Captain Richard T. SIMS, of Salem, was at Accra, December 10 [1842], to sail for windward coast. Capt. SIMS had been boarded by an officer of H.B.M. Brig Spy, and treated in a most shameful and insulting manner, insomuch that Capt. S. had felt bound to make a representation of the case to the British Commandant of the station. Captain SIMS’ statement was fully corroborated by an English gentleman, a passenger with him at the time.” page 158

June 1843
“ The barque Globe, from Baltimore, with nineteen emigrants and a small invoice of merchandise, on account of the American Colonization Society, arrived at this port [Monrovia] yesterday. [February 1, 1843]” page 167

“The barque Renown will immediately sail from Norfolk, with more than one hundred emigrants, a large number of the liberated slaves from the estate of the late Mrs. READ, of Mississippi. The gentlemen to whom these servants were bequeathed by this excellent lady, (Dr. DUNCAN and the Rev. Mr. BULLER,) have shown a noble purpose of benevolence towards these people, and a desire to afford them all the means in their power of comfortable settlement in the colony.” page 195

July 1843
“ Departure Of The Renown
This vessel sailed from Norfolk on the 17th of last month with seventy-eight emigrants, mostly from Mississippi.” page 224

January 1847
Sailed on the Liberia Packet, 27 settlers, from Baltimore on the 3rd Dec., 1846. Sent by the Maryland Col. Soc. - ...“Dr. LUGENBEEL, Colonial physician, two colored missionaries, and one white one, were on board.” The paper states that 130 persons were to travel on the ship but, in the end, only 27 boarded. “One great advantage of the Packet to the society is manifest in this expedition. If we had chartered a vessel, as we usually have done, two or three weeks before the day of sailing, we should have taken a vessel of capacity to carry one hundred and thirty emigrants and put up berths and bought provisions accordingly, before we knew how many would fail to be ready; of course the expense of sending out the few who were on the spot, would have been very great. But in the Packet, we paid only for each one what we should have paid had the whole number gone.” page 27

“The Liberia Packet will sail on her second voyage for Liberia about the 1st of May, from Norfolk, Va. She will be able to furnish first rate accommodations for as many emigrants as may desire to go at that time. We hope our friends will take due notice of this, and make all necessary preparations in season.” page 27

March 1847
barque Rothschild sailed from New Orleans with 61 emigrants from Ohio, Kentucky (35 from Kentucky), and Tennessee. The ship arrived at Monrovia on the 15th March.“A tract of land, beautiful and fertile, had been selected for “Kentucky,” on the northwest side of the St. Paul’s river, extending along the river, from the settlement of Millsburg, twenty miles, to the sea; thence running along the seabeach in a northwesterly direction, about thirty miles, and thence into the interior about fifty miles.” page 65

Barque Chatham sailed from New York on 1st May, chartered by the New York State Colonization Society, “with provisions and clothing for the relief of the recaptives landed at Monrovia by the slaver Pons. Two valuable emigrants took passage in this vessel, one from Ohio, and the other from New York City, and both of them possessing talents, education, and character, which qualify them for great usefulness in their new sphere of action.”...The Chatham arrived at Monrovia on the 8th of June. One of the emigrants wrote: “On a person’s first view of this place, he is very apt to form a poor opinion of it. This was the case with me; but after I had been amongst the people, and saw the manner in which they lived, and how intelligent and refined they were, and, above all, that they enacted, and were governed by, their own laws, and when I considered that I was for the first time in my life breathing a free atmosphere, and in a country where the white man does not hold sway, and an individual, however humble, if he qualifies himself, may attain to eminence and distinction, I really felt surprised that I could have remained contented so long in America.” page 66

“The Liberia Packet sailed from Baltimore on the 3rd December, carrying out twenty-seven emigrants for the American Colonization Society, and fourteen for the Maryland Society, and a large supply of goods for the purchase of territory, and purposes of general improvement...The others, with two exceptions, were left their freedom by their mistress, late of Westmoreland county, Va.” page 66

The Mary Wilks sailed from New Orleans with only 11 emigrants. “The learned blacksmith, ELLIS, and family, sailed in this vessel.” page 68

