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SHIP DESCRIPTIONS - A

A Descriptions AA to AQ | AR to AV

Please note that ships often changed hands and names many times. If an entry is just the name of the vessel followed by a "see..." then that vessel was renamed and you will find the full history under the redirected name.

ARABIA 1852
2402 gross tons, length 284.2ft x beam 41ft, clipper bows, two funnels, two masts, rigged for sail, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, speed 12 knots. Accommodation for 180-1st class passengers. Built by R. Steele & Co, Greenock (engines by Robert Napier, Glasgow), launched for Cunard on 21.6.1852. Maiden voyage 1.1.1853 Liverpool - New York. 21.1.1854 first voyage Liverpool - Halifax - Boston. 1854 became Crimea War transport. 19.1.1856 resumed Liverpool - Halifax - Boston. Subsequent sailings to New York of Boston. 3.9.1864 last Liverpool - Halifax - Boston sailing. 1864 sold and converted to sail, 1868 wrecked near Halifax NS.

ARABIA / BARCELONA / ANCONA 1897
Built in 1896 by Harland & Wolff, Belfast as the ARABIA for the Hamburg America Line, her details were - 5,446 gross tons, length 398.3ft x beam 49ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw and a speed of 13 knots. There was capacity for 20-1st and 1,100-3rd class passengers. Launched on 21st Nov.1896, she sailed on her maiden voyage from Hamburg for Boston, Philadelphia and Baltimore on 17th Mar.1897. On 8th May1897 she commenced the first of three Hamburg -Quebec -Montreal sailings and subsequently sailed between Hamburg and New York or Philadelphia. She started her last Hamburg - New York voyage on 12th May1899 and was then sold to Sloman of Hamburg and renamed BARCELONA. She resumed Hamburg - New York sailings for her new owners on 5th Jul.1899, and in May 1903 was chartered back to Hamburg America Line. They eventually repurchased her from Sloman in 1907 and she continued North Atlantic voyages until 16th May1914 when she started her last Hamburg - Baltimore sailing. In June 1914 she started her first New York to the Mediterranean crossing, on route to the Black Sea and was seized by Italy in 1915. Renamed ANCONA, and used by Italian owners until 1924 when she was scrapped. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.403]

ARABIC 1881 see ASIATIC 1881

ARABIC 1902
She was a 15,801 gross ton ship, length 600.7ft x beam 65.5ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 16 knots. Laid down by Harland and Wolff, Belfast as the MINNEWASKA for the Atlantic Transport Line. She was taken over by White Star Line while building and was launched as the ARABIC on 18th Dec.1902. Her maiden voyage started on 26th June 1903 when she left Liverpool for New York. On 14th Apr.1905 she commenced her first Liverpool - Boston voyage and on 20th June 1907 resumed Liverpool - New York sailings. She returned to the Liverpool - Boston route on 1st Aug.1911 and in 1913 her 1st class accommodation was reclassified as 2nd class. Resumed Liverpool - New York voyages on 23rd Dec.1914 and on 19th Aug.1915 was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U.24, while off the Old Head of Kinsale, Ireland with the loss of 44 lives.[North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.761-2]

ARABIC 1920 see BERLIN 1908

ARAGO 1855
2,240 gross tons, length 295ft x beam 40ft, clipper bows, wooden hull, two funnels, two masts, side paddle wheel propulsion, speed 12 knots, accommodation for 350 passengers. Built by A. Westervelt & Sons, New York (engines by Novelty iron Works, New York) for the New York and Havre Steam Navigation Co, she was launched on 27th Jan.1855 and left New York on 2nd Jun.1855 on her maiden voyage to Southampton and Havre. Her last Havre - Southampton - New York crossing started 12th Dec.1861 before she was chartered to the U.S. War Department. Returned to her owners, she resumed Atlantic voyages on 25th Nov.1865 when she left New York for Falmouth and Havre. On 30th Oct.1867 she commenced her last Havre - Falmouth - New York sailing and on 5th Sep.1868 started New York - Bremen voyages under charter to Ruger's American Line. A second voyage on this route started in Feb.1869 and she was then sold to Peru. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.1,p.216 by N.R.P.Bonsor]

ARAGUAYA / KRALJICA MARIJA / SAVOIE 1906
The ARAGUAYA was built by Workman Clark & Co, Belfast in 1906 for Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. She was a 10,537 gross ton ship, length 515.2ft x beam 61.3ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 15 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 300-1st, 100-2nd and 800-3rd class. Launched by the Countess of Aberdeen on 5th Jun.1906, she sailed from Southampton on 12th Oct. on her maiden voyage to Brazil, Montevideo and Buenos Aires where she loaded frozen meat. Apart from two Kiel cruises in 1912, she continued on this service until 1917 when she was fitted as a hospital ship. After one voyage to Halifax and one to Capetown, she was handed over to the Canadian Government as a Canadian Military Hospital Ship and between then and 1920 made 19 voyages between the UK and Canada and transported 15,000 patients. In 1920 she was handed back to RMSP Co, refitted and on 29th Oct.1920 resumed Southampton - Buenos Aires voyages. On 19th dec.1921 she commenced her first Hamburg - Southampton - New York sailing and made 6 round voyages on this route. In 1926 she was refitted as a cruise ship with accommodation for 365-1st class passengers, but with the advent of the slump in 1930, was sold to Jugoslavenska Lloyd (Yugoslav Lloyd) and renamed KRALJICA MARIJA (Queen Maria). She was mainly employed on Black Sea and Mediterranean cruises until 1940 when she went to the French Line and was renamed SAVOIE. Used again on the South America route, she was sunk near Casablanca on 8th Nov.1942 while taking part in the American landings in North Africa.[South American Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor] [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.5, Royal Mail & Nelson Line] [Steamers of the Past by J.H.Isherwood, Sea Breezes magazine, Oct.1961]

ARAWA / COLON / LAKE MEGANTIC / PORT HENDERSON / ANAPO / PORTO SAID 1884
ARAWA was built for Shaw, Saville & Albion by Wm.Denny of Dumbarton in 1884. She was a 5026 gross ton vessel, with clipper stem, two funnels and four masts,length 439.6ft x beam 46.3ft, single screw and a speed of 13 knots. To reduce fuel consumption on the UK - Australia run, she was rigged for sails, being square rigged on the fore and mainmasts and fore & aft rigged on the other two. As originally built, she carried 95-1st class, 52-2nd class and 200 emigrants. She could also accommodate a further 470 emigrants in a cargo tween deck with portable bulkheads. She commenced service London - Australia - New Zealand in 1884 and stayed in this service until 1893 when she was chartered to James Huddart and was put onto the Australia - Vancouver run. In July 1895, she was taken over by the Union SS Co. of New Zealand and ran for one voyage between Australia and San Francisco. Late in 1895, she was chartered to the Spanish government who renamed her COLON and used her as a transport in the Spanish - American war. Returned to her owners she was renamed ARAWA again and was put up for sale and purchased by Elder Dempster & Co. but immediately taken over by the British government and used as a transport in the Boer War. Returned to her owners in 1900, she was put onto the Beaver Line service from Liverpool to Halifax and St John NB [commencing 10/3/1900] and renamed LAKE MEGANTIC. She underwent considerable change under Beaver Line ownership and was rebuilt with new boilers, mainmast and all yards and sailing rigging removed, new funnels and accommodation provided for 120-1st, 180-2nd and 700-3rd class passengers. On 4/2/1903 she left Liverpool on her last voyage to St John NB. In 1904 there was a plan to use her as an exhibition ship, but this fell through and in 1905 she was transferred to Elder Dempster's Imperial Direct West India Mail Line and renamed PORT HENDERSON. In 1912 she was sold to Italy and renamed ANAPO and in 1913 resold to other Italian buyers and renamed PORTO SAID. In Dec.1915 she was torpedoed and sunk by a German submarine off Cyrenaica. [J.H.Isherwood - Sea Breezes, May 1950] [Posted to the Emigration-Ships Mailing List by Ted Finch]

ARAWA / KONIGSTEIN / GANDIA 1907
The ARAWA was built by Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson, Wallsend-on-Tyne in 1907 for Shaw Savill & Albion Co Ltd and was constructed specially for the frozen meat trade and with passenger accommodation for 220 in three classes. She was a 9,372 gross ton ship, length 460ft x beam 60ft, twin screw with a speed of 14 knots. She sailed on her maiden voyage from London to Cape Town and Wellington on 22nd August 1907. In 1909 she lost her starboard propellor after leaving Cape Town and proceeded to Wellington at reduced speed on the remaining screw. Between 1914-15 she was used as a troopship, and resumed service on 3rd May 1921 sailing from London via Panama to Wellington. In 1926 she was converted to a cabin class ship and commenced her last voyage from Southampton on 25th May 1928. She was then sold to Arnold Bernstein of Germany and renamed KONIGSTEIN. In 1939 she was sold to Cie Maritime Belge and renamed GANDIA and on 22nd Jan.1942 was torpedoed and sunk in mid Atlantic, NW of the Azores by the German submarine U.135. [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.10, Shaw, Savill & Albion]

ARCADIA 1896
The ARCADIA was the first of two ships with this name owned by Hamburg America Line. She was built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast in 1896 and her details were - 5,442 gross tons, length 400ft x beam 49ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw and a speed of 13 knots. There was accommodation for 20-1st and 1,100-3rd class passengers. Launched on 8/10/1896, she left Hamburg on her maiden voyage to Montreal in April 1897. On 16/5/1897 she stranded near Cape Ray, Newfoundland on the homeward voyage, but was refloated and returned to Quebec for temporary repairs and then proceeded to Belfast for reconditioning by her builders. On 3/11/1897 she sailed from Belfast to New York and Hamburg and on 15/12/1897 commenced her first voyage Hamburg - Portland - Boston. On 25/7/1914 she left Hamburg on her last voyage to Baltimore and took refuge in the USA due to the outbreak of the Great War. In April 1917 she was seized at Newport News by US authorities and became the US government ship ARCADIA. She was scrapped in 1926. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.402]

ARCADIAN 1922 see ASTURIAS 1907

ARCHIMEDE / CAIRO 1882
2,839 gross tons, length 350.1ft x beam 40ft, clipper bows, one funnel, three masts, iron hull, single screw, speed 12 knots, accommodation for 20-1st, 56-2nd and 550-3rd class passengers. Built by A. Stephen & Sons, Glasgow, she was launched for Navigazione Generale Italia on 22nd Nov.1881 and started her maiden voyage on 7th Feb.1882 when she left Catania for Palermo and New York. On 15th Jun.1888 she started her first Naples - Cadiz - Montevideo - Buenos Aires sailing and on 3rd Mar.1899 started her first Genoa - Naples - New York voyage. In 1903 she was renamed CAIRO and transferred to the Egypt service and on 5th Mar.1905 was wrecked near Alexandria [South Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor]

ARCTIC 1850
The ARCTIC was built in 1850 by Wm H. Brown, New York (engines by Novelty Iron Works, New York) for the Collins Line of New York. She was a 2,856 gross ton ship, length 285ft x beam 45.9ft, one funnel, three masts, wooden construction, paddle wheel propulsion and a speed of 12 knots. There was accommodation for 200-1st class passengers. Launched on 28/1/1850, she left New York on her maiden voyage to Liverpool on 27/10/1850. In 1851, accommodation for 80-2nd class passengers was added and she made a record passage in 1852 (7/2-17/2) from New York to Liverpool. In 1853, her mizzen (third) mast was removed and on 27/9/1854 she was sunk in collision with the French steamship VESTA near Cape Race with the loss of between 285 and 351 lives. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.207]

ARCTURUS 1859 see VICTOR EMANUEL 1856

ARCTURUS 1899
was a 2,155 ton ship, built by Gourlay Bros, Dundee in 1899. She belonged to the Finland Steamship Co (Suomen Hoyrylaiva Osakeyhtio). They ran passenger services between Hanko and Hull, and later between Turku and Hull. From Hull there was a direct rail link to Liverpool. She collided with and sank the OBERON of the same company in fog in 1930 with the loss of 40 lives.She lasted until 1957 when she was scrapped in Germany.

