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SHIP DESCRIPTIONS - I-J

Please note that ships often changed hands and names many times. If an entry is just the name of the vessel followed by a "see..." then that vessel was renamed and you will find the full history under the redirected name. The date following the vessel name will be the year it became known by that name.

IBERIA 1873
was a 4,689 gross ton ship, length 433.4ft x beam 45ft, two funnels, three masts (rigged for sail), iron hull, single screw and a speed of 14 knots. Accommodation for 100-1st, 150-2nd and 340-3rd class passengers. Built by John Elder & Co, Glasgow, she was launched for Pacific Steam Nav. Co's Valparaiso service on 6th Dec.1873. Her maiden voyage from Liverpool to South America started on 21st Oct.1874, her completion having been delayed by strikes. On 12th May 1880 she started her first London - Suez - Melbourne - Sydney voyage for the joint Orient Line/PSNCo service. In 1883 she was used as a Government Transport in the Egyptian Campaigns and on 25th Jan.1883 was placed on regular Australia sailings. She reverted to Liverpool - Valparaiso sailings on 11th Jun.1890 and in 1893 was fitted with new engines, and her sailing rigging removed. Scrapped at Genoa in 1903. [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.8, Pacific Steam Navigation Co]

IBERIAN 1867
2,890 gross tons, length 390ft x beam 37.2ft, one funnel, four masts, iron hull, single screw, speed 10 knots. Launched on 4th Jun.1867 by Harland & Wolff, Belfast for the Bibby Line's Mediterranean services. 1873 transferred to Leyland Line and started her first Liverpool - Boston voyage on 11th Mar.1876. On 21st Nov.1885 she was wrecked on the south coast of Ireland with no loss of life [North Atlantic Seaway, vol. 3, p.985 by N.R.P. Bonsor]

IBERIAN 1900
5,223 gross tons, length 437ft x beam 48.8ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 12 knots. Launched on 21st Mar.1900 by Sir J. Laing & Co, Sunderland for the Leyland Line, Liverpool. Started maiden voyage on 9th Jun.1900 from Liverpool to Boston and continued North Atlantic services until 20th Jul.1917 when she was sunk by the German submarine U.28 off Fastnet Rock, Ireland with the loss of 7 lives. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol. 3, p.987 by N.R.P. Bonsor]

IDA / PULAWSKI 1906
4,730 gross tons, length 370.3ft x beam 49.8ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 10 knots. Cargo steamer. Delivered June 1906 by Russell & Co, Glasgow to Unione Austriaca. Aug.1915 interned in New York and May 1917 purchased by the Polish American Navigation Co. and renamed PULAWSKI. 1920 with the transfer of Trieste to Italian rule, she was transferred to Cosulich Societa Triestina and reverted to IDA. 1924 sold to Tanaka Kisen Kogyo K.K., Amagasaki and renamed IDA MARU. 1936 renamed RISSHUN MARU by Kusakabe Kisen K.K., Amagasaki. 1939 name re-spelt as RISSYUN MARU. Lost during WWII. [Merchant Fleets, vol.40 by Duncan Haws]

IDAHO 1869
Built by Palmer Bros & Co, Jarrow-on-Tyne in 1869 for the Guion Line of Liverpool, this was a 3,132 gross ton ship, length 345.3ft x beam 43.4ft, straight stem, one funnel, two masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. Launched on 13th Feb.1869, she sailed on her maiden Liverpool - Queenstown (Cobh) - New York voyage on 13th Apr.1869. She continued on this service until 1st June 1878 when she was wrecked on the coast of Wexford, Ireland with no loss of life. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.709]

IKBAL 1894
was 5,434 g.t. 445ft x 49ft, 1 funnel, four masts, twin screw, 14 knots. Built Harland & Wolff, Belfast. Launched 22/2/1894 for E. Bates & Co's Ikbal SS Co, Liverpool. Chartered to Elder Dempster Line for Avonmouth - Quebec - Montreal service July 1899. (Don't know how long, possibly just the one voyage?). Sold to Gulf Transport, Liverpool 1913. Chartered to Canadian Pacific 1915. Acquired by Elder Dempster, March 1917. On 29th Apr.1917 while on her first ED voyage St Johns NB - Liverpool she was torpedoed and sunk by the U.93, 250 miles west of Ushant.