NYT - Sep 20, 1851 p. 1
The State Colonization Society held a meeting, last evening at the Rev. Dr. SPRING'S Church, the occasion the departure of over thirty colored persons to Liberia. They were present at the meeting, and intend to leave to-day, in the big Zeno. The number thirty-seven in all, and are recommended as an intelligent and worthy class.
The meeting, last evening, was highly respectable and the exercises interesting.
ANSON G. PHELPS. Esq., President of the Society, presided, and the exercises were opened with prayer by the Rev. D. WEST.
Rev. Mr. PEASE then addressed it. He said it was difficult to say what ought to be said, within the time allotted to him ; but when he looked upon those who were about to leave, for Africa, and take part there in the efforts made for its evangilization, and saw here the sympathy they excited, his heart was filled with the deepest emotion. There was an interest here to-night,—one which the whole country ought to sympathize with, and which Africa herself should feel—Africa, once renowned for her heroes, scholars and sages,—but for three thousand years sunk in the depths of misery and crime,—a nation whose names stands higher on the page of prophecy than any other,—a continent which must be redeemed,—this great nation, is still sunk in the depths of degradation. All efforts to plant Christianity there,—efforts made by Spain, Denmark and Englnad,—have failed. When he looked upon the colored man in this country, he felt ready to stretch out his hand to him, with a degree of sympathy he felt for no other class. He regarded them as civilized instruments for redeeming Africa from her bondage. The career that lies before them seemed to him more illustrious than that of any other class of men. While every other effort has failed, God seems to have reserved the work of redeeming Africa for her own children. God in his wisdom has permitted a portion of this race to be taken away from their own shores and planted in the lap of American civilization and aroung the altars of American Christianity. Those here to-night are the descendants of one of the worst races in the world, and when brought to this country, were placed in the situation perhaps adapted better than any other to fit them for their work. The star of Africa's redemption, arose under the influence of this Society, by whose efforts, those sons of Africa who are fitted for it are returned to one of the best countires in the world. No questions create more interest here than those which relate to the condition and properity of the African race ; and if all the excitement which has prevailed upon the subject were only sanctified, it would result in unbounded good to that portion of the human family. The Africans in this country are infinitely better off than any other portion of the African race, except those in Colonies which this Society has planted. God's design in introducing Africans into this country, was not to increase its wealth, nor to make them operatives in any department of labor. The great object to be effected by it is the civilization and salvation of that portion of the race placed here. In two branches of the Church, in the slave-holding States alone, in the Baptist and Methodist denominations, there are now 250,000 converts from African heathenism to Christianity. How many millions have been saved in past years, cannot be known.
It had fallen to the lot of the speaker to mingle with the blacks in the West Indies, in the English and Danish Islands, and in two of the great South American States, and he had found none half so well off, half so thoroughly civilized, as those in the United States,—America has done for the negroes what no other nation in the world has done ; and he believed God designed to make this country a school for the colored race. In 24 States of this Union, in which he had visited the negroe portion of the population, he had found no portion of them so happy, so industrious, so pious as in the Southern States, and particularly in Mississippi and Alabama. He had often lifted his hands in gratitude to God to find that all the men who devote themselves to the welfare of the blacks, the best, and the most self-sacrificing had been among the master of the South,—He had never seen such care taken of them in sickness, so much regard for their suffering elsewhere as in the South. He had been delighted with the fine habitations, with gardens and every other appliance of comfort, with the catechism, and the Bible, and other Christian books,—with the means of education afforded even in the face of statute laws, among the slaves at the South. At the University at Monrovia, one of the Professors was taught the elements of his education by children whom he met in the street. He became converted, and joined the Presbyterian church in Alabama. He became greatly interested in the welfare of his brethren in Africa, and was bought by his Presbytory for $2,400, and sent to Monrovia. There is a deep feeling among the freed blacks of the South, that God has brought them here for good, and that they are preparing to go to Africa. In February last, the Society sent out 139 colonists, among whom was a minister, who had purchased himself and his wife ; and scores of others were anxious to go out with them. A very large number, from 300 to 500 persons have since come forward to go out as soon as possible. Another vessel will be sent in the latter part of December. The work of colonization is of the highest interest, and had he a thousand lives, the speaker said they should all be consecrated to this object. He rejoiced at seeing some going out from this city, and he wished them God speed. Over 200,000 native Africans are now anxiously awaiting their arrival. Every portion of the United States, he considered equally interested in this great work. All churches and all benevolent men of every class, ought to join in carrying it forward.
Rev. Mr. OLCOTT, then made a few remarks. Last Monday evening a similar meeting was held in Hartford on the departure of 19 colored persons who had come hither to join others on their way to Liberia. he said he was a friend of African colonization because it had been blessed of God now for 24 years, ever since the work was started by Finlay and Mills and others at Princeton. He traced the history of the Society from that time to this, speaking of the several men who have been most active on its behalf. The first embarkation was of 86 persons from this city. The colony was first placed on Cape Memrado, to which a whole church was afterwards transported from Richmond, Va. Soon they adopted a constitution and framed a government ; calling their country Liberia. In 1826 a printing press was taken out, and soon after a colored man, now governor of Cape Palmas, was using it. Up to this time the cause had prospered, but then darkness came upon it. Soon after it again aquired confidence, and in 1847 Liberia became independent,—like our own country, slavery excepted. It has 1,300,000,000 acres of land, and a good climate. It is a country of colored government. Every officer being of necessity colored. No colony ever grew so rapidly before. Upon the colony at Jamestown, Great Britain spent immense sums of money, and yet, after 17 years, it only numbered 1700 souls ; yet Liberia now has 200,000. He liked the cause, moreover, because it had aided to supress the Slave trade. The native chiefs used to butcher other tribes for the sake of selling their children as slaves. From 1807 to 1819 almost two and a half millions were carried away, and from 1819 to 1840 the number was over three millions ; and during this latter period Great Britain expended £122,000,000 for the supression of the traffic. Yet the Colonization Society has almost wholly destroyed it by lining the whole coast with Christian institutions. Nothing else has ever done half so much. it is supposed that thre are a hundred and fifty millions in Africa, and they cannot be Christianized except by the operations of this Society. All the efforts of the Missionaries for 400 years have failed. The Mendi Mission alone survives, and that only through the aid of the colonies in its vicinity. The Gaboon Mission is the only independent one. He thought that as God saved Israel by permitting Joseph to be sold into bondage, so would he convert Africa through the agency of American Slavery. All those now going out are members of the Methodist Church, except one,—just the men to do good there.
The speaker then briefly addressed the colored persons who are going, urging them to be industrious and promising them a full success.
Rev. Dr. West, from Pittsburg, then addressed the meeting. he wished to ask, and answer, a question. The movement from Egypt to Canaan is cited as a precedent for Colonization ; and it is asked, why not follow that example, and all go at once? There were reasons, he said, which justify a departure from this example ; and these he preceded to set forth,—the Israelites all left Egypt at once because they could have derived no good from the land ; all the light and civilization then belonged to the Israelites. When they came to Canaan they were not allowed to drive all the natives out, because they could benefit them. And the same thing holds true here. The blacks do not all go at once because the land in which they live can teach them and do them good. He spoke at some length, carrying out this parallel, and in general advocacy of the cause.
Rev. Mr. J.B. PINNEY said there were 36 persons ready to sail on the Zeno tomorrow ;—of these 16 are adults, and 11 of them are members of the church ; 24 can read. They come highly recommended, and go out without solicitation, but from the representations of their friends who have gone thither. The speaker then spoke of several of them individually ; and the influences which had induced them to go.