ARDEOLA 1904
Official No.118108 1,385 gross tons, length 260ft x beam 34.2ft, one funnel, three masts, single screw, speed 12 knots, passenger / cargo ship built 1904 by Caledon Shipbuilding Co, Dundee for Yeoward Line, Liverpool. 1912 sold to St. Lawrence Shipping Co., Montreal renamed MORWENNA. 26th May 1915 captured, torpedoed and sunk by U-Boat U.41 while 72 miles S x E from Fastnet on voyage Cardiff to Sydney, Nova Scotia.

ARDEOLA 1912
O.N.131461 3,140 g.t., 310.2ft x 44.2ft, one funnel, three masts, single screw, speed 12 knots, passenger / cargo ship built 1912 by Caledon Shipbuilding Co, Dundee for Yeoward Line, Liverpool. 9th Nov.1942 captured off Bizerta by Vichy French torpedo boats, seized by Germans and handed to Italy for operation. 1943 renamed ADERNO for Italian Government. 23rd July 1943 torpedoed and sunk by HMS TORBAY while 2 miles off Civitavecchia.

ARDMORE 1909
Passenger / Cargo ship, 1,304 gross tons, length 260.1ft x beam 36ft, speed 17 knots. Built 1909 by Caledon Shipbuilding & Engineering Co., Dundee for the City of Cork Steam Packet Co., Cork. On 13th Nov.1917 she was torpedoed and sunk by U.95 while 13 miles WSW from Coningbeg Light Vessel on voyage London - Cork with general cargo

ARETHUSA / PEKING On 31/10/1974, the ARETHUSA (ex-PEKING) was sold to the J.Aron Charitable Foundation, New York. Between 5-22/7/1975 she was towed to New York and is now at the South Street Seaport Museum under her original name of PEKING You can find a lot more info on this ship at -
http://pc-78-120.udac.se:8001/WWW/Nautica/Ships/Fourmast_ships/Peking(1911) .html or at the South Street Museum website (there is a link to this at the above URL).

ARGENTINA / TINOS 1872
2,114 gross tons, length 91.3m x 11.0m, one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 10 knots, accommodation for 30-1st and 200-steerage class passengers. Launched by C. Mitchell & Co, Newcastle on 30th Dec.1872 for Hamburg South America Line and made her maiden voyage from Hamburg to Brazil in 1873. 31st Aug.1894 sold to F. Laeisz (Deutsche Levante Line, managers), Hamburg and renamed TINOS. 20th Oct.1900 transferred to Deutsche Levant Line, Hamburg. 1909 scrapped. [The Hamburg South America Line by J. Cooper, A. Kludas and J. Pein, ISBN 0-905617-50-9 contains a photo of the ship as the TINOS]

ARGENTINA 1918/1920
5,745 gross tons, length 111.4m x beam 15.6m, one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 10 knots, accommodation for 585-steerage class passengers, crew of 63. 13.04.1918 launched by G. Seebeck, Geestemunde as the JACUHY for the Hamburg South America Line. Fitting out proceeded slowly to avoid requisition by the Allied Shipping Commission and palns were extensively altered to include steerage passenger accommodation. Delivered to the company on 16.12.1920 as the ARGENTINA, she sailed from Hamburg on her maiden voyage to the River Plate on 30.2.1920. In 1928 her passenger accommodation was removed and in 1932 she was sold to Blohm & Voss for scrapping at Hamburg. [The Hamburg South America Line by Arnold Kludas, ISBN 0-905617-50-9 contains excellent photo of the ship]

ARGO 1913 see ARGONAUT 1876

ARGONAUT / ELVIRA / ARGO 1876 I don't have a record of her official number, but J.Carmichael & Co had an ARGONAUT built by Barclay Curle, Glasgow in 1876 which sailed between London and Sydney at this time. She was a three masted, full rigged ship and was used in the wool trade, 1488 tons, length 254.4ft x beam 38.6ft x depth 23.2ft and iron construction.  Her best run from Sydney to London was in 77 days in 1895. I haven't much info on this ship, but she later became the Portuguese ELVIRA and was used on the Lisbon - Rio de Janeiro - New Orleans - Lisbon service. In 1913 she was renamed ARGO, but I have nothing on her after 1914.

ARGYLLSHIRE / CLAN URQUHART 1911
9,564 g.t., 526ft x 61.4ft, twin screw, speed 14 knots, accommodation for 130-1st and 600-tween deck passengers. Launched on 27th Feb.1911 by John Brown & Co., Clydebank for Scottish Shire Line (Turnbull, Martin & Co.) for a contract service to the Government of Victoria and operated Liverpool - Cape Town - Sydney - Brisbane. 1914 taken over as a troopship by the Australian Government. 1917 taken over with the company by the Clan Line and on Feb.2nd was hit by a torpedo off Start Point but managed to reach Falmouth where she was repaired. 1926 laid up at Southampton and then at Gareloch. 1927 made two sailings to Australia. 1933 transferred to Clan Line renamed CLAN URQUHART. 1936 sold for scrapping at Briton Ferry. 1937 caught fire during demolition, scuttled and scrapped where she lay. [Merchant Fleets, vol.33 by Duncan Haws]

ARIOSTO / LUIS VIVES 1889
The ARIOSTO was a 2,376 gross ton ship, length 300.4ft x beam 38ft, one funnel, two masts, a speed of 14.5 knots, and with accommodation for 53-1st, 24-2nd and 1,000-emigrant class passengers. Launched by Earle's Shipbuilding & Engineering Co, Hull on 10th Dec.1889 for the Wilson Line of Hull (Thos Wilson, Sons & Co). She made her maiden voyage from Hull to Gothenburg in March 1890 and continued Scandinavian and Baltic voyages until June 1910 when she was sold to La Roda Hermanos, Valencia and renamed LUIS VIVES. In 1913 she was sold to Cia Valenciana de Vapores Correos de Africa, Valencia and on 11th Sep.1916 was captured and sunk with bombs by the German submarine UB.18 in position 49.23N 06.26W, thirty miles south of Bishop Rock while on passage from Valencia to Liverpool with a cargo of fruit and vegetables. When built she was the largest North Sea passenger ship on regular service and was fitted with refrigerating machinery and electric light throughout. [Wilson Line by John Harrower]

ARISTIDES 1876
1,721 gross tons, length 260ft x beam 39.4ft, iron hull, three masted, full rigged ship. Built in 1876 by W. Hood & Co, Aberdeen as a passenger clipper for the Aberdeen Line to compete with the steamers which were then entering the Australia trade and capable of reaching Sydney in 50 days, compared with a minimum 70-75 days under sail. She was the flagship of the Aberdeen Line as well as being the largest sailing ship they ever had built for them. Her maiden voyage in 1877 took 69 days to Melbourne and 81 days on the return voyage to London and between 1877-1886 her average outbound passage time under Captain Kemball was 78 days. Between 1889-1903 she transferred to the London - Sydney service (85 days) and on 25th May 1903 she was posted missing in the Pacific after 27 years service, having sailed with a cargo of nitrate from Caleta Buena for San Francisco. All 27 crew were lost (there were no passengers). [Merchant Fleets, vol.17 by Duncan Haws]

ARIZONA / HANCOCK 1879
The ARIZONA was a 5,147 gross ton ship, length 450.2ft x beam 45.4ft, two funnels, four masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 15  knots. There was accommodation for 140-1st, 70-intermediate, 140-3rd and 1,000-steerage class passengers. Built by John Elder & Co, Glasgow, she was launched for the Guion Line of Liverpool on 10th Mar.1879. Her maiden voyage started on 31st May 1879 when she left Liverpool for Queenstown (Cobh) and New York. In July 1879 she made a record eastbound passage between Sandy Hook and Queenstown of 7days 8hrs 11mins at an average speed of 15.96 knots. On 7th Nov.1879 she was in collision with an iceberg and proceeded to St.John's NF for temporary repairs, and started her last Liverpool - Queenstown - New York voyage on 12th May 1894. Laid up in Gareloch until 1898 when she was rebuilt to 5,305 gross tons, one funnel, yards and rigging removed, fitted with triple-expansion engines and accommodation for 40-1st and 1,000-3rd class passengers. Placed on the San Francisco - Japan - China service until 1898 when she went to the US Government and was renamed HANCOCK. Between 1903-1914 she was used as a receiving ship at Brooklyn Navy Yard. From 1917-1918 made North Atlantic voyages as a troopship and was then laid up at Philadelphia Navy Yard. She was scrapped in 1926.[North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.710]

ARKADIA 1958 see MONARCH OF BERMUDA 1931

ARMADALE CASTLE 1903
12,973 gross tons, length 570.1ft x beam 64.3ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw, speed 17 knots, accommodation for 336-1st, 174-2nd and 244-3rd class passengers. Crew 250. Launched by Fairfield Eng. & Shipbuilding Co, Glasgow on 11th Aug.1901 for Union-Castle Mail SS Co, she started her maiden voyage on 5th Dec. on the Southampton - Capetown service.In Aug.1914 she was taken over by the Admiralty and converted to an Armed Merchant Cruiser and employed in the 10th Cruiser Squadron, mostly in the North Sea. 1919 returned to her owners and resumed service. 1934 2nd class accommodation removed. 1935 laid up at Netley in reserve. 1936 made one South Africa voyage and then scrapped at Blyth by Hughes Bolckow Ltd. [Merchant Fleets vol.18 by Duncan Haws]