ILE DE FRANCE / FARANSU MARU / CLARIDON 1926
was a 43,153 gross ton liner built in 1926 by Chantiers & Ateliers de St. Nazaire for the French Line (Compagnie Generale Transatlantique). She had an overall length of 792.9ft x beam 91.8ft, three funnels, two masts, four screws and a speed of 23 knots. There was accommodation for 537-1st, 603-2nd and 646-3rd class passengers. Launched on 14th Mar.1926, she sailed on her maiden voyage from Havre to Plymouth and New York on 22nd Jun.1927. In July 1928 she was fitted with a catapult in her stern and on 13th Aug.1928, catapulted a seaplane from the ship when 400 miles from New York. The last seaplane landing was made in Havre harbour in October 1930 and the catapult was removed in 1930-31. On 15th Mar.1932 her accommodation was regraded to 670-1st, 408-tourist and 508-3rd class passengers and on 9th Jan.1935 she commenced a Havre - Southampton - New York service. In March 1936 her accommodation was again regraded to cabin, tourist and third class and on 1st Sep.1939 she started her last voyage from Havre to New York, where she was laid up. On 1st May 1940 she sailed to Marseilles and then to Capetown, and Saigon but was diverted to Singapore, where she was seized by the Royal Navy. On 8th Nov.1940 she was requisitioned as a troopship and on 10th Mar.1941 sailed from Singapore for Sydney. On 22nd Sep.1945 she reverted to the French flag but stayed under Cunard management and on 3rd Feb.1946 returned to the French Line. She commenced her first post war commercial voyage on 22nd Oct.1946 when she sailed from Cherbourg for New York, but from April 1947 to July 1949 was completely reconditioned and rebuilt to 44,356 tons, two funnels, 541-1st class, 577-cabin class and 227-tourist class passengers. On 21st Jul.1949 she resumed the Havre - Southampton - New York service and on 26th Jul.1956 rescued 750 survivors from the sinking liner ANDREA DORIA. On 10th Nov.1958 she commenced her last voyage from New York to Plymouth and Havre and on 26th Feb.1959 sailed from Havre for Osaka as the FARANSU MARU preparatory to scrapping. In 1959 she was renamed CLARIDON and scuttled during the making of the film "The Last Voyage"; later refloated and scrapped at Osaka. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.663]

ILLINOIS / SUPPLY 1873
was a 3,104 gross ton ship, length 343ft x beam 43ft, one funnel, two masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 12 knots. There was accommodation for 46-1st, 132-intermediate and 789-3rd class passengers. Built by W.Cramp & Sons, Philadelphia, she was launched for the American Steamship Co in June 1873. Her maiden voyage started on 23rd Jan.1874 when she sailed from Philadelphia for Queenstown (Cobh) and Liverpool. She started her last Liverpool - Philadelphia crossing on 7th Jul.1886 and on 17th Dec.1886 started Philadelphia - Antwerp sailings under charter to the Red Star Line. Her first Antwerp - New York voyage started 16th Mar.1887 and in 1891 she was fitted with triple-expansion engines and refitted to carry intermediate and 3rd class passengers only. Her 20th and last Antwerp - New York round voyage commenced 27th Feb.1892 and she subsequently sailed between Antwerp and Philadelphia until 1897. In March 1898 she sailed from Philadelphia to San Francisco and was sold for service on the Pacific. On 30th Apr.1898 she came under the ownership of the US Government, was renamed SUPPLY and was sold on 30th Sep.1921. Scrapped in 1928. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.939]

ILMATAR 1929
2,365 gross tons, 270.1ft x 41.6ft, single screw, speed 13 knots. Built 1929 by A/S Burmeister & Wain, Copenhagen for the Finland SS Co., Helsingfors. Jan.1945 transferred to USSR as war reparations, renamed EMBA - later became Russian Navy depot ship. Fate unknown but deleted from registers in 1963.

IMO / RUNIC / TAMPICAN / GUVERNOREN 1889
was originally the White Star liner RUNIC of 1889. Sold to West India & Pacific Line in 1895 and renamed TAMPICAN and in 1899 came under the ownership of Leyland Line. Sold to Norwegian owners in 1912 and became IMO and in 1920 was renamed GUVERNOREN. Wrecked at Port Stanley, Falkland Islands in 1921.

IMPERADOR / TAMPICO / GUADELOUPE / SORRENTO 1854
was built in 1854 as the IMPERADOR by John Laird, Birkenhead for the South American & General Steam Navigation Co.of Liverpool. She was a 1,700 gross ton ship, length 265ft x beam 36.5ft, clipper stem, one funnel, three masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. When built, she had passenger accommodation for 160-1st plus 2nd and 3rd class passengers. Launched on 13/7/1854, she sailed from Liverpool on 24/10/1854 on her maiden voyage to Lisbon, Madeira, Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and return via the same ports, arriving at Liverpool on 4/1/1855. She was then fitted out as a troop transport for the Crimean War. In 1862 she was sold to the French company, Compagnie Generale Transatlantique (French Line), renamed TAMPICO and on 12/8/1866 commenced her first voyage from Havre to New York, Vera Cruz and Havre. She commenced her second and last round voyage on this route on 11/5/1867 and in 1869-70 was fitted with compound engines by John Elder, Glasgow. She was renamed GUADELOUPE and ran for the same company until 1889, when she was sold to Norwegian owners and renamed SORRENTO. In Aug.1890 she foundered in the North Sea. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.652]

IMPERATOR / BERENGARIA 1912
was a luxury liner. She was a 51,969 gross ton ship, length 882.8ft x beam 98.3ft, three funnels, two masts, four propellors and a speed of 22 knots. There was accommodation for 908-1st, 592-2nd, 962-3rd and 1,772-4th class passengers. Built by AG Vulcan, Hamburg, she was launched on 23rd May 1912 for the Hamburg America Line. She started her maiden voyage from Hamburg to Southampton, Cherbourg and New York on 11th Jun.1913 and her last voyage on this route started on 8th July 1914 after which she was laid up at Hamburg. Surrendered to the USA in 1919, she was allocated to Britain as war reparations in 1920 and managed by Cunard Line. After rebuilding, she was used on the Southampton - Cherbourg - New York service and was purchased by Cunard in 1921 and renamed BERENGARIA. She continued the same service until 1938 when, on 3rd March she was damaged by fire at New York. She then sailed to Southampton without passengers, and arrived at Jarrow in December where she was partly dismantled. In 1946 she was towed to Rosyth where she was scrapped. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.415]