NYT - Oct 1, 1851 p. 1
FROM LIBERIA:—Liberia papers have been received to June 18th. The accounts indicate the steady prosperity of the colony. The U. S. brig Perry, Capt. A. H. FOOTE, arrived at Monrovia, June 16, in nine days from St. Helena, all well. She reports that the slave trade on the South coast is "on its last legs." Farther North, it is already nearly extinct.
About June 1st fire broke out in the new town of Buchanan, at Grand Bassa Point, and consumed five houses. In all other respects, the new settlement was prospering. The natives in the region were delighted with the change since the expulsion of the Fishman Grando.
In Bassa County, large numbers of palm oil were coming into the different settlements ; the farmers at Bexley were planting large quantities of arrowroot ; and there was a prospect of a large crop of rice.
JAS. K. STRAW, the English agent, offers a premium of $50 for the best five acres of cotton, and promises to furnish the means to any competent persons who wish to make the experiment.
The Herald urges attention to the collection of India Rubber, as a new and profitable branch of industry. The same paper alludes to Captain Forbes' work on the "Dahomey and Dahomas," accusing the Liberians of "buying and selling God's image" and says the whole thing is too ridiculous to deserve any thing but a flat contradiction.
Judge Benson has been about forty miles inland, with and exploring party, to select a site in the mountainous region, for a new settlement. He found the country fertile, well wooded and watered, and the natives friendly, and quite superior to those near the coast. he selected a site some thirty miles inland from Bexley.
The emigrants by the brig Alida, from New Orleans, were doing well at Sinoe. There had been no case of the small-pox among them, since they landed ; nor had there been any deaths, except of four children. They had nearly all passed through the acclimatiing fever, and were at work on their farms. One of them had built a large boat, propelled by paddle-wheels, to ply between the different settlements on the Sinoe river.
The emigrants by the Baltimore, from Savannah, were all landed in good health and spirits.
The "G.O.U. of the Daughters of Temperance, Fidelity Division, No. 1," had an anniverary festival in the Senate Chamber, at Monrovia, May 29, with vocal and instrumental music, and addresses by the Rev. Mr. Russell and other gentlemen ; followed, in the evening, by a splendid entertainment at the residence of Col. Yates.