ARMENIA 1896
The ARMENIA was a 5,471 gross ton cargo/passenger ship, length 390ft x beam 53ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw and a speed of 14 knots. Accommodation for 20-1st and 1,100-3rd class passengers. Built by Palmer & Co, Hebburn-on-Tyne in 1896 for the Hamburg America Line, she sailed between Hamburg, Boston and New York. In 1899/1900 she made four Stettin - New York sailings and made her last voyage from Hamburg to Baltimore in June 1914. Seized by the USA in Apr.1917, she was used by the US Government and was scrapped in 1924.[Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.4][North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1]

AROSA KULM / CANTIGNY / AMERICAN BANKER / VILLE D'ANVERS / CITY OF ATHENS / PROTEUS 1919
The AROSA KULM was built in 1919 by the American International Shipbuilding Corporation, Hog Island, Penn. She was a 7,430 gross ton ship, length overall 448ft x beam 58.2ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw and a speed of 17 knots. Originally launched on 27 Oct. 1919 as the US Army Transport CANTIGNY, she went to the American Merchant Line in 1924 and was renamed AMERICAN BANKER with accommodation for 12 tourist class passengers. On 24 April 1924 she commenced her first voyage from New York to London and in 1926 her accommodation was altered to carry 80 tourist passengers. In 1931 she went to the United States Line and on 6 Nov. 1931 started her first sailing from New York to Plymouth and London. On 8 Oct. 1939 she commenced her last round voyage New York - London (dep 25 Oct.) - New York (arr 4 Nov.) . In 1940 she went to the French company, Societe Maritime Anversoise who renamed her VILLE D'ANVERS and on 9 March 1940 she started her first voyage from New York to Liverpool. In 1945 she went back to the United States Line and in 1946 went to the Isbrandsten Line. Later the same year she was sold to the Compania de Vapores Mediterranea, Honduras, her accommodation altered to carry 200 single class passengers and renamed CITY OF ATHENS but was chartered to the Stevenson Line of Honduras and sailed from New York to Istanbul on 11 Nov. 1946. She made two more voyages on this service on 23 Jan. 1947 and 3 April 1947 and on 30 May 1947 commenced her 4th voyage for this company when she sailed from New York for Genoa, Piraeus, and Baltimore (arr 12 July). On 12 August 1947 she was sold by auction at Baltimore and was bought by the Panamian Lines, renamed PROTEUS and rebuilt from Oct'47-Apr'48 at Genoa. She then became a 8,929 ton ship with accommodation for 965 single class passengers, and from May 1948-July 1951 she ran for the Panamanian Lines and later Compania de Operaziones Maritima, Italy. During this period she made 4 round voyages to Australia, one voyage Italy - Brazil, one Italy - Central America, 5 from Italy - South America, 2 Gdynia - Haifa, and 3 Italy - Australia. In August 1951 she went to Compania Internacional Transportadora (Arosa Line) of Panama and made one round voyage from Marseilles to Indochina and Italy before being chartered to the Incres Line of Panama. She commenced her first voyage for this company from Havre to Plymouth and St John NB on 10/12/1951 and started her last run on 10 dec. 1951 from Havre to Plymouth, St John NB and Bremen(arr 4 Jan. 1952). She then went back to the Arosa Line and was renamed AROSA KULM. On 18/3/1952 she commenced her first voyage from Bremen to Zeebrugge, Southampton and Halifax and in April 1952 made her first sailing from Bremen to Quebec and Montreal. Her final voyage commenced on 5 Sept. 1958 when she sailed from New York for Bremen and on 6 Dec. 1958 she was arrested for debt at Plymouth. She arrived at Bruges on 7 May 1959 and was scrapped. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.4,p.1549] There is a picture of this vessel in North Atlantic Seaway, vol.4, p.1713.

AROSA SUN / FELIX ROUSSEL 1929
The AROSA SUN was built by Ateliers & Chantiers de la Loire, St Nazaire, France as the FELIX ROUSSEL for the French company, Messageries Maritimes. Her details when built were - 16,774 gross tons, length 545ft, beam 68.3ft, two square funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 15 knots. She had accommodation for 196-1st, 110-2nd and 89-3rd class passengers. She was launched on 17/12/1929 and left Marseilles on her maiden voyage to the Suez Canal, Singapore, Saigon, Shanghai and Yokohama on 26/2/1931. In 1935, she was lengthened and her tonnage increased to 17,080 tons. She remained on the Far East service until 1940 when she came under the Free French flag and was used as a troop transport, managed by the Bibby Line. In 1942 she sustained some damage when attacked at Singapore by Japanese aircraft and on 15/4/1946 was returned to Messageries Maritimes at Durban. From June 1948 to Sept.1950, she was refitted at Dunkirk and her two square funnels were reduced to one oval one. On 22/2/1955 she commenced her last voyage to the Far East and was then sold to the Arosa Line of Panama who renamed her AROSA SUN. She was rebuilt to become 20,126 gross tons, length overall 597ft, beam 68.3ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 18 knots. There was accommodation for 60-1st and 862-tourist class passengers. On 14/7/1955 she commenced her first voyage from Trieste to Palermo, Naples, Lisbon and New York(arr. 1/8/1955), Quebec, Havre, Southampton and Bremen. On 20/8/1955 she started her first voyage from Bremen - Southampton - Havre - Quebec. On 15/3/1958 she sustained an engine explosion off the Columbian coast with the loss of 2 lives, was towed to Cristobal, then repaired at Baltimore and on 12/5/1958 resumed service New York - Bremen. On 13/9/1958 she commenced her last voyage Bremen - Quebec - Montreal - Quebec - Plymouth - Havre - Bremen and in December of that year was arrested for debt at Bremen. In 1960 she became a floating hostel for steel workers at Ymuiden, Holland and on 22/3/1974 left in tow for Bilbao, where she was scrapped. [North Atlantic Seaway, by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.4,p.1716] [Sea Breezes Magazine, June 1955]

ARTIFEX 1944 see AURANIA 1924

ARUNDEL CASTLE / BIRMA / MITAWA (MITAU) / JOZEF PILSUDSKI / WILBO 1894
4595 gross tons, length 415ft x beam 45.7ft, one funnel, four masts, single screw, speed 13 knots. Accommodation for 1st, 200-2nd and 1,150-3rd class passengers. Built by Fairfield Co Ltd, Glasgow, she was launched as the ARUNDEL CASTLE on 2nd Oct.1894 for the Castle Mail SP Co. Used on the UK to South Africa service until 1905 when she was sold to the East Asiatic Co, Copenhagen and renamed BIRMA. She was then used on Far East services until 1908 when she transferred to the subsidiary company Russian American Line, Libau. Her first Libau - New York sailing started on 8th Dec.1908 and her last from Libau to Halifax, Boston and New York started on 18th Nov.1913. Renamed MITAWA (MITAU) in 1914, she started a single round voyage from Libau to Halifax and New York on 30th Jan.1914 and was then laid up at Kronstadt. In 1921 she was sold to the Polish American Line, renamed JOZEF PILSUDSKI and sailed New York - Danzig on 6th Oct.1921. Arrested at Kiel for non-payment of repairs, she laid there until 1924 when she was sold to German owners, renamed WILBO and scrapped the same year in Italy. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.1355- 6] [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.18, Union-Castle Line]

ASCANIA 1911
The ASCANIA was a 9,111 gross ton ship, built in 1911 by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson, Wallsend-on-Tyne. Her details were - length 466.6ft x beam 56.1ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 13 knots. There was accommodation for 200-2nd and 1,500-3rd class passengers. Laid down as the GERONA for the Thomson Line of Dundee, she was bought on the stocks by the Cunard Steamship Co. and launched on 6th Mar.1911 as the ASCANIA. Her maiden voyage from London to Southampton, Quebec and Montreal started on 23rd May 1911, and on 13th Jun.1918 she was wrecked 20 miles east of Cape Ray, Newfoundland with no loss of life. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.158]

ASCANIA 1923
Built for the Cunard SS Co by Armstrong Whitworth & Co, Walker-on-Tyne, she was a 14,013 gross ton ship, overall length 538ft x beam 65.3ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 15 knots. Accommodation for 500-cabin and 1,200-3rd class passengers. Launched on 20th Dec.1923, she started her maiden voyage when she left London (cargo) for Southampton (22nd May 1925), Quebec, and Montreal. In July 1927 her accommodation was altered to cabin, tourist and 3rd class, and in Mar.1939 to cabin and 3rd class. Her last prewar voyage started when she left London (cargo) for Southampton (12th Aug.1939), Quebec, Montreal and Liverpool. She was then converted to an Armed Merchant Cruiser and in 1943 became a troopship. In Dec.1947 she resumed commercial service and sailed from Liverpool to Halifax. Refitted in Autumn 1949 to 14,440 gross tons and with accommodation for 200-1st and 500-tourist class passengers. She resumed the Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal service on 21st Apr.1950. On 30th Sep.1955 she transferred to Southampton - Havre - Quebec - Montreal sailings, and commenced her last voyage on this service on 26th Oct.1956. She then made a Southampton - Cyprus voyage as a troopship and on 30th Dec.1956 sailed from Southampton for Newport, Mon, where she was scrapped.

ASCANIA / FLORIDA 1926
9.536 gross tons, length 490.4ft x beam 60.5ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw, speed 17 knots. Built 1926 as the FLORIDA by Ateliers & Chantiers de la Loire, St.Nazaire for Soc. Generale de Transports Maritimes and used on the Marseilles - River Plate service. 13th Nov.1942 sunk at Bone by German air attack. May 1944 refloated and repaired, funnels reduced to one. 1951 Transferred to Chargeurs Reunis. 1955 sold to Grimaldi Siosa Lines, Genoa renamed ASCANIA and used initially as a troopship for the French Government. 1957 Refitted and used mostly on the Italy - Central America, West Indies service. However, between 1957 and 1960 she made several North Atlantic voyages - 7th May 1957 first voyage Havre - Southampton - Quebec, 5th Aug.1957 fifth and last voyage Havre - Southampton - Quebec, 25th Mar.1958 one round voyage Naples - Halifax, 22nd Jun.1959 resumed Southampton - Quebec, 28th Aug.1959 second and last Southampton - Quebec voyage, 30th May 1960 first of two Southampton - New York sailings. 1966 transferred to cruising. 1968 scrapped in La Spezia, Italy. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.4 by N.R.P.Bonsor] [Emigrant Ships by Anthony Cooke]