IMPERATRICE EUGENIE / AMERIQUE 1864
was built by Chantier de Penhoet (under supervision of Scott & Co), St Nazaire in 1864. She was a 4,585 gross ton ship, length 400ft x beam 44ft, straight stem, two funnels, three masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 12 knots. She was laid down as the ATLANTIQUE but was launched on 23/4/1864 as the IMPERATRICE EUGENIE for the Compagnie Generale Transatlantique (French Line). When launched, she was a 3,200 gross ton ship, length 346.6ft x beam 44ft, two funnels, two masts, paddle wheel propulsion and a speed of 12 knots. She sailed from St Nazaire on her maiden voyage to Vera Cruz on 16/2/1865 and stayed on this service until 1873. She was then lengthened to 400ft by A.Leslie & Co, Hebburn-on-Tyne, re-engined and converted to single screw propulsion and had a third mast fitted. Renamed AMERIQUE, she started her first Havre - New York voyage on 16/1/1874. On 14/4/1874 she was abandoned near the French coast and was towed to Plymouth. Resumed Havre - New York sailings on 13/3/1875 and in March 1876 was fitted with external electric lighting (to replace oil lamps). On 7/1/1877 she stranded at Seabright, NJ, but was refloated on 10th April and resumed Havre - New York crossings on 11/8/1877. She commenced her last voyage on this service on 1/5/1886 and on 22/9/1886 commenced her first Havre - Panama voyage. Fitted with internal electric lights in 1888 and with triple expansion engines in 1892. On 28/1/1895 she was wrecked at Savanilla. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.654]

IMPERATOR NICOLAI II 1898
915 gross ton passenger / cargo ship, length 222.7ft x beam 31.6ft, built 1898 by Howaldstwerke. Kiel for Rigaer Dampschiffahrt Ges, Riga (Rizhskoye parokhodnoye obshchestvo). 1913 transferred to Russian East Asiatic Co., Riga. 1917 taken over by Russian Navy as a hospital ship, renamed TOVARITSCH.13th April 1918 left at Helsinki and subsequently recovered by Danish owners. 1920 renamed REVAL for East Asiatic Co., Copenhagen. 10th Jan.1921 wrecked near Stolpmunde on voyage London to Danzig & Libau with general cargo.

IMPERATRIZA ALEXANDRA 1903
2,508 g.t., 290ft x 40ft, single screw, speed 13 knots, passenger / cargo ship. Completed July 1903 as WOLOGDA (VOLOGDA) by Caledon Shipbuilding & Engineering Co, Dundee (Yard No.172) for Handelshaus Gebr. Lassmann, Windau (controlled by DFDS, Copenhagen). Used on Riga to Hull service. Dec.1910 sold to Helmsing & Grimm, Riga and renamed IMPERATRIZA ALEXANDRA. Same service. 1915 taken over by Russian Navy and renamed ORLITZA and converted to seaplane carrier. 1918 renamed SOVET and used as transport ship but laid up due to her poor condition. 1922 converted to refrigerated cargo and passenger ship and used on Leningrad - London route. 1930 Vladivostok - Somgawan - Alexandrowk service 1938 used as transport ship during Russo - Chinese war. Later in service Vladivostok - Alexandrowsk. 1958 scrapped (1960 deleted from Lloyds Register) [DFDS by S. Thorsoe and others]

INCHARRAN 1889
2,948 gross ton cargo steamer, length 320ft x beam 42.3ft, built 1889 by Palmers Shipbuilding & Engineering Co., Newcastle for Hamilton, Fraser & Co., Liverpool.
1899 sold to Tynedale Steam Shipping Co., Newcastle renamed TYNEDALE.
1903 Sold to A. Craig, Belfast.
1915 sold to the Admiralty for use as a blockship, but not used as such.
1919 owned by The Shipping Controller, Belfast.
1920 Hebburn Transport Co., London.
1925 Scrapped in Italy.

INDIA 1868
was a 2,290 gross ton ship, length 311.6ft x beam 36.7ft, clipper bows, one funnel, two masts (rigged for sail), iron hull, single screw and a speed of 12 knots. Accommodation for 60-1st and 500-3rd class passengers. Built by W. Simons & Co, Renfrew, she was launched for the Anchor Line in July 1868. Her maiden voyage started on 6th Feb.1869 when she left Glasgow for Moville (Ireland) and New York, and she started her last Glasgow - Queenstown (Cobh) - New York sailing on 8th Jul.1874. She then transferred to Glasgow - Mediterranean - New York - Glasgow sailings for three voyages and was then used for the Glasgow - Liverpool - Bombay route until 1882 and then resumed Glasgow - Mediterranean - New York sailings. On 16th Apr.1893 she started her final voyage from Leghorn to Naples and New York and was scrapped the following year. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.454]

INDIA 1881
was a 1,551 gross ton ship, length 260.8ft x beam 33.6ft, one funnel, two masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. Passenger accommodation for 500-3rd class. Built by C. Mitchell & Co, Walker-on-Tyne (engines by Blair & Co, Stockton), she was launched for the Carr Line on 12th Oct.1881. Her maiden voyage started on 5th Mar.1882 when she sailed from Hamburg for Plymouth and New York. On 11th Jun.1888 she commenced her last sailing on this route and in 1890 cane under the ownership of Hamburg America Line. Sold to G. L. Glaisor, Hamburg in 1893/4 and was last seen passing Sagres, Portugal on 5th Jan.1901 and subsequently went missing. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.1073] [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.4, Hamburg America Line]