NYT - Oct 30, 1851 p. 2
Baltimore October 29:— Thirty-five emancipated negroes from Virginia arrived at Baltimore to-day, to sail in the Liberia packet of the first.

NYT - Nov 3, 1851 p. 1
DEPARTURE OF EMIGRANTS FOR LIBERIA - Baltimore November 1:— The bark Morgan Dix sailed this morning for Liberia, with 150 emigrants (colored). The ceremonies on board were very interesting.

NYT - Nov 5, 1851 p. 4
The bark Morgan Dix, recently purcahsed for the "Chesapeake and Liberia Trading Company," sailed from Baltimore on Saturday morning with a large cargo, and one hundred and fifty-three emigrants for the settlement of the American Colonization Society, at Bassa Cove. The most of these emigrants are intelligent and enterprizing, and go out well provided with every requisite to render their condition happy and properous in their new home. They take out with them, among other things, a steam saw-mill, ready for erection, which is the second mill of the kind shipped to Liberia during the present year. The Morgan Dix is a fine vessel, and particularly well suited to the trade for which she has been purchased. She left her wharf in fine style, amid the cheering of hundreds of colored persons, who assembled to bid farewell to the emigrants.

NYT - Nov 8, 1851 p. 1
LIBERIA:—Letters from Liberia to the 24th of July, as we learn from the Washington Intelligencer, have been received in this country, giving accounts of the steady progress of the Republic. The prospects of the new settlement of Bassa county were very favorable. The harbor, which is to constitute the sea-port at that piece, has at length been peacably taken possession good warehouse of. Buildings were in course of erection, including a good warehouse, from which it is proposed to supply shipping with provisions, &c. The harbor is deep and well protected, and vessels can, consequently, discharge along side in one-fourth the time occupied in landing cargo at other Liberian towns. The place supplies excellent water. The harbor is to be called Cresson, in honor of Ellen Cresson, and it is probable that it will be a port of call for the contemplated screw-steamers between England and Fernado Po.

NYT - Nov 17, 1851 p. 2
The Liberia Packet is daily expected to arrive at Baltimore, on her return from Africa, whither she went some months since with emigrants and supplies for the Liberian Republic. She will be fitted out again immediately after her arrival, and is expected to sail for the African Coast about Christmas, touching at Savannah, Georgia, for the purpose of receiving on board two hundred and ten emigrants destined for the Republic. Among these are the members of the family of the liberated slave ANTHONY SHERMAN. It was expected that a company of from three to four hundred emigrants would be sent from New-Orleans at the same time. The number will be necessarily reduced to two hundred, for want of pecuniary means to carry out the original design. . . . . more

NYT - Jan 23, 1852 p. 1
Fifty-one negroes, emanicipated by the will of the late John W. Houghton, left Augusta, Ga., lately, for Savannah, on their way to Liberia.