ASCANIUS / SAN GIOVANNI 1910
The ASCANIUS belonged to Alfred Holt & Co (Blue Funnel Line). She was a 10,048 gross ton ship, length 509ft x beam 60ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 14 knots. There was accommodation for 288-1st class passengers. Built by Workman Clark, Belfast, she was launched on 29th Oct.1910 and started her maiden voyage on 30th Dec.1910 when she left Glasgow for Liverpool, Cape Town, Adelaide, Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane. In Aug.1914 she became a troopship for the Australian Expeditionary Force and in 1917 was taken over under the Liner Requisition Scheme. On 21st Aug.1920 she was returned to her owners and resumed Glasgow - Liverpool - Brisbane sailings. Refitted in 1922, she was altered in 1926 to carry 180-1st class passengers and in 1940 was again taken over as a troopship. Torpedoed in the English Channel on 30th Jul.1944, she reached port and was repaired. In 1945 she was used to carry displaced persons from Marseilles to Haifa, and in 1945 was sold to Cia de Nav. Florencia, Genoa, registered in Panama and renamed SAN GIOVANNINO. It was intended that she be used for a projected emigrant service from Italy to Australia, but she was laid up and scrapped at Spezia in 1952.[Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.6, Blue Funnel Line]

ASIA / ALICE 1907
The ASIA was built by Russell & Co, Port Glasgow (engines by J.G.Kincaid & Co, Greenock) in 1907 as the ALICE for the Austrian company, Unione Austriaca. She was a 6,122 gross ton ship, length 415.3ft x beam 49.6ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 16 knots. She was built with passenger accommodation for 50-1st, 75-2nd and 1,500-3rd class. Launched on 29/5/1907, she commenced her maiden voyage on 28/8/1907 when she sailed from Trieste for Patras, Palermo and New York. She started her last crossing from Trieste to Palermo, Algiers and New York on 10/8/1913 and subsequently sailed to South America. On the outbreak of the Great War, she was interned in Brazil, was seized by the Brazilian authorities in 1917 and renamed ASIA. Ceded to France as war reparations in December 1919, she was sold to the Fabre Line and rebuilt with accommodation for 130-cabin and 1,350-3rd class passengers. She commenced her first voyage for these owners on 19/9/1920 from Marseilles to Lisbon, Providence and New York. She continued Mediterranean - US voyages until making her last sailing in October 1929 when she left Marseilles for Providence, New York(arr.12/11, dep.20/11), Providence and Marseilles. She was then used on various services until 21/5/1930 when she was destroyed by fire in the Red Sea while carrying pilgrims to Mecca. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.1136/1331]

ASIA / SHIRLEY 1947
8,723 gross tons, length 508.7ft x beam 64.1ft, one funnel two masts, single screw, speed 15.5 knots, accommodation for 12-1st class passengers. Launched 12th Sep.1946 for Cunard-White Star Line by Sir James Laing & Sons, Sunderland, she was their first post-war built ship. 15th Apr.1947 maiden voyage to Canada. 17th May 1963 sold to Eddie Steamship Co., Taipeh, Taiwan, renamed SHIRLEY, operated by Waywiser Navigation Corp., Keelung. 16th Dec.1968 paid off at Osaka, sold for scrap. 14th Jan.1969 arrived Kaohsiung for breaking up. [Merchant Fleets, vol.12 by Duncan Haws] [Marine News, March 1969]

ASIATIC / ARABIC / SPAARNDAM  1881
The SPAARNDAM of the Holland America Line was built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast (engines by J.Jack & Co, Liverpool) in 1881 as the ASIATIC for the White Star Line, she was a 4,368 gross ton ship, length 427.8ft x beam 41.9ft, one funnel, four masts (rigged for sail), single screw and a speed of 13 knots. Launched on 30/4/1881, her name was changed to ARABIC and she left Liverpool on her maiden voyage to New York on 10/9/1881. She started her third and last voyage on this service on 2/12/1881. She was then chartered to the Occidental & Oriental Line and sailed on 4/2/1882 from Liverpool for Suez Canal, Hong Kong and San Francisco. On 30/3/1887 she returned to the N.Atlantic and sailed from London for Queenstown and New York and on 12/5/1887 resumed Liverpool - New York sailings. She reverted to San Francisco - Yokohama - Hong Kong voyages in 1888 and in 1890 was sold to Holland America Line. Renamed SPAARNDAM, she started her first Rotterdam- New York voyage on 29/3/1890. In 1899 she was refitted to carry 2nd and 3rd class passengers only and commenced her final voyage on 7/2/1901 when she left Rotterdam for New York. She was scrapped at Preston the same year.[North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor, vol.2, p.758; vol.3, p.912]

ASIE / ROSSANO 1914
8,561 gross ton passenger ship, length 459.3ft x beam 55.9ft, twin screw, speed 14.5 knots. Built 1914 by Ateliers & Chantiers de France, Dunkerque (Yard No.95) for Chargeurs Reunis, Havre. 13th Mar.1943 seized at Marseilles by German forces, transferred to the Italian Government and renamed ROSSANO. Sep.1943 seized by Germans on the capitulation of Italy. 10th May 1944 set on fire by air attack at Genoa. 1946 refloated and scrapped. [Information from Registers of Merchant Ships Completed by Starke / Schell.]

ASSAM / FELDMARSCHAL MOLTKE / KAIJO MARU 1873
This was probably the Peninsular & Oriental Line (P&O) ship ASSAM. Built in 1873 by Caird & Co, Greenock as North German Lloyd's FELDMARSCHAL MOLTKE for their West Indian service. She was a 3,033 gross ton steamer with a length of 350ft x beam 39.3ft (106,68m x 11,99m), one funnel, three masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 12 knots. There was accommodation for 80-1st and 36-2nd class passengers. Purchased by P&O Line in 1875 for their Indian service and renamed ASSAM, she sailed on her first voyage from Point de Galle to Melbourne in Oct.1876. In Jan.1880 she sailed on her first Bombay - Point de Galle - Melbourne - Sydney voyage and in Aug.1881 from London to Calcutta. On 26th Oct.1882 she left London for Colombo, Melbourne and Sydney and made three round voyages on this service. Sold to Japanese owners in 1895 and renamed KAIJO MARU, she was scrapped in 1898. [North Star to Southern Cross by John M.Maber][Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.1, P&O, Orient and Blue Anchor Lines]

ASSIDUITA 1896 see MENTMORE 1882

ASSYRIA 1871
This was the Anchor Line's ASSYRIA built by Robert Duncan & Co, Port Glasgow (engines by Finnieston Steamship Works, Glasgow) in 1871. She was a 1,630 gross ton ship, length 300.5ft x beam 33.2ft, straight stem, one funnel, three masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. There was capacity for 100-1st and 500-3rd class passengers. Launched on 9th Jan.1871, her maiden voyage started 8th Feb.1871 when she left Glasgow for New York. In Nov.1871 she commenced her first Glasgow - Mediterranean - New York - Glasgow voyage and on 4th Jun.1873 started her tenth and last Glasgow - New York direct sailing. On 9th Dec.1876 she started a single round voyage between Bordeaux and New York and in 1880 was rebuilt to 2,023 gross tons with passenger accommodation for 43-1st, 28-2nd and 408-3rd class. She inaugurated a new service between Barrow, Dublin and New York on 27th Apr.1881, and made four round voyages on this route, the last one starting on 14th Sep.1881. In Oct.1882 she sailed from Glasgow to Liverpool and Calcutta, and in Jul.1889 sailed from New York to Naples direct. Between 1871 and 1893 she was used mainly on the Glasgow - Mediterranean - New York - Glasgow service and made 60 voyages on this route. Her last sailing commenced 3rd Jun.1893 when she left Leghorn for Naples and New York (arr.28/6) and on 15th Jan.1894 she was sold for scrap. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.456-7]

ASSYRIA / SVEABORG / EKATERINOSLAV 1898
The ASSYRIA was built by J.C.Tecklenborg, Geestemunde in 1898 for the Hamburg America Line. She was a 6,581 gross ton ship, length 420.7ft x beam 54.4ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw and a speed of 13 knots. There was accommodation for 50-1st and 1,200-3rd class passengers. Launched on 6th April 1898, she sailed from Hamburg on her maiden voyage to Baltimore on 3rd Sepember 1898. Her last voyage on this service commenced 11th December 1904 and she was sold to the Russian Volunteer Fleet and renamed SVEABORG the following year. Later the same year she went to the Russian Imperial Navy and in 1906 was returned to the Russian Volunteer Fleet and renamed EKATERINOSLAV. After the Russian revolution in 1917, she was operated by the British Shipping Controller, returned to German owners in 1925 and was scrapped at Kiel in 1928. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.405][Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.4, Hamburg America Line]

ASSYRIA / LAERTIS / HOLY TRINITY 1950
8530 g.t., 508.7ft x 64.1ft, single screw, speed 15.5 knots, accommodation for 12-1st class passengers. Built by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson, Wallsend for Cunard SS Co. and launched on 19th Jan.1950. 24th Aug.1950 maiden voyage Liverpool - Boston - New York. Covered all the Eastern Seaboard ports of USA and Canada. Sep.1963 sold to N. J. Vlassopulos renamed LAERTIS, managed by Stala Cia. Nav. S.A., Monrovia but flew Greek flag. 1970 sold to Ambelos Development Corp., Greece renamed HOLY TRINITY. 1973 scrapped.

ASTORIA 1900 see TAINUI 1884

ASTRAEA 1891
1186 gross tons, Finland SS Co which made Hanko and Turku to UK (usually Hull) sailings between 1891 and 1930. From Hull, there was a direct train service to Liverpool where transatlantic liners could be boarded.

ASTREE / BELLBRO / SIENA 1929 O.N.144098.
2,171 gross tons, length 285.3ft x beam 42.0ft, single screw, speed 10 knots. Built 1921 by Blyth Shipbuilding & Drydock Co., Blyth (Yard No.217) as the BELLBRO for Halifax Shipping Co. Ltd (J. Bell & Co.), Hull. 1929 owners became Bell Line (same manager). 1933 sold to Soc. Navale Caennaise (G. Lamy & Cie.), Caen, France renamed ASTREE. 5th Dec.1942 seized by Germany and handed to Italy for operation, renamed SIENA. Operated by the Italian Government and managed by "Adriatica" Soc. Anon. di Nav., Trieste. Sep.1943 under German control, reverted to ASTREE and managed by Mittelmeer Reederei G.m.b.H. 1st May 1944 torpedoed and sunk by HMS UNTIRING off Cape Bear (Port Vendres?).