INDIAN EMPIRE 1858 see UNITED STATES 1847

INDIANA 1873
INDIANA belonged to the International Navigation Co of New Jersey, which later became the American Line. This was a 3,104 gross ton ship, length 343ft x beam 43ft, one funnel, two masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 12 knots. There was accommodation for 46-1st, 132-intermediate and 789-3rd class passengers. Built by W.Cramp & Sons, Philadelphia, she was launched on 25/3/1873.  She commenced her first voyage on 27/10/1873 when she sailed from Philadelphia for Queenstown (Cobh) and Liverpool. On 6/3/1889 she was chartered to Red Star Line and completed a single round voyage from Antwerp to New York. In 1891 she was fitted with triple expansion engines and rebuilt to accommodate intermediate and 3rd class passengers only. On 1/12/1897 she commenced her last voyage from Liverpool to Philadelphia and 28/3/1898 sailed from Philadelphia for Seattle, where she was sold for service on the Pacific. On 3/4/1909 she was wrecked at Cape Tosco, Mexico. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.939]

INDIANA / ROMANIA 1905
belonged to Lloyd Italiano, Genoa and was a 4996 gross ton ship, length 393.7ft x beam 48.4ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw, speed 14 knots. There was accommodation for 25-1st and 1,600-3rd class passengers. Built by Societa Esercizio Bacini, Riva Trigoso, she was launched on 10th Oct.1905 and started her maiden voyage from Genoa to Naples and Buenos Aires on 29th Oct.1905. On 5th Feb.1906 she commenced her first Genoa - Naples - New York voyage and in 1911, her first class accommodation was downgraded to 2nd class. Her last New York sailing started on 17th May 1913 and she then transferred to South America sailings. Taken over by Navigazione Generale Italiana in 1918, she was sold to Sitmar Line in 1924 and renamed ROMANIA and was scrapped in 1928. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor, vol.3, p.1344]

INDIPENDENTE / TEBE 1883
2,837 gross tons, length 350ft x beam 40ft, clipper bows, one funnel, three masts, iron hull, single screw, speed 12 knots. Launched 20th Jun.1883 by A. Stephen & Sons, Glasgow for Navigazione Generale Italiana, Genoa. 26th Aug.1883 maiden voyage Palermo - New York. 15th Sep.1883 stranded at Jones Beach, Long Island but refloated. 19th May 1888. 20th and last voyage Palermo - Catania - Messina - New York the transferred to the South America service. 1903 renamed TEBE for the company's Italy - Alexandria service and masts reduced to two. 1910 transferred to Soc. Nazionale di Servizi Marittimi. 1913 transferred to Sicilia. 1923 transferred to Italia. 1925 transferred to Citra. 1929 scrapped at Genoa. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.3. p.1112 by N.R.P.Bonsor]

INDRABARAH / PORT ELLIOT 1910
7395 gross tons, length 471ft x beam 58.4ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw, speed 12 knots. Built 1910 by Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson, Newcastle for Thomas B. Royden & Co (Indra Line Ltd) which sailed UK - Australia - New Zealand and New York - Far East. 1914 transferred to the Commonwealth & Dominion Line (Port Line), 1916 renamed PORT ELLIOT. 12th Jan.1924 en route Auckland - Wellington wrecked near Horoera Point, 80 miles north of Gisborne.

INDRAPURA / PORT AUCKLAND 1911
This is the INDRAPURA belonging to T.B.Royden & Co's Indra Line. She was used by G.D.Tyser & Co for their emigrant trade from London to Melbourne and Sydney between 1912 and 1914. She was renamed PORT AUCKLAND in 1916 and torpedoed and sunk in the English Channel on 3rd Feb.1917. [North Star to Southern Cross by John M. Maber]

INIZIATIVA 1881
2,040 gross tons Passenger / cargo ship, length 300ft x beam 37.2ft, iron hull, one funnel, two masts (rigged for sails), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 11knots.
Built 1881 by Alec Stephens for Soc.Ital. di Trasporti Marittimi Raggio & Co, Genoa. Launched on 26th July 1881, 1885 taken over by Navigazione Generale Italiana, Palermo. 19th May 1885 first sailing Palermo - Catania - New York. She started her last voyage on the Palermo - New York service on 20th July 1894, a total of 28 round voyages on this route.
1910 Sold to Comm. T.Astarita, Naples.
10th Nov.1915 sailed from Swansea for Civitavecchia with a cargo of coal and went missing.

IOANNINA / DUNOLLY CASTLE / JULIETTE / ARCONIA / HITTFELD / IOANNINA 1896
built in 1896 by Barclay Curle & Co, Glasgow as the DUNOLLY CASTLE for the Castle Line of Liverpool. She was a 4,167 gross ton ship, length 368ft x beam 46.3ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw and a speed of 12 knots. Launched on 4/11/1896 she served with the Castle Line until 1905 when she was disposed of for being too slow and having a reputation of rolling heavily. She was sold to the East Asiatic Co of Denmark and renamed JULIETTE and in 1907 was transferred to the subsidiary Russian company, Russian American Line. Renamed ARCONIA, she sailed from Libau to Rotterdam and New York for four round voyages in 1907 and the following year was sold to German owners and renamed HITTFELD. In 1913 she was again sold to the National Greek Line, renamed IOANNINA and refitted to accommodate 60-1st, 50-2nd and 1,750-3rd class passengers. She commenced her first voyage for these owners on 30/10/1913 when she left Piraeus for Kalamata, Patras and New York. She continued on the Mediterranean - New York service until 15/12/1917 when she was torpedoed and sunk off the Azores by a German submarine. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol3,p.1355. vol.4,p.1416]