NYT - Feb 6, 1852 p. 2
Boston Feb. 5:—Liberia papers to the 12th December, have been received by the Boston Traveller. The distressing condition of affairs at Grand Bassa, was the engrossing subject of interest.
In the attack upon Fishtown, Grando, the insurgents were joined by Prince Boyer, of Trade Town. They had marshaled forces from all quarters with the intention of entirely destroying the settlements at Grand Bassa. Other native Chiefs and even foreign traders are implicated in the affair. The attack upon Fishtown was made Nov. 5 ; the village was sacked and burned, and 9 of the inhabitants murdered. Grando commanded in person having about 300 troops—the garrison was taken by surprise. Among the murdered were 2 women and 4 children ; the bodies were mutilated in a horrible manner. It appeared that the entire Bassa country and Trade town had joined Grando's rebellion and that Mr. Lawrence, an English trader, was stimulating and aiding them. On the 11th of December ageneral attack was made on Bassa Cove, at midnight, but was successfully repulsed—several of the assailents having been killed.
As the assailents fled into the wilderness, the air is said to have resounded with "Nabo," a cry of pain, the cannon of the Liberians having been well charged with slugs and grape shot. Scouting parties from Bassa Cove subsequently attacked and broke up the enemies towns.
On the 15th, they made another and more desperate attack on the Cove in great numbers, but were repulsed with the loss of from thirty to fifty killed and wounded, amongst them some of their chief warriors. After this repulse Grando wanted to leave the country, but his allies would not let him. He will probably soon be captured.
The Legislature met December 1st. President ROBERTS was inaugurated and delivered his Message.

NYT - May 4, 1852 p. 4
DEPARTURE OF EMIGRANTS FOR LIBERIA:—The ship Ralph Ross sailed from this port on Saturday, under the auspices of the American Colonization Society, with a large and respectable body of emigrants for Liberia, The emigrants who leave here are 95 in number, 24 of whom are from Maryland, 22 from Missouri, 23 from New-Jersey, and the remainder from Philadelphia and other localities. The ship will touch at Norfolk, where she will be joined by another large body of emigrants, making the entire number which will go out on her, well into two hundred. Of those who will join the expedition at Norfolk, a large proportion are manumitted slaves from from different parts of Virginia.
The emigrants are generally of the most respected class, intelligent, health, and likely to become valuable citizens of the infant republic. The Right Rev. Bishop Payne, missionary bishop of the Episcopal Church in Africa, returns in the vessel to the field of his labors, with the means of adding to his usefulness. He is accompanied by several other missionaries. Several colored men also go out in the vessel, for the purpose of examining into the conditions of the country, and of reporting to those who sent them, and who contemplate emigrating thither. The bark Liberia Packet, which it is understood will sail early in the fall, it is expected will also take out a numerous body of emigrants.:—Baltimore Amer., 3d.

NYT - Jan 19, 1853 p. 4
The Thirty-sixth Anniversary of the American Colonization Society, was held at Washington yesterday. President FILLMORE was on the platform. The attendance of delegates from auxiliary societies was unusually large. The Annual Address was delivered by Hon. EDWARD EVERETT. It is published in full in our columns this morning. Its summary of the history and organization of the Republic of Liberia, is interesting, and its suggestions with reference to the Slave Trade, will attract attention. It appears from the report of the Society, that six vessels were sent to Liberia during the year, carrying 600 persons, of who 403 were free born, 225 were emancipated, and 38 purchased their freedom, or their friends for them.