ASTURIAS / ARCADIAN 1907
Built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast, she was a 12,015 gross ton ship, length 520ft x beam 62ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 15 knots. Accommodation for 300-1st, 140-2nd and 1,200-3rd class pasengers. Launched for the Royal Mail Steam Packet Co on 26th Sep.1907, she started her maiden voyage on 24th Jan.1908 when she left London for Australia via Suez. After this voyage she transferred to the Southampton - Buenos Aires service, although making one forther Australia voyage in 1909. On 1st Aug.1914 she was requisitioned and converted to a Naval hospital ship. She left Southampton on Aug.5th to join the Grand Fleet at Scapa Flow, but on Aug.23rd returned to Southampton and was taken over by the army who fitted her to carry 1,700 wounded. Used to carry wounded men from Havre to Southampton until the opening of the Dardanelles campaign when she was sent to the Eastern Mediterranean. She carried wounded between the Dardanelles, Salonika, Egypt and the UK and on 1st Feb.1915 was attacked by a submarine off Le Havre but the torpedo missed. In March 1917 she landed her wounded at Avonmouth and then, while off Start Point (night of 20 / 21 March 1917) was torpedoed aft. 35 lives were lost and most of her stern was blown away, wrecking her steering gear and starboard propeller shaft. She was beached near Bolt Head, but the damage was so extensive that she was declared a total loss and handed over to the underwriters. The government then bought and salvaged her, and she became a floating ammunition hulk at Plymouth for two years. Re-purchased by RMSPCo after the war, she was towed to Belfast where she lay for two years before work started on her. Work started in the summer of 1922 and she was rebuilt as a cruise liner and renamed ARCADIAN. She ran cruises to Scandinavia, West Indies, Mediterranean and also helped on the New York - Bermuda service on several occasions. The slump of the early 1930s hit luxury cruising and in Oct.1930 she was laid up at Southampton. She lay there until Feb.1933 when she was sold to Japanese shipbreakers. [Sea Breezes Magazine, March 1955]

ASTURIAS (2) 1925
22,071 gross tons, length 655ft x beam 78.8ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw, speed 16 knots, accommodation for 408-1st. 200-2nd and 674-3rd class passengers. Launched on the July 1925 by Harland & Wolff, Belfast for Royal Mail Steam Packet Co's River Plate service. On 26th Feb.1926 she started her maiden voyage from Southampton to Buenos Aires with intermediate calls. Between Jan. and April 1927 the ASTURIAS made two round voyages between Southamton, Cherbourg and New York before returning to South American service. In 1932 the company was reformed as Royal Mail Line Ltd and in 1934 the ship was re-engined due to excessive vibration, given an increased speed of 18 knots, rebuilt to 666ft and fitted with taller funnels. Passenger accommodation became 330-1st, 220-2nd and 768-3rd class. She resumed Buenos Aires sailings in Oct.1934 and in 1939 was requisitioned as an Armed Merchant Cruiser and her forward funnel and mainmast removed. In July 1943 she was torpedoed and damaged off Freetown by the Italian submarine CAGNI, towed to Freetown and abandoned there for 18 months when she was purchased by the British Admiralty, towed to Gibraltar and later to Belfast where she was repaired and in 1947 converted to a troopship for the Ministry of Transport. In 1949 she was chartered to Royal Mail Line as an emigrant carrier to Australia. In 1953 she switched to trooping for the Korean War. She was scrapped at Faslane in 1957 but just before being scrapped played the role of TITANIC in the film "A Night to Remember"

ATAHUALPA / HUBERT / CITY OF ALGIERS / VITA NOVA 1894
1,922 gross tons, length 260.3ft x beam 36.2ft (79.34m x 11.03m), one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 10 knots. Built by Hall, Russell & Co, Aberdeen, she was launched on 23rd Mar.1894 as the HUBERT for the Booth Line and used on the Liverpool - Continent - Amazon service. 1908 transferred to the Iquitos S.S.Co renamed ATAHUALPA. 1911 Reverted to Booth Line and renamed HUBERT. 1919 Sold to Franco-British S.S.Co, renamed CITY OF ALGIERS. 1922 Sold to P. Messina, Catania renamed VITA NOVA. 1925 Sold to Fratelli Indelicato & Cia, Catania. 29th Nov.1927 foundered in a storm off Catania.[Merchant Fleets, vol.34 by Duncan Haws] I don't know of a photo of this ship, but there is a small line drawing of her in Merchant Fleets, vol.34 by Duncan Haws, ISBN 0-946378-24-7 Iquitos S.S.Co was absorbed with their fleet into Booth Line in 1911.

ATALANTA / CLIFTON / OCEAN 1863
The ATALANTA was a 2,668 gross ton ship, built in 1863 by Smith & Rodger, Glasgow for the British owned London & New York Steamship Line. Her details were - length 339.1ft x beam 34.2ft, clipper stem, one funnel, four masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. She carried 1st, 2nd and 500-3rd class passengers. Laid down as the OHIO but launched as the ATALANTA; it was attempted to launch her on 28th Nov.1863 but she stuck on the slipway and eventually floated free after a few days. Her first London - Havre - New York voyage started on 11th May 1864 and her last sailing on this service on 20th Mar.1870. Sold to the Hughes Line of Liverpool in 1870, she was used on the London - Bombay service and in 1874 was fitted with compound engines. Sold to British owners in 1880 and renamed CLIFTON, she was resold to Sweden in 1888 and renamed OCEAN. In Sep.1897 she was reported in port with damage to three of her masts and was scrapped.[North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.597]

ATHABASCA 1883
The ATHABASCA was a Great Lakes ship. She was a 2269 gross ton ship, length 263ft x beam 38ft and had accommodation for 240-1st class and carried a large number of immigrant passengers on deck. Built by Aitken & Mansell, Kelvinhaugh, Scotland, she was launched in July 1883, together with the ALBERTA and ALGOMA for Canadian Pacific. She sailed across the Atlantic, arriving at Montreal in November. Cut in half, she was towed to Buffalo where she was re-assembled. She made three sailings a week between Owen Sound and Port Arthur with some calls at Algoma Mills which was a railhead on Lake Huron. The lakes were closed to shipping during the winter. In Nov.1885, the ALGOMA struck rocks in a storm and broke in two, survivors being picked up from Greenstone Island by the ATHABASCA. Refitted in 1911, she was then used mainly for cargo, but was laid up for periods in the 1930s. In 1937 she was put onto a freight service between Milwaukee and Chicago to Port McNicoll which kept her working until the end of the second world war. She sailed for over 60 years before being sold to Florida interests in 1946 and was then towed via the Chicago drainage Canal and the Mississippi River for work as a fruit carrier in the Gulf of Mexico for two years before being scrapped in 1948.[Canadian Pacific by George Musk, ISBN 0-7153-7968-2]

ATHENIA 1904
7,835 gross tons, length 478ft x beam 56ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw, speed 14 knots, accommodation for 12-1st class passengers. Launched on 20th Oct.1903 by Vickers. Sons & Maxim for Donaldson Bros, Glasgow, she started her maiden voyage from Glasgow to Montreal on 21st May 1904. In 1905 she was fitted with additional passenger accommodation for 50-2nd and 450-3rd class passengers and her tonnage increased to 8,668 g.t. Her first voyage as a passenger ship started 25th Mar.1905 when she left Glasgow for St. John. N.B and continued sailings to St. John and Quebec / Montreal. In 1913 she transferred to Donaldson Line Ltd and in 1916 went to Anchor-Donaldson Line. On 16th Aug.1917 she was torpedoed and sunk while 7 miles north of Inistrahull Island, Northern Ireland by the U.53 while on passage Montreal to Glasgow with the loss of 15 lives. [North Atlantic Seaway vol.3 by N.R.P.Bonsor] [Donaldson Line by P.J. Telford]

ATHENIA 1922
The ATHENIA was built in 1922 by Fairfield Co Ltd, Glasgow for the Donaldson Line of Glasgow. She was a 13,465 gross ton ship, length 526.3ft x beam 66.4ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a service speed of 15 knots. There was accommodation for 516-cabin and 1,000-3rd class passengers. Launched on 28/1/1922, she sailed from Glasgow on her maiden voyage to Liverpool, Quebec and Montreal on 19/4/1923. She was used on the Cunard-Donaldson Line joint service. In March 1927 she was refitted to carry 314-cabin, 310-tourist and 928-3rd class passengers. She had the unfortunate distinction of being the first ship sunk in the war, on the day that war was declared.  Torpedoed by the German submarine U.30 when 250 miles West of Inishtrahull, Northern Ireland on 3/9/1939 and sank with the loss of 128 lives. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor, vol.3, p.1014] - [Posted to The ShipsList by Ted Finch -8 April 1998]

ATHENIC / PELAGOS 1901
The ATHENIC was a 12,345 gross ton ship, length 500ft x beam 63.3ft (152.4m x 19,29m), one funnel, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 14 knots. There was accommodation for 121-1st, 17-2nd and 450-3rd class passengers. She was equipped with refrigerated holds for the carriage of frozen meat. Built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast, she was launched for Shaw Savill & Albion - White Star joint service on 17th Aug.1901. On 13th Feb.1902 she sailed from London on her maiden voyage to Cape Town and Wellington. She continued on this service until 1917 when she was taken over under the liner requisition scheme and ran to NZ via Panama. On 10th Jan.1920 she returned to commercial service on the London (later Liverpool) - Panama - New Zealand route and on 3rd May 1920 rescued the crew and 80 passengers from the Munson liner MUNAMAR which was aground near San Salvador and carried them to Newport News. In Apr.1927 she made a single round voyage to Sydney and Brisbane and her last Liverpool - Wellington voyage started 18th Oct.1927. Sold in May 1928 to Brunn & von der Lippe, Tonsberg and converted into a whale factory ship. Renamed PELAGOS she came under the ownership of Hvalfangerselskapet Pelagos A/S. Captured by the German armed raider PINGUIN on 15th Jan.1941, together with another factory ship, one depot and 11 whale catchers, she was sent to Bordeaux. She was then attached to the German 24th submarine flotilla based in Norway. On 24th Oct.1944 she was sunk at Kirkenes, raised by the Norwegians in 1945 and put back into service and eventually scrapped at Hamburg in 1962.[North Star to Southern Cross by John M.Maber] [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.10, Shaw, Savill & Albion] [Shaw, Savill & Albion by Richard de Kerbrech]

ATHINAI 1908
This was a 6,742 gross ton ship, length 420ft x beam 52ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 14 knots. Built by Sir Raylton Dixon & Co Ltd, Middlesborough (engines by North Eastern Marine Engineering Co, Wallsend-on-Tyne), she was launched on 19th June 1908. She started her maiden voyage for the Hellenic Transatlantic Steam Nav.Co. on 13th May 1909 when she left Piraeus for Kalamata, Patras and New York. In Nov.1912 she was taken up as a Greek military transport and on 23rd Jun.1913 resumed Piraeus - New York sailings. She started her last sailing for these owners on 25th Aug.1914 when she left Piraeus for Patras and New York and then the company became bankrupt and the ship came under the ownership of the National Greek Line. On 22nd Oct.1914 she sailed from Piraeus for Kalamata, Patras and New York and continued this service until leaving New York for Piraeus on 16th Sep.1915. On 19th Sep.1915 she was destroyed by fire while in the mid-Atlantic. The passengers and crew were rescued by the Anchor liner TUSCANIA.[North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.1386]

ATHLONE CASTLE 1935
This ship was built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast in 1935 for the Union Castle Line. She was a 25,567 gross ton ship, length 725ft x beam 82.5ft, one funnel, two masts and a speed of 20 knots. There was accommodation for 242-1st and 487-cabin class passengers. Launched on 28.11.1935 by Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, she commenced her maiden voyage from Southampton for the Cape on 22.5.1936. Throughout the war she served as a troopship and returned to service in May 1947 after refitting to accommodate 250-1st and 530-tourist class passengers. Her last voyage commenced when she left Capetown on 23.7.1965 and arrived at Southampton on 6th August after 141 round voyages to South Africa. She finally left Southampton on 16th August and arrived at Taiwan for scrapping on 13th September.