IONIAN 1901
was built by Workman Clark & Co Ltd, Belfast in 1901 for the Allan Line of Liverpool. Her details were - 8,268 gross tons, length 470ft x beam 57.5ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 14 knots. There was accommodation for 132-1st, 160-2nd and 800-3rd class passengers. Launched on 12/9/1901, she sailed on her maiden voyage from Liverpool to Halifax and St John NB on 21/11/1901. On 15/5/1902 she commenced her first voyage from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal and on 27/5/1905 started her first Glasgow - Quebec - Montreal run. On 17/5/1906 she resumed the Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal service and on 20/7/1907 went back to the Glasgow - Quebec - Montreal run. In 1909 she was converted to carry 325-2nd and 800-3rd class passengers and started her first London - Quebec - Montreal voyage on 25/4/1912. Her last run on this service started on 30/7/1914 and she then went onto trooping duties to Bombay via Suez. In 1917 she went to Canadian Pacific who had taken over Allan Line, but returned to trooping in October of that year. On 21/10/1917  she was sunk by a mine laid off Milford Haven by the German submarine UC.51 with the loss of 7 lives. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.322]

IONIC / SOPHOCLES 1883
4,748 gross tons, length 439.9ft x beam 44.2ft, one funnel, four masts, single screw, speed 13 knots, accommodation for 70-1st and 900-3rd class passengers. Built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast for Shaw Savill & Albion Line in Dec.1883, she entered service initially under charter to the New Zealand Shipping Co. and started her maiden voyage London to Wellington on 26th Apr.1883. On 3rd Dec.1884 she started her first voyage from London to Cape Town, Port Chalmers, Lyttelton and Wellington on the joint White Star / Shaw Savill Line service. Initially square rigged on the first three masts and later on the foremast only, this also was later removed. In Feb.1893 shortly after leaving Cape Town, the propellor shaft snapped and she was towed back by the HAWARDEN CASTLE. In 1894 she was returned to her builders, re-engined, refrigeration fitted and accommodation modernised. 1899 became a Boer War transport, made her final sailing for Shaw Savill & Albion on 21st Dec.1899 and chartered to the Spanish Government to repatriate troops from the Philippines in 1900 after their war with the USA. She was then sold to the Aberdeen Line, renamed SOPHOCLES and her final sailing rigging removed. Used on their London - Cape Town - Australia service until 1906, sold for scrapping the following year and broken up at Morecombe.[North Star to Southern Cross by John M. Maber] [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vols.10 & 17]

IONIC 1902
12,232 gross tons, 7,826 net tons, length 500ft x beam 63.3ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw, speed 14 knots, accommodation for 121-1st, 117-2nd and 450-3rd class passengers. Refrigerated cargo space. Built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast, she was launched on 22nd May 1902 for the Shaw Savill & Albion - White Star Line joint service to New Zealand. Her maiden voyage to Wellington started 16th Jan.1903 and she stayed on this service until 1914 when she became a New Zealand Exprditionary Force troopship. 1917 used under the liner requisition scheme. 31st Jan.1919 resumed commercial service via the Panama Canal. 1927 rescued the crew of the French Grand Banks fishing boat DAISY. 1929 converted to Cabin and Third Class accommodation. 1934 with the merger of White Star Line and Cunard, the ship was bought outright by Shaw Savill & Albion Line. 1936 owned by the group's Norfolk & North American S.S.Co, she started her final sailing on 9th Sep.1936 and was scrapped at Osaka the following year. The ship's bell is in Auckland's War Memorial Museum. [Merchant Fleets, vol.10 by Duncan Haws]

IOWA / MACEDONIA 1863
IOWA, built by Malcolmson Bros, Waterford in 1863 for the London & New York Steamship Line. She was a 1,988 gross ton ship, length 315ft x beam 34ft, clipper stem, one funnel, four masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. There was accommodation for 80-cabin and 540-3rd class passengers. Launched on 28th Nov.1863, she sailed from London on her maiden voyage to Havre and New York on 17th Jul.1864. On 6th Dec.1864 she stranded at Ormonville, near Cherbourg due to a compass fault. After refloating, she sank in shallow water and remained there for six months, until salvaged and sold. In March 1866 she was purchased by the Anchor Line and commenced Glasgow - New York sailings on 1st Jul.1866. Her last voyage on this service started on 19th Nov.1873 and she was renamed MACEDONIA on 30th Dec.1873. She resumed Glasgow - New York voyages the following day, and in 1874 was rebuilt to 2,273 tons, re-engined and then sailed from Glasgow for Alexandria, Naples, New York and Glasgow. After this voyage she was used on the Glasgow - Liverpool - Bombay service for 17 voyages before resuming Glasgow - Naples (dep.16.2.1881) - New York - Glasgow for one round voyage. On 21st Apr.1881 she resumed Glasgow - New York sailings and on 30th May 1881 was wrecked on the Mull of Kintyre with no loss of life. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.452] [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.9, Anchor Line]