NYT - Apr 28, 1853 p. 6
FOR LIBERIA.--The ship Banshee sailed from Baltimore for Liberia on Monday, conveying 117 emigrants. This vessel was chartered by the Chesapeake and Liberia Trading Company for the voyage out, and will be discharged at Cape Palmas. From Baltimore, the Banshee will proceed to Hampton Roads, where she received an additional 110 emigrants, of whom 56 are from North Carolina, and 54 are from Virginia, sent out by the American Colonization Society. Of those sent out from Baltimore, 52 are from Maryland, forwarded by the State Society ; 37 from Virginia, 6 from Massachusetts, 6 from Indiana, 3 from Pennsylvania, 2 from Ohio, and 1 from New-York. The ship has a considerable amount of freight, on account of the several missionary societies. The Sun says:-
"The emigrants from this port are all in excellent health, and we understand that among them are men of much promise to the colony. Among them is THOMAS FULLER, who it will be remembered, a year or two since, visited Liberia, at the insistance of a colored Colonization Society in Cambridge, Dorchester Co., Md., and, upon his return, published a most favorable and interesting report of his observations. He now goes back, to use his own words, 'to spend the balance of his days in assisting to build up the interests of Liberia—the home, the only true home of the colored man.' "

NYT - May 12, 1853 p. 1
The bark Shirley, Capt. SMITH, arrived at Baltimore on Wednesday from Liberia. Bishop SCOTT, of the M. E. Church, came passenger, after a brief sojourn in the new Republic. Dates are brought down to the 2d of March.
Messrs. Hyde, Hodge & Co., of London, contractors with Her Britannic Majesty's Government to furnish laborers from the African Coast, for the West Indies, having sent some of their ships to the Coast of the Republic, offering an advance of ten dollars for every person who may be induced to emigrate, President ROBERTS has issued a proclamation requiring all vessels carrying, or intending to carry away emigrants on board, to obtain passports — in order that an opportunity may be presented to the Government to ascertain whether the emigration be free or constrained.
The emigrants are getting on through their acclaimation finely. Those of the Oriole, from New-York. excepting a very few cases, had but a very slight attack, and they are now well, and attending to their [s]everal occupations. President Roberts, while in England, was kindly furnished with a good supply of copies of the Bible for the use of the Sabbath schools in Liberia. Five hundred dollars have been paid for town lots containing a quarter of an acre.
President Roberts left Monrovia of the 1st of March, with 200 armed men, under Gen. LEWIS, for Little Cape Mount, to arrest BOOMBO, a Chief, who has for a long time been carrying on a predatory war in that Territory. The trade of Monrovia is rapidly increasing, and during the last three months about $60,000 worth of merchandize has been sold. It is estimated that, to meet the trade of the city for the next ten months, nearly half a million of dollars worth of merchandize will be required. A large number of new brick buildings are going up.

NYT - Oct 21, 1854 p. 3
ARRIVALS FROM LIBERIA:—The following passengers have arrived at this port from Liberia by the bark Estelle, Captain Hull.
Miss Freeman (white) Evangelical Missionary ; Mrs. Bancroft (col), Mrs. Cassell (col) wife of Judge Cassell, Mr. L. Stryker, Monrovia, who has been four years in Liberia and lost ten thousand dollars worth of merchandize by the wreck of the Harp ; this vessel tripped her anchors, which were too light, off the coast of Africa stranded and became a total wreck ; Mr. A.F. Johns (col), Mr. Thomas (col) one of the owners of the Harp ; Mr. Starks (col), Mr. Phister (col), Mr. A. Miller, Ohio ; the three latter about to prosecute their studies for the ministry ; and midshipman F.E. Sheppard of the US ship Dale.
The Estelle will sail for Liberia on the 23rd or 24th instant, with about forty or fifty passengers, amongst whom seven are clergymen. On November 1st, two hundred liberated slaves will depart from Baltimore in a vessel chartered for deportation, and on 15th December, a similar number, if not more, will leave from Savannah for the same destination.