ATHOS II 1923
The ATHOS II, built by Agt Ges Weser, Bremen in 1923 for the French company, Messageries Maritimes. She was a 15,275 gross ton ship, length 565ft x beam 66ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 17 knots. There was accommodation for 167-1st, 156-2nd and 104-3rd class passengers, with a possible 430 deck passengers, probably for troops to Indo China. Launched on 12/11/1925, she didn't leave Bremerhaven for Marseilles until January 1927, having taken four years to complete. On 25th March 1927 she sailed from Marseilles on her maiden voyage to the Far East, and for the next nine years sailed between Marseilles, Malaya, Indo-China, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Kobe and Yokohama. In 1937 she wa completely refitted with new boilers and her machinery overhauled to give a speed of 19 knots. Her accommodation was modified to carry 84-1st, 108-2nd and 112-3rd class passengers. In 1938 she resumed the Far East service but after the outbreak of war sailed between Marseilles, Egypt and Syria. In June 1940 she was laid up at Alexandria but was allowed to repatriate crews of French ships laid up in the port. In September 1940 she brought back to France the French troops still in Syria and then sailed to Algiers where she remained until captured by the Allies in November 1942. She left in December 1942 for the USA where she was converted to an armed transport. She then made several trooping voyages between the USA and Casablanca, Southampton, Havre and Naples and in March 1946 was returned to French control. In 1948 she resumed Far East voyages, but after a couple of voyages was taken in for a major refit. She returned to the Far East run in 1950 for about four years and also carried pilgrims from Casablanca and North Africa to Jeddah. In August 1956 she was taken over by the French government for use as a troop transport for the Suez operation and then used between Marseilles and North Africa. Finally she was sold in July 1959 to Italian ship breakers and was towed to Spezia on July 31st. [Messageries Maritimes Liner "Athos II" of 1927, by Captain J.H.Isherwood; Sea Breezes Magazine, March 1973]

ATLANTA / STELLA POLARE 1908
4,897 gross tons, length 385ft x beam 49.8ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 12 knots, accommodation for 30-1st, 50-2nd and 1,200-3rd class passengers. Built by Russell & Co., Port Glasgow (engines by D. Rowan & Co., Glasgow), she was launched for Unione Austriaca, Trieste on 7th Feb.1908. Her maiden voyage started 1st Apr.1908 when she left Glasgow for New York in ballast and on 26th Feb.1909 she started her first voyage Trieste - Patras - Palermo - New York. Her sixth and last voyage on this service started 14th Mar.1912 and she was then used on the South America route. In 1915 she was sold to Soc. Importazione Carne, Venice, renamed STELLA POLARE and used on the South American meat trade. Later taken over by the Italian Government and managed by D. Della Porte and in 1917 operated by the Italian State Railways. 1919 transferred to Cosulich Soc. Triestina de Nav., reverted to ATLANTA, refitted to carry 883 steerage class passengers and used on the South America emigrant service. 1935 made 15 voyages as a troopship during the Italian war in East Africa. 1936 reduced to cargo only. 1937 transferred to Italia Soc. Anon, for their Trieste - Buenos Aires route. June 1940 interned at Las Palmas, but crew stayed aboard. 29th May 1941 made escape at night and reached Bordeaux on 15th June. 9th Sep.1943 seized by Germans after the armistice and managed by Sloman, Hamburg. 11th Jan.1945 sunk by air attack off Egersund, Norway. [North Atlantic Seaway Vol.3 by N.R.P.Bonsor] [Merchant Fleets vol.40 by Duncan Haws]

ATLANTIC  1849
The ATLANTIC was the first ship owned by the Collins Line of New York. She was a wooden built ship, built by William H Brown of New York and launched on 1/2/1849. Her engines were built by the Novelty Iron Works of NY. She was a 2845 gross ton ship, length 284ft x beam 45.9ft, straight stem, one funnel, three masts, paddle steamer and a speed of 12 knots. There was accommodation for 200 1st class passengers. She left New York on her maiden voyage to Liverpool on 27/4/1850 and in July-Aug. of that year made a record passage between NY and Liverpool. On 6/1/1851 she broke her main shaft in mid-Atlantic and arrived in Queenstown under sail on 22/1/1850, and was then towed to Liverpool. While there, she had major repairs to her machinery, new dining saloon built on deck, Mizzen (third) mast removed and 80-2nd class berths added. She ran between Liverpool and NY from 23/7/1851 until January 1858 when she was laid up until 1859 when she was bought by North Atlantic Steamship Co who used her on the NY - Aspinwall service. On 17/11/1860 she made her first voyage on the NY - Southampton - Havre service for one round voyage and in 1861 she became a Civil War transport. In 1866 she was transferred to North American Lloyd and made her first voyage for their NY - Southampton - Bremen service on 22/2/1866. In August of that year she made her last trip between NY - Southampton - Bremen - Southampton - NY (arrived 25/9/1866) and in 1867 went to the NY and Bremen Steamship Co. and made six round voyages for them between 7/2/1867 and 29/10/1867. She was scrapped in 1871.

ATLANTIC 1870
The ATLANTIC was a 3,707 gross ton ship, length 420ft x beam 40.9ft, one funnel, four masts (rigged for sails), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 14 knots. There was accommodation for 166-1st and 1,000-3rd class passengers. Built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast (engines by G. Forrester & Co, Liverpool), she was launched on 1st Dec.1870 for the White Star Line. On 8th Jun.1871 she left Liverpool on her maiden voyage to Queenstown (Cobh) and New York. Her last voyage started on 20th Mar.1873 when she left Liverpool for New York. She encountered such bad weather that she ran short of coal and the master decided to make for Halifax, being the nearest port. However, she ran onto the rocks outside that port in appalling weather, the after part of the ship sinking almost immediately, leaving only the bows and part of the rigging above water. Altogether 585 lives were lost out of a total of 1,038 passengers and crew. Had not the bosun heroically swum ashore through the raging surf, carrying a lifeline, it is doubtful whether there would have been any survivors.[North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,pps.734-5, 755-6]

ATLANTIC 1948 see MALOLO 1926

ATLANTIDA 1924
4,191 gross tons, length 350.6ft x beam 50.3ft, 68 crew, 76 passengers. Built 1924 by Workman, Clark & Co, Belfast for the Standard Fruit & S.S.Co. U.S.flag. 1933 transferred to the Standard Navigation Co, Honduras flag. 1942 requisitioned by the US War Standards Authority. 1946 returned to the Standard Fruit & S.S.Corp. Honduras flag. 1958 withdrawn and laid up. 1959 sold to Belgian shipbreakers. 1960 scrapped. [Going Bananas, 100 year history of American Fruit Ships in the Caribbean by Mark Goldberg] Standard Nav.Co and Standard Fruit & SS.Co were subsidiary companies of United Fruit Co.

ATLANTIS 1929 see ANDES 1913

ATLAS 1860
The ATLAS was a 1,794 gross ton ship, length 276ft x beam 36.5ft, clipper stem, one funnel, two masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. There was accommodation for 69-1st and 833-3rd class passengers. Built by J & G. Thomson, Glasgow, she was launched on 8th Mar.1860 for the Cunard Steamship Company's Mediterranean service. In 1873 she was rebuilt to 2,393 gross tons, lengthened to 339ft, fitted with compound engines by the builders and had a third mast fitted. On 1st May 1873 she started her first Liverpool - Queenstown (Cobh) - Boston sailing and between 1873-1883 sailed mainly between Liverpool and Boston. Her last voyage on this service commenced 25th Apr.1883 and she was subsequently used on the Liverpool - Mediterranean service. Scrapped in 1896. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.151-2]

ATRATO 1853
3,172 gross tons, length 350ft x beam 72ft (over the paddle boxes), 42ft beam, two funnels, three masts (rigged for sail), iron hull, side paddle wheel propulsion, speed 10 knots, accommodation for 224 passengers. Built by Caird & Co, Greenock, she was launched 27th Apr.1853 for the Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. Used on the UK to South America or West Indies service and in 1864 inaugurated the Southampton - Colon service to commence the Panama City - Australia direct service. In 1870 she was sold to J. Morrison & Co, London and converted from paddle to screw propulsion. In 1872 she was chartered to the Aberdeen Line and on 7th Sep. left London and sailed via Plymouth and the Cape of Good Hope for Port Phillip. It seems that this was not a financial success as Aberdeen Line continued with sailing ships until 1882 after this one voyage. In 1874 she commenced sailing on the London - Cape - Port Chalmers - Lyttelton route and was scrapped in 1875. [North Star to Southern Cross by John. M. Maber] [Merchant Fleets, vol.5 by Duncan Haws]

ATRATO / THE VIKING / VIKNOR 1888
The ATRATO was built in 1888 by R.Napier & Sons, Glasgow for the Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. She was a 5,347 gross ton ship, length 421.2ft x beam 50ft, clipper stem, two funnels, three masts, single screw and a speed of 15 knots. There was accommodation for 221-1st, 32-2nd and 26-3rd class passengers. Launched on 22/9/1888 for the West Indies service, she sailed from Southampton on her maiden voyage to Brazil, Montevideo and Buenos Aires on 17/1/1889. Subsequently she sailed between Southampton and the West Indies. In 1912 she went to the Viking Cruising Co who renamed her THE VIKING, and in 1914 she was converted to an Armed Merchant Cruiser and renamed VIKNOR. On 13/1/1915 she was in communication with Malin Head signal station and subsequently disappeared without trace, with the loss of 284 lives. It is probable that she struck a German mine. [South Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, p.26]

ATREUS 1911
6,699 gross tons, length 444ft x beam 52.9ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 11 knots and accommodation for 12 cabin passengers. She also carried pilgrims in the tween decks in peacetime from Singapore to Jeddah and this was probably converted to troop accommodation in wartime. Built 1911 by Scotts Shipbuilding & Engineering Co., Greenock for Alfred Holt & Co. (China Mutual Steam Nav. Co.), she survived both world wars and was scrapped at Rosyth in 1949.

AUCKLAND STAR 1958
11,799 gross tons, length 572.3ft x beam 72.7ft, one funnel, one mast, twin screw, speed 18.5 knots, refrigerated cargo space, accommodation for 12 passengers. Launched on 2nd May 1958 by Cammel Laird & Co., Birkenhead for Salient Shipping Co.(Bermuda) Ltd, Hamilton, Bermuda on bare boat charter to Blue Star Line Ltd. 1962 transferred to the British flag. 10th Apr.1978 final sailing from Liverpool. 20th May 1978 left Durban for demolition at Gadani Beach. Photos at http://www.bluestarline.org/auckland2.html The procedure at Gadani Beach is for the ship to be driven at full speed so that she drives well up onto the beach. The crew are then taken off by bosun's chair to the shore.