IOWA 1879
The IOWA was built by R & J Evans & Co. at Liverpool in 1879 for George Warren & Co. (which later became the Warren Line) of Liverpool. She was a 4329 gross ton vessel, length 378.2ft x beam 43.9ft, one funnel, four masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. I have no information on the number of passengers carried but it was probably only a few. She was launched on 18th Sep.1879 and commenced her maiden voyage from Liverpool to Boston on 10th Jan.1880. She stayed on this service until 22nd Feb.1891 when she foundered after steaming into an icefield. There was no loss of life. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2, p.685]

IROQUOIS 1917see WITTEKIND 1894

IRRAWADDY / CHAS D. LANE 1873
2517 g.t., length 351ft, clipper bows. Launched 22.12.1873 by Wm. Denny & Bros and transferred while fitting out to the newly formed British & Burmese S.N.Co. 1894 sold to P. Henderson & Co. (Burma service). 1897 sold to Trinidad Shipping & Trading Co, Glasgow. 1898 purchased by West Indies Shipping Co., New York. 1901 renamed CHAS D. LANE for the Wild Goose Mining & Trading Co, San Francisco. 1904 scrapped.

IRRAWADDY / MARAVAL 1903
5,144 gross tons, length 395.7ft x 50.2ft, single screw, speed 11 knots. Accommodation for 74-1st class passengers. Built 1903 by W. Denny & Bros, Dumbarton as the IRRAWADDY for Burmah Steamship Co. (P. Henderson & Co.), Glasgow. 1914 Sold to Trinidad Shipping & Trading Co. Ltd, Glasgow renamed MARAVAL. 1920 transferred to Bermuda & West Indies S.S.Co. Ltd (Furness, Withy & Co. Ltd), Hamilton, Bermuda. Traded Trinidad - New York. 1934 scrapped.

ISLAND 1882
2,844 gross tons, length 313ft x beam 39.2ft, one funnel, three masts (rigged for sail), iron hull, single screw, speed 11 knots, accommodation for 50-1st, 50-2nd and 900-3rd class passengers. Launched in Aug.1882 by Burmeister & Wain, Copenhagen for the Thingvalla Line, she started her maiden voyage on 6th Sep.1882 when she left Copenhagen for Christiania (Oslo), Christiansand and New York. Her last sailing on this route for these owners started on 7th Sep.1898 and she was then sold to Scandinavian American Line. She re-started New York voyages on 28th Dec.1898 and commenced her last sailing on 22nd Dec.1904. She arrived back in Copenhagen on 8th Feb.1905 and was then laid up. Sold to Calame & Cortese, Genoa on 20th Jan.1906, she sprang a leak in Copenhagen harbour on 26th Jan., and was scrapped at La Spezia. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.3,p.1051 by N.R.P.Bonsor] [DFDS Line by S.Thorsoe & others]

ISMAILIA 1870
1,630 gross tons, length 300ft x beam 33.2ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 10 knots, accommodation for 50-1st and 450-steerage class passengers. Launched by R. Duncan & Co, Glasgow on 30th Jan.1870 for the Anchor Line, Glasgow, she started her maiden voyage in August on the triangular Glasgow - Mediterranean - New York service. She continued on both the triangular service and New York direct service with summer calls at Halifax and St. John, N.B. On 29th Sep.1873 she left New York for Glasgow and on 2nd Oct. exchanged signals with a passing ship. She then disappeared without trace. Fortunately there were only a few passengers aboard, but 52 lives were lost. [Merchant Fleets. vol.9 by Duncan Haws]

ISOLA DI LEVANZO / LEVANZO 1901
3,713 gross tons, length 339.6ft x beam 46.3ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 11 knots, accommodation for 1st class and 900-3rd class passengers. Built by Fratelli Orlando, Leghorn (Livorno), she was launched in 1901 for Soc. Meridionale di Trasporti Marittimi. Chartered to Navigazione Generale Italiana, she left Messina on 15th May 1901 on her maiden voyage to Palermo, Naples and New York. She started her third and last voyage on 17th Jan.1902 between Girgenti - Palermo - Bermuda (for coal bunkers) - New York. 1902 sold to N.G.I., Palermo, renamed LEVANZO. July 1910 transferred to Soc. Nazionale di Servizi Marittimi and used on the Black Sea and Alexandria routes. 1911 taken over by the Italian Government during the Turkish War, later returned to owners. 1913 operated by Soc. Marittima Italiana, Palermo / Naples. 1915 seized in the Black Sea by Turkey (Bonsor states Russia). Nov.1916 badly damaged by mine, subsequently repaired. Jan.1919 returned to owners and used on Massawa supply service. 14th Mar.1923 went ashore on Elba Reef, Red Sea on voyage Genoa to Durban with general cargo and salt. 28th Mar.1923 broke towing hawser during salvage operation, drifted onto rocks and sank. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.3,p.1115 by N.R.P.Bonsor] [Register of Merchant Ships Completed in 1901 by Wm. A. Schell] [Merchant Fleets, vol.40 by Duncan Haws]

ISTAMBOUL 1856
ISTAMBOUL belonged to the Australian Auxiliary Steam Clipper Co. Ltd. This was a wooden hulled, steam assisted full rigged ship of 1,470 tons and a speed of 8 knots. Built in Hartlepool, she made a voyage between London and Melbourne on 10th Nov.1856 and a second similar voyage which ended at Plymouth on 12th May 1858. These ships were not succesful as the screw tended to interfere with their sailing abilities and the weak engine meant that they were neither good sailing ships or steamers. The company was wound up after these two voyages and it is possible that the ship was used on later Australian voyages as a sailing ship, but I have no record of this. [North Star to Southern Cross by John M. Maber]