January 1855
The ship Euphrasia sailed November 3rd, [believe from Baltimore] with many emigrants from Fauquier County, Va. “Lately emancipated by the H_____’s of that place.” page 3

The General Pierce is to sail from Savannah with emigrants on December 30th. About 100 emigrants were expected to sail on her coming mostly from Georgia and Tennessee. “They were to go in the Sophia Walker last spring, but were disappointed in consequence of the great numbers on board that vessel.” page 5

“One family from Maryland, too, will go in the Gen. Pierce, Thomas Campbell, from Frederick County, the father of Cornelius Campbell whose letter we publish in our present number. Having good reports from his son, the father was induced to break up, although advanced in years, and take the younger part of his family to a country that promises most for their future good. He got ready to embark in the Sophia Walker in April, but as that vessel would not visit Cape Palmas he was induced, for consideration, to postpone his departure till the Fall Expedition.” page 6

“From a German paper I learn that on the 27th of September a large crowd assembled at the small Hanoverian town of Harburg, opposite the city of Hamburg, in Germany, to witness the launch of the brig Candace, a missionary ship, built for the sole and express purpose of conveying christain teachers to the eastern coast of Africa....The beautiful figure-head of Candace is the work of a sculptor who gave his labor for nothing, and collected money to defray all the other expenses of his work....The ship was expected to leave Hamburg on the 23rd of October with a company of missionaries who have chosen Eastern Africa as the district of their christian labours.” page 17-18

“Nov. 13th, 1854 —By the English Mail Steamer I write to acquaint you of the present state of the last company of emigrants, per Sophia Walker, many of whom are making preparations for the clearing of their lands and the erection of their buildings....About eighty-eight were landed here under my charge, and with the exception of the three children, I wrote you, by the return of the Sophia Walker, that died three or four days after their landing–they having the diarrhea very bad when landed–none of the number under my charge have died.” page 18

“The following letters, addressed to Col. R.E. Lee of the U.S. Army, and Mrs. Lee, were sent to us with permission to insert them in the Repository. The writers of these letters and their four children were emancipated by Col. Lee, and emigrated to Liberia in the ship Banshee, which sailed from Baltimore in November, 1853....It is with much pleasure, that I take my pen in hand to acknowledge the receipt of your two letters, which gave both Rosabella and myself great comfort to hear from you all.” [Letter signed by William C. Burke] page 19

NYT - Apr 25, 1856 p. 1
THE COLONIZATION SHIP:—The death of the late Gov. STEVENS, of this State, has recently been announced, as also his magnificent bequest of $86,000 to the American Colonization Society for the purpose of procuring a ship to run regularly between this country and Liberia. The Trustees are J. H. B. LATRORE, Esq., Dr. JAMES HALL and Hon. ELISHA WHITTLESEY. They have already contracted with Messrs. ABRAHAM & ASHCRAFT, or this city, for a ship of 800 tons burden. She will be a medium-built ship, 145 feet in length, with 33 feet beam and 20 foot depth of hold. They are now engaged in making the model, and the ship will be speedily commenced. It is expected she will be completed in the fall. —Baltimore Sun

NYT - Jun 30, 1856 p. 1
Rev. JOHN SEYS, a special agent of the Colonization Society, has sailed from Savannah for Liberia, in the ship Elvira Owen. He goes out charged with the commission of examining the interior of the country, with a view of establishing receptacles for emigrants in the higher regions, back of Monrovia, where the fevers are not prevalent, and where the new-comers may struggle with little discomfort against the tribulations of acclimation.
The following interesting analysis of the passenger list of the Elvira Owen is furnished by the Savannah papers. It will be observed that two sets of colored of emigrants are liberated slaves, who have received handsome bequests from their former masters.
"Of the emigrants, 2 were from Litchfield, Ct. ; 4 from Maryland, free ; 5 from Virginia, liberated by the will of Mr. Noel ; 43 from Virginia, liberated by the will of Mr. Kelly, and by him furnished with $15,000 ; 9 from Norfolk, Va., free ; 12 from Halifax, N.C., liberated by the will of Mr. Simmons ; 29 from Kentucky, liberated by the will of Mr. Graves, and by him furnished with $14,800 ; 38 from Kentucky, liberated by sundry persons ; 7 from Missouri, liberated by Mr. Fullerson ; 7 from Gallatin, Tenn., liberated by Mr. Barr ; 2 from Tuscaloosa, Ala., liberated by the will of Lincoln Clark ; 5 from Augusta, Ga., liberated by the will of Mr. Martin ; 2 from Columbus, Ga., free ; 34 from Winchester, Tenn., liberated by Mrs. Sharp ; 14 from Columbus, Miss., liberated by Mrs. Holderness ; 1 from Adairsville, Ga., bought himself ; 4 from Augusta, Ga., free ; 2 from Augusta, Ga, liberated by Mrs. Bryson ; 3 from Augusta, Ga, liberated by Mrs. Marks ; 19 from Rocky Plains, Ga, liberated by David Floyd ; 1 from Columbia, Tenn., liberated by Judge Kennedy ; 41 from Gwinnett County, Ga., liberated by the will of Geo. M. Watters ; 3 from Savannah, Ga. ; 1 from Raleigh, N.C. ; and two citizens of Liberia who had come to this country on business."