AUGUST ANDRE 1874 / HELVETIA 1879
1,472 gross tons, length 268.9ft x beam 32.8ft, one funnel, two masts, iron hull, single screw, speed 10 knots. Built by Forges & Chantiers de la Mediterranee, La Seyne, she was launched in 1874 for the White Cross Line, Antwerp as the AUGUST ANDRE. She started her maiden voyage on 29th May 1874 when she left Marseilles for New York and Antwerp and started Antwerp - New York sailings on 28th Jul.1874. In 1879 she was renamed HELVETIA and continued New York voyages under this name. Between 1882-5 she made seasonal voyages Antwerp - Quebec - Montreal and on 9th May 1885 foundered off Scatterie, CBI en route Antwerp - Montreal. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.2,p.824 by N.R.P.Bonsor]

AUGUSTA VICTORIA / AUGUSTE VICTORIA / KUBAN 1888
This was a 7,661 gross ton ship, length 462.7ft x beam 55.7ft, three funnels, three masts, twin screw and a speed of 18 knots. There was accommodation for 400-1st, 120-2nd and 580-3rd class passengers. Built by A.G.Vulcan, Stettin, she was laid down as the NORMANNIA but was launched for the Hamburg America Line on 1st Dec.1888 as the AUGUSTA VICTORIA. On 10th May 1889 she started her maiden voyage from Hamburg to Southampton and New York and on 15th Mar.1894 commenced her first Genoa - New York sailing. She made further winter sailings on the Genoa route and her last Hamburg - Southampton - New York voyage started on 22nd Oct.1896. Between 1896-7 she was rebuilt by Harland & Wolff, Belfast to 8,479 gross tons, length 520.8ft, two masts and her name corrected to AUGUSTE VICTORIA. She resumed Hamburg - Southampton - New York voyages on 3rd Jun.1897 and later Mediterranean - New York sailings. Her final Naples - Genoa - New York voyage started on 8th Apr.1903 and her last Hamburg - Southampton - New York on 16th Jan.1904. In May 1904 she was sold to Russia, converted to an Auxiliary Cruiser and renamed KUBAN. Scrapped at Stettin in 1907. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.395]

AUGUSTUS / SPARVIERO 1926
The AUGUSTUS was a 32,650 gross ton ship, overall length 710ft x beam 82.8ft, two funnels, two masts, four screws and a speed of 19 knots. Accommodation for 375-1st, 300-2nd, 300-intermediate and 700-3rd class passengers. Built by G. Ansaldo & Co, Sestri Ponente, she was the world's largest passenger motor ship. On 13th Dec.1926 she was launched for Navigazione Generale Italiana (NGI) and started her maiden voyage from Genoa for Naples and Buenos Aires on 12th Nov.1927. Her first Genoa - Naples - New York sailing started 28th Aug.1928 and her last on 28th Dec.1931. She transferred to Italia Line on arrival at New York and sailed home for these owners. Her first Genoa - Naples - New York sailing for Italia Line started 1st Mar.1932 and her last in Sep.1933. She then transferred to the South America service. In 1943 she was taken over by the Italian Navy, renamed SPARVIERO and converted to an aircraft carrier. Scuttled by the Germans at Genoa in Sep.1944, she was refloated in 1946, sold and was scrapped in 1951.[North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.4,p.1617]

AURANIA 1882
7,269 gross tons, length 470ft x beam 57.2ft, two funnels, three masts, single screw and a speed of 16 knots. Accommodation for 480-1st and 700-3rd class passengers. Built by J.& G. Thomson, Glasgow, she was launched for the Cunard SS Co on 26th Dec.1882 and started her maiden voyage from Liverpool to Queenstown (Cobh) and New York on 23rd Jun.1883. However, she suffered an engine breakdown in mid Atlantic and arrived at New York on 4th July under sail and towed by three tugs. She then proceeded to Glasgow for repairs. She resumed Liverpool - Queenstown - New York voyages on 12th Apr.1884 and commenced her last voyage on this service on 12th Sep.1899. She was then employed as a Boer War Transport until resuming Liverpool - New York voyages with 2nd and 3rd class passengers on 14th Apr.1903. Her last sailing on this route started on 29th Sep.1903 and she sailed from New York for Trieste on 20th Oct.1903. On 10th Nov.1903 she sailed from Trieste for Fiume, Naples and New York and commenced her third and last voyage on this service on 16th Feb.1904. She was scrapped at Genoa in 1905. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.153]

AURANIA / ARTIFEX 1924
The AURANIA was a 13,984 gross ton ship, length 519.7ft x beam 65.3ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 15 knots. There was accommodation for 500-cabin and 1,200-3rd class passengers. Built by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson, Wallsend-on-Tyne, she was launched for the Cunard SS Co on 6th Feb.1924. Her maiden voyage started on 13th Sep.1924 when she left Liverpool for New York. On 17th Apr.1925 she started her first Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal voyage and in June 1927 was refitted to carry Cabin, tourist and 3rd class passengers. Her first voyage from London (cargo)- Southampton - Quebec - Montreal started on 13th Apr.1928 and her last sailing on this route commenced on 4th Aug.1939. She was then converted to an Armed Merchant Cruiser and in 1942 was sold to the British Admiralty. In 1944 she was renamed ARTIFEX and became a naval repair ship. Scrapped at Spezia in 1961. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.166]

AURELIA see BEAVERBRAE ex HUASCARAN 1938

AUSONIA 1911 see TORTONA 1909

AUSONIA 1921
The AUSONIA was a 13,912 gross ton ship, length 520ft x beam 65.3ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw, speed 15 knots, accommodation 500-cabin and 1,200-3rd class passengers. Built by Armstrong, Whitworth & Co Ltd, Walker-on-Tyne, she was launched for the Cunard SS Co on 22nd Mar.1921. Her maiden voyage from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal started on 31st Aug.1922 and on 21st Apr.1923 she started London - Southampton - Quebec - Montreal sailings. Refitted in June 1927 to carry cabin, tourist and 3rd class, and again in 1939 to carry cabin and 32rd class passengers. Her last voyage started on this route on 19th Aug.1939 and she was then converted to an Armed Merchant Cruiser. In June 1942 she was sold to the British Admiralty and in 1944 was converted to a repair ship. Laid up in 1945, she became repair ship at Malta to the Mediterranean Fleet in 1958. In 1964 she was laid up at Portsmouth and was scrapped the following year.[North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.165] [Great Passenger Ships of the World, vol.2 by Arnold Kludas]

AUSTRAL 1881
The AUSTRAL was a 5,524 gross ton ship, built by John Elder, Glasgow in 1881 for the Orient Line (which later became part of the P&O group). There was accommodation for 120-1st, 130-2nd and 300-3rd class passengers. She started her maiden voyage from London via Suez to Melbourne and Sydney on 18/1/1882. Her second voyage was a catalogue of misfortunes which started with a series of engine defects while on passage from London to the Cape, where she was detained at Simons Bay for a week due to an epidemic of small-pox ashore. More engine trouble was encountered during her passage from the Cape and at one time she was forced to maintain steerage way by means of sail alone until repairs could be effected. On 11/11/1882 she sank at her coaling berth at Sydney, and on 28/3/1883 was refloated and temporarily repaired at Cockatoo Island. Between 1883-4 she was refitted on the Clyde and in April 1884 was chartered to the Anchor Line and used on their Liverpool - New York route. On 12/11/1884 she resumed London - Sydney sailings and started her last voyage on this service on 21/11/1902. She was then sold to Italian shipbreakers and scrapped at Genoa. [North Star to Southern Cross by John M.Maber]

AUSTRALASIAN / CALABRIA 1857
2,902 gross tons, length 331.7ft x beam 42.1ft, clipper bows, two funnels, three masts (rigged for sail), iron hull, single screw, speed 12 knots. Accommodation for 200-1st and 60-2nd class passengers. Built by J & G. Thomson, Glasgow, she was launched on 10th Jun.1857 as the AUSTRALASIAN for the European & Australian Line. Her maiden voyage started on 12th Oct.1857 when she left Southampton for Alexandria, and she was then used on the Suez - Sydney service. The service was not a financial success and in 1859 the ship was arrested at Sydney for debt and sold. Purchased by Cunard Line,she started her first voyage for them on 25th Feb.1860 when she left Liverpool for New York. On 11th Apr.1860 she started a single round voyage between Liverpool and Portland under charter to the Allan Line, and on 22nd Dec.1860 commenced her first Liverpool - New York voyage as a mail steamer. Her last Liverpool - Queenstown (Cobh) - New York voyage started on 8th May 1869 and she was then rebuilt with new engines, one funnel, fitted with accommodation for 80-1st and 900-3rd class passengers and renamed CALABRIA. She resumed Liverpool - Queenstown - New York sailings on 8th Jan.1870 and started her last voyage on this service on 29th Jan.1876. In 1877 she was sold to the Telegraph Construction & Maintenance Co and converted to a cable layer. Scrapped in Holland in 1898. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.145] [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.12, Cunard Line]

AUSTRALASIAN see RUAPEHU 1901

AUSTRALIA 1870
The Anchor Line ship AUSTRALIA was built by Robert Duncan & Co, Port Glasgow (engines by Finnieston Steamship Works, Glasgow) in 1870. This was a 2,244 gross ton ship, length 324.6ft x beam 35.2ft, clipper stem, one funnel, three masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 12 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 128-cabin and 600-steerage class. Launched on 20/1/1870, she commenced her maiden voyage from Glasgow to Moville and New York on 11/3/1870. In February 1876 she made a single voyage between Glasgow, Mediterranean ports, New York and London and on 13/5/1876 started London - New York sailings. In 1877 she was fitted with compound engines by D&W.Henderson and started the last of 33 London - New York voyages on 24/3/1881. In 1881 she made 5 London - Halifax - Boston sailings and between 1881-1884 made 8 voyages between Glasgow, Mediterranean, New York and Glasgow. Between 1882-1883 she made 2 sailings from Glasgow to Liverpool and Bombay and in 1883 made a single Glasgow - Liverpool - Calcutta voyage. >From 1884-1885 she was used for 11 round voyages between London, Halifax and Boston and from 1886-1891 made 14 Glasgow - Mediterranean - New York - Glasgow voyages. Her last voyage commenced 11/4/1891 when she left Palermo for Naples, New York(arr. 8/5/1891) and Glasgow. On 12/5/1892 she was sold to Furness Withy & Co, West Hartlepool, was laid up in 1893 and scrapped the following year.  [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.455] [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.9, Anchor Line]