ISTRIAN 1867
was a 2,890 gross ton ship, length 390ft x beam 37.2ft, one funnel, four masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. Built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast, engines by J. Jack & Co, Liverpool, she was launched for the Bibby Line on 10th Mar.1867. In 1873 she was sold to Frederick Leyland & Co and started her first Liverpool - Boston voyage on 25th Mar.1876. She continued North Atlantic services and was re-engined in 1877. In 1892 she was sold to J. Glynn & Sons, Liverpool and in 1894 went to Furness Withy & Co. She was scrapped at Garston, Merseyside in 1895. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor, vol.3,p.985] [Furness Withy by David Burrell] [Bibby Line: 175 Years of Achievement by E.W. Paget-Tomlinson]

ITALIA 1872
The "Italia" was built by Robert Duncan & Co. of Port Glasgow in 1872 for Henderson Bros. which later became the Anchor Line. She was an iron built vessel of 2245 gross tons, length 306ft x beam 34.4ft (93.26m x 10.48m), one funnel, three masts, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. She had accommodation for 130-1st class and 700-3rd class passengers. Launched on 24/7/1872, she commenced her maiden voyage from Glasgow to Marseilles, Genoa, Naples, Messina, New York and Glasgow in December 1872. After two voyages, she was transferred to the Glasgow - New York [direct] service for ten trips commencing 2/7/1873 and then, in Sept.1874 resumed the Glasgow - Mediterranean - NY - Glasgow service. After eight voyages she transferred to the London - NY run for one voyage commencing 22/1/1877 and then from 1877-1880 was used on the Glasgow - Bombay run. In 1880-1881 she did two trips from Glasgow - Mediterranean - New York and on 25/5/1881 commenced running from Barrow - Dublin - New York. She commenced her last voyage on this service on 26/10/1881 after four trips and was transferred to the Glasgow - Liverpool - Bombay run for three voyages between 1881-83. From then until 1897 she was transferred to the Mediterranean - New York service and on 31/3/1897 left Genoa for Naples and New York on her last voyage arriving on 6/5/1897. On 24/2/1898 she went to the scrapyard in Italy. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.1,p.458 by N.R.P.Bonsor]

ITALIA / MILANO / TENEDOS 1889
was built in 1889 by Armstrong, Mitchell & Co, Walker-on-Tyne. She was a 3,564 gross ton ship, length 344.5ft x beam 43.5ft, straight stem, one funnel, two masts, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. There was accommodation for 50-1st and 1,400-3rd class passengers. Purchased on the stocks by Hamburg America Line in March 1889, she was launched on 2/4/1889 and commenced her maiden voyage from Hamburg to New York on 6/6/1889. She commenced her last voyage on this route on 3/5/1890 (6 round voyages), and on 25/6/1890 started sailings between Stettin (Sczeczin) and New York. She started her last voyage on this service on 19/11/1893 (21 round voyages) and on 7/3/1894 commenced Hamburg - Boston - Baltimore voyages. On 6/11/1898 she was chartered to Red Star Line and made a single Antwerp - New York voyage and in Jan 1899 made a single Antwerp - Philadelphia crossing. Chartered to the American Line in March 1899, she made 5 round voyages between Liverpool and Philadelphia, the last in August of that year. Her last Hamburg - New York voyage for Hamburg America Line started on 31/1/1900 and she then went to the Sloman Line of Hamburg and was renamed MILANO. Her first voyage for these owners started on 29/3/1900 when she sailed from Hamburg for New York, and her last voyage on this route commenced on 5/6/1903. Later the same year she was sold to Deutsche Levante, renamed TENEDOS and used on their New York to Black Sea ports service. She started her final voyage on 28/5/1904 when she left Odessa for Batum, Constantinople, Smyrna, Piraeus and New York. In 1914 she was transferred to the Turkish Navy and used as an auxiliary and in 1915 was torpedoed and sunk by the British submarine E-19 near Akbash, Turkey. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.395-6]

ITALIA 1903
4,806 gross tons, length 400ft x beam 49.2ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw an a speed of 14 knots. Accommodation for 20-1st an 1,400-3rd class passengers. Built by D.& W.Henderson, Glasgow, she was launched for the Anchor Line of Glasgow on 7th Dec.1903. Her maiden voyage started on 9th Feb.1904 when she left Genoa for Leghorn, Naples and New York. In May 1918 she made her last Mediterranean - New York voyage before being used for three voyages as a North Atlantic troopship. On 31st Dec.1918 she commenced her first Glasgow - New York sailing and resumed New York - Mediterranean sailings on 22nd Jan.1919. Her last voyage between Trieste, Messina, Palermo and New York started on 10th Jul.1922 and on 18th Nov.1922 she resumed Glasgow - New York sailings. After one more voyage on this service (comm.18th Jan.1923), she was scrapped in June 1923. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.466]