NYT - Sep 26, 1856 p. 2
Intelligence has been received at the office of the American Colonization Society, from Rev. JOHN SEYS, announcing the arrival at that port of the emigrant ship Elvira Owen, after a passage of fifty days. Several deaths had occurred in consequence of mensles, diarrhoea, and other diseases, but three hundred emigrants had arrived in safety. The frames of two large receptacles went out in this ship, with ample stores and supplies for the comfort of the emigrants, placed under the special care of Mr. Seys, who was for many years at the head of the Methodist Mission in Liberia.

NYT - May 3, 1859 p. 2
ARRIVAL FROM LIBERIA:—The Baltimore Sun of Saturday says: "The colonization ship Mary Caroline Stevens which sailed from Monrovia for this port on the 24th of February, is now in the bay. She was 64 days between the ports, and fears were expressed for her safety. She brings two cabin passengers and thirteen in the steerage. The M.C. Stevens was to have sailed on the 1st May on her return, but in consequence of her long passage, the time of sailing will be postponed some ten days. Among the immigrants going out in her are fifty liberated slaves, formerly belonging to the estate of the late John McDonogh, of New-Orleans, about one hundred others liberated to immigrate, thirty from Pennsylvania and forty from New-York.

NYT - Nov 22, 1867 p. 3
Among the passengers in the ship Golconda, from Charleston, S. C., for Liberia, were Rev. RALPH R. GURLEY and his son McDONALD. Dr. Gurley has been connected with the American Colonization Society for many years, and is at present in Honorary Secretary. His health has been failing of late years and that of his son is quite delicate. In the hopes of improving their health, they make this voyage, and Dr. Gurley, if able to do so, proposes to look after the interests of the Society while absent. They expect to return in about five months. The Golconda (which makes two trips per year under the auspices of the Society) takes out on this trip, 312 emigrants, one family of whom are from Pennsylvania, and the remainder from Tennessee, Georgia and South Carolina. There are 650 applications for passage next Spring, but the Society have not the means to send that number ; however, efforts will be made to accomodate them. Of those who left Georgia, the Columbus Sun says:-
"Some three hundred and fifty negroes left yesterday, via a special train of eight box cars. We are informed that nineteen of them are from one plantation. A large number of the freedmen assembled at the depot to see them. A few very foolish ones who think that two drums, one fife and a United States flag, are indispensable to everything, be it a funeral or a ball, provided with these implements, proceeded to the place of departure and rub-a-dubbed considerably. There was a good deal of praying, talking and crying among squads of the emigrants and their friends, but no general performance occurred. These freedmen go out under the auspices of the American Colonization Society. The Government pays the expense of transportation. Considerable baggage was carried. Over half of those who left were women and adults."


Web Sites On This Topic

African-American Colonization      http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam002.html

African-American Heritage      http://www.visitworcester.org/african-american/free_blacks.html

NARA      http://www.archives.gov/records_of_congress/senate_guide/chapter_07_1825_1946.html

Documenting the American South      http://docsouth.unc.edu/nc/johnson/chapter19.html

Maryland Historical Society      http://www.mdhs.org/library/Mss/ms000571.html

Liberian Missions      http://archives.imb.org/FAQ/Liberia%201847-1855.pdf

2003 map of Liberia in PDF format      http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/liberia.pdf

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