AUSTRALIA 1875
Built by John Elder & Co, Glasgow in 1875 for Sir William Pearce, she was to have been named NOVA CAMBRIA, but was launched as the AUSTRALIA. She was a 2,737 gross ton ship, length 376ft x beam 37ft, one funnel, four masts (barquentine rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 13 knots. There was accommodation for 170-1st, 30-2nd and 100-3rd class passengers. She sailed from London in Jan.1876 for Melbourne and was then operated by Pacific Mail Steamship Co. Although Pacific Mail was an American company, the AUSTRALIA and her sister ship ZEALANDIA operated under the British flag and with British officers and Chinese crews. She commenced San Francisco to Auckland and Sydney sailings on 17th July 1876 and made calls at Honolulu and Fiji. She made her last voyage under the British flag towards the end of 1885 and was then sold to the Oceanic Steamship Co and transferred to Hawaiian registry. The service was taken over by Oceanic SS Co jointly with the Union SS Co of New Zealand. The AUSTRALIA later became an American transport running to the Philippines. In 1905 she was chartered to the Russian government and used as a transport until captured on 26th Aug.1905 by the Japanese in Petropavlovsk Harbour while carrying supplies from the US to Siberia. [North Star to Southern Cross by John M.Maber][Pacific Steamers by Will Lawson]

AUSTRALIA 1881
2,119 gross tons, length 297.9ft x beam 37.1ft, one funnel, two masts, iron hull, single screw, speed 10 knots, accommodation for 800-3rd class passengers. Built by C. Mitchell & Co, Walker-on-Tyne (engines by Blair & Co, Stockton), she was launched on 16th Apr.1881 for the Carr Line, Hamburg. Her maiden voyage from Hamburg to New York started 9th Jun.1881 and her last for this company on 9th May 1888. In May 1888 she was sold to Hamburg America Line and made three Hamburg - New York sailings between 3rd Jul.1888 and 9th Jan.1889. On 14th Jun.1889 she made one round voyage between Stettin and New York and commenced her final Hamburg - Baltimore sailing on 5th Feb.1896. On 26th Jan.1902 she stranded in the River Scheldt near Antwerp and broke in two. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.1,p.394 by N.R.P.Bonsor]

AUSTRALIA 1951
12,839 gross tons, one funnel, one mast, twin screw, speed 18 knots. Accommodation for 280-1st, 120-2nd and 392-3rd class passengers. Completed in Apr.1951 by CR del' Adriatico, Trieste for Lloyd Triestino she started her maiden voyage from Trieste to Sydney on 19th April and subsequently sailed on the Genoa - Sydney service with calls at Fremantle and Melbourne. In 1959 her accommodation was rebuilt to take 136-1st and 536-tourist class passengers. 1963 transferred to Italia Line, renamed DONIZETTI and used on the Genoa - Central America - Valparaiso route. In Oct.1976 she was laid up at La Spezia and was scrapped in 1977.

AUSTRALIS 1964 see AMERICA 1939

AUSTRIAN 1867
The AUSTRIAN was a 2,458 gross ton ship, built by Barclay & Curle, Glasgow in 1867 for the Allan Line of Glasgow. Her details were - length 319ft x beam 38.5ft, clipper stem, one funnel, three masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. There was accommodation for 115-1st and 600-3rd class passengers. Launched in Feb 1867, she sailed from Liverpool on her maiden voyage to Quebec and Montreal on 6th June 1867. On 10/10/1871 she commenced her first voyage between Liverpool, Halifax, Norfolk and Baltimore. She was fitted with compound engines in 1875 by J.Jack, Rollo & Co, Liverpool and on 25/1/1876 resumed Liverpool - St John's NF - Halifax - Baltimore voyages. On 30/5/1876 she started Glasgow - Quebec - Montreal voyages and on 20/12/1879 made her first Glasgow - Boston voyage. On 13/5/1885 she made her first Glasgow - Philadelphia run. She was fitted with triple expansion engines by J.Howden & Co, Glasgow in 1888, and on 29/12/1888 resumed Glasgow - Boston service. On 11/5/1889 she commenced sailings between Glasgow and South America and on 20/5/1893 started running between London, Quebec and Montreal. Between 1896-1901 she was used mainly on the Glasgow - S.America service until 30/4/1902 when she resumed the Glasgow - Boston route. She commenced her last N.Atlantic crossing between Glasgow and Boston on 10/4/1903 and her last Glasgow - S.America voyage on 9/2/1904. In 1905 she was scrapped.[North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.312]

AVIEMORE 1870
1,147 gross ton three masted, wooden hulled sailing ship, length 215ft x beam 36.7ft. Built 1870 by W. Hood & Co., Aberdeen for George Thompson's Aberdeen Line of clippers. Used as an emigrant ship. In 1873 her passage time of 83 days to Sydney was one of the fastest of the year by an Aberdeen liner. In 1879 she made London to Melbourne in 79 days. 1889 sold to Johan Bryde, Sandefjord, Norway and continued Australia sailings. 1910 converted to a floating oil refinery. Later re-rigged as a barque and resumed trading. 1916 went missing in the North Atlantic.

AVILA / AVILA STAR 1926
The AVILA STAR was one of five sister ships built for the Blue Star Line of London. Built by John Brown & Co, Glasgow in 1926, she was 12,872 gross tons, length 512ft x beam 68.2ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 16 knots. There was spacious accommodation for 162-1st class passengers only and she was fitted with refrigerated cargo space for the frozen meat trade. Launched on 22nd Sep.1926 as the AVILA, she started her maiden voyage on 25th Mar.1927 when she left London for Madeira, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Montevideo and Buenos Aires. Renamed AVILA STAR in 1929 and rebuilt and lengthened to 569.2ft, 14,443 gross tons in 1935. She continued on the River Plate service until 6th July 1942 when she was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U.201 in the Atlantic at position 38.04N 22.46W with the loss of 62 lives.[Great Passenger Ships of the World by Arnold Kludas, vol.3][South Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor][Steamers of the Past by J.H.Isherwood, Sea Breezes Magazine, Sep.1970]

AVOCA 1866
was a 1,480 gross ton ship, length 257ft x beam 32.1ft, iron hull, clipper bows, one funnel, two masts (rigged for sail), single screw and a speed of 11 knots. Built in 1866 by William Denny & Bros, Dumbarton, she was placed on the P&O Line's Ceylon to Australia service in Nov.1866. In 1876 she transferred to the Melbourne - Sydney feeder service and in Oct.1882 was sold to agent of the Sultan of Zanzibar. Later purchased by Hajee Cassum Joosub, Bombay and scrapped in 1900.[Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.1, P&O Line]

AVOCA / SAN FERNANDO / ATLANTA / URANIUM / FELTRIA 1891
The "Uranium" was built by Wm Denny & Bros, Dumbarton in 1891 as the "Avoca" for British India Associated Steamers. She was a 5,183 gross ton ship, length 340ft x beam 43ft, one funnel, three masts (rigged for sail), single screw and a speed of 14 knots. There was accommodation for 80-1st and 1,000-3rd class passengers. Launched on 9th Jun.1891, and sailed on her maiden voyage on the Queensland Royal Mail service on 14th Sep.1891. In 1896 she was chartered to the Spanish Cia. Trasatlantica, renamed "San Fernando" and was used on the Central America service to Cuba, mainly with troops. She returned to British India later the same year, resumed her previous name and went back to the Australia service. Between 1899-1900 she made four trooping voyages between India and South Africa for the Boer War and a fifth as a hospital ship. In 1903 she was transferred to British India Steam Nav.Co and in 1907 was sold to the East Asiatic Co, Copenhagen and renamed "Atlanta". Used as a Royal Yacht for King Christian's visit to Greenland and was then laid up at Copenhagen. Sold to the New York & Continental Line in 1908, she reverted to her original name of "Avoca" and on 1st Apr.1908 commenced her first Hamburg - Rotterdam - Halifax - New York voyage. In July 1908 she landed 300 passengers at the Hook of Holland and then collided with an anchored German steamer. She docked at Rotterdam and was then arrested for the costs incurred as the result of the collision. The company was insolvent and the "Avoca" was auctioned to C.G.Ashdown for 15,000 UKP, who resold her two months later to North West Transport Line for 35,000 UKP. She was renamed "Uranium", and was in poor condition and fit only for the emigrant trade. Resumed the Rotterdam - Halifax - New York route on 3rd Apr.1909 and made nine voyages on this service, the last starting on 9th Apr.1910. In 1910 she came under the ownership of Uranium Steamship Co and continued Rotterdam - Halifax - New York voyages for her new owners on 4th Jun.1910. On 12th Jan.1913 she went ashore in thick fog near Halifax while going to the aid of the Allan liner "Carthaginian" which was on fire. She was salvaged and then refitted and improved and returned to the same service until starting her last sailing on 23rd Jul.1914 when she left Rotterdam for Halifax, New York, Montreal and the UK. In 1916 she was sold to Cunard Line, renamed "Feltria", and commenced Avonmouth - New York sailings in Nov.1916. On 5th May 1917 she was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine UC.48, while 8 miles off Mine Head, County Waterford, Ireland with the loss of 45 lives. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.1378-9][Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.11, British India S.N.Co]

AVOCETA 1923
3,442 gross tons, length 319ft x beam 44.2ft, accommodation for 150-1st class passengers, speed 12.5 knots. Built 1923 by Caledon Shipbuilding Co, Dundee for Yeoward Line Ltd, Liverpool who operated services to Spain, Portugal, Morocco, Las Palmas and Tenerife. 26.9.41 torpedoed and sunk by U.203 (Mutzelburg) in the Atlantic, North of the Azores at 47.57N 24.05W on passage Lisbon to Liverpool with 88 passengers, 469 tons of general cargo including mail, part of convoy HG73 comprising 25 ships. The Master, Captain H. Martin, Commodore Rear Admiral K. E. L. Creighton MVO RN, 19 crew, 2 gunners, 5 naval staff and 12 passengers were rescued by HMS PERIWINKLE and landed at Milford Haven. 3 crew were picked up by the British ship CERVANTES, transferred to HMS STARLING and taken to Liverpool. 43 crew, 4 gunners and 76 passengers were lost.

AVON / VESUVIUS 1870
Built in 1870 by T.R.Oswald & Co, Sunderland (engines by Thos Clark & Co, Newcastle. 1,594 gross tons, length 260.3ft x beam 33.6ft, one funnel, two masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. Launched on 2nd Feb.1870 and was chartered to the Temperley Line of London on 11th May 1870. She made three round voyages between London - Quebec - Montreal, the first one starting on 11th May 1870. In 1872 she was purchased by the Royal Netherlands Steamship Co and renamed VESUVIUS. On 1st Sep.1872 she made one round voyage between Antwerp - Plymouth - New York and was sunk in collision with the British ship SAVERNAKE off Hastings on 8th Apr.1876.[North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.671]

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