ITALIA / MASANIELLO 1904
6,366 gross tons, 391.7ft x 52.1ft, one funnel, five masts, single screw, speed 12 knots, acommodation for 58-1st and 1,900-3rd class passengers. Built by Cantieri Navale Siciliana, Palermo for for Peirce Bros (Sicula Americana), she was launched on 20th Nov.1904 and on 12th Dec.1904 started her maiden voyage from Messina to Palermo and New York. On 15th Apr.1905 she was chartered to Navigazione Generale Italiana and commenced sailings from Genoa to Naples, Messina, Palermo and New York. In Dec.1905 she lost her propeller while eastbound with 700 passengers and was towed 200 miles to the Azores by the s/s ETON HALL. She commenced her 10th and last charter voyage on 6th Nov.1906 when she left Naples for Messina, Palermo and New York and on 5th Mar.1907 resumed Genoa - Leghorn - Naples - New York sailings for Sicula Americana (Peirce Bros). 23rd Apr.1907 first Naples - Messina - Palermo - New York voyage for Peirce. 16th Nov.1907 sixth and last ditto voyage. Subsequently used for cargo only. 1917 sold to Transoceanica renamed MASANIELLO. 1921 transferred to NGI. 1925 sold to Tito Campanella, Italy. 1933 scrapped. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.3 by N.R.P. Bonsor]

ITALIA / KUNGSHOLM / JOHN ERICSSON / IMPERIAL BAHAMA HOTEL 1928
The ITALIA was built as the KUNGSHOLM (2) for the Swedish American Line in 1928. Built by Blohm & Voss, Hamburg (engines by Burmeister & Wain, Copenhagen), she was a 21,532 gross ton motorship, length overall 609.2ft x beam 78.2ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 17 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 115-1st, 490-2nd and 970-3rd class. Launched on 17th March 1928, she sailed from Gothenburg on her maiden voyage to New York on 24th November 1928. In April 1932 she was refitted to carry 1st, tourist and 3rd class passengers and on 5th October 1939 commenced her last Gothenburg - New York voyage. Subsequently she was used until December 1941 on New York - West Indies cruises.
She was bought by the US government on 13th December 1941, renamed JOHN ERICSSON and served as a US troopship. On 7th May 1946 she was chartered by United States Line and commenced New York - Southampton sailings. In February 1947 she commenced her eighth and last crossing from Southampton to Havre, Cobh and New York and on 7th March 1947 was damaged by fire in New York and repurchased by Swedish American Line.
Sailed from New York for Genoa on 21st Novermber 1947 and was refitted and acquired by Home Lines of Panama and renamed ITALIA. After refit, she was 16,777 gross tons and with accommodation for 226-1st, 296-cabin and 800-tourist class passengers. On 8th April 1948 she commenced her first voyage from Genoa to South America, and on 12th June 1979 started her first Genoa - Naples - Lisbon - New York voyage. In 1952 she was altered to carry 213-1st and 1,106-tourist class and on 14th March 1952 started her first New York - Hamburg crossing. On 29th March 1952 she started sailings between Hamburg, Southampton, Halifax and New York and in 1958 was altered to carry 140-1st and 1,150-tourist class. She started her first Cuxhaven - Zeebrugge - Havre - Southampton - Quebec voyage on 23rd April 1959 and her first Cuxhaven - Havre - Southampton - Quebec - Montreal voyage on 23rd May 1959.
Her last Montreal - Quebec - Southampton - Havre - Cuxhaven - Havre - Southampton - Halifax - New York round voyage commenced 28th November 1960 and she then did a single crossing from New York to Halifax, Lisbon, Naples and Piraeus. On 4th September 1962 she resumed sailing between New York, Halifax, Lisbon, Naples, Piraeus, Messina, Naples and New York and subsequently sailed between New York and the Bahamas.
In 1964 she became the IMPERIAL BAHAMA HOTEL at Freeport, Grand Bahama Island and on 8th September 1965 arrived at Bilbao where she was scrapped. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor, vol.4,p.1461]

ITALIAN 1913 see FANTEE 1899

ITALY 1870
was a 4,169 gross ton ship, length 389ft x beam 42.3ft, straight stem, one funnel, three masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. Built by J. Elder & Co, Glasgow, she was launched on 2nd Apr.1870 for the National Line of Liverpool. Her maiden voyage started on 13th Jul.1870 when she left Liverpool for Queenstown (Cobh) and New York and on 20th May 1875 she started her first London - New York sailing. Between 1875 - 1892 she sailed from either London or Liverpool to New York and started her last Liverpool - New York voyage on 2nd Dec.1892. Her Last London - New York voyage started on 11th Feb.1893 and in 1894 she was scrapped.
[North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor, vol.2,p.613. ISBN 0-905824-01-6] This book contains a picture of the ship.

IVERNIA 1899
14,058 gross tons, length 582ft x beam 64.9ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 15 knots. There was accommodation for 164-1st, 200-2nd and 1,600-3rd class passengers. Built by C. S. Swan & Hunter, Wallsend-on-Tyne (engines by Wallsend Slipway Co Ld), she was launched for the Cunard Steamship Co on 21st Sep.1899. Her maiden voyage started on 14th Apr.1900 when she left Liverpool for Queenstown (Cobh) and New York. She made one further voyage on this route and on 12th Jun.1900 started her first Liverpool - Queenstown - Boston sailing. Her last voyage on this service started on 14th Nov.1911 and on 21st Dec.1911 she commenced her first Trieste - Messina - Naples - New York voyage. On 30th Nov.1912 she resumed Boston - Liverpool voyages, commenced her last Liverpool - Boston voyage on 18th Mar.1913 and transferred back to the Trieste - New York service on 29th Apr.1913. Her last sailing between Trieste, Fiume, Patras, Messina, Naples, Boston and New York started on 28th Jul.1914 and in Sep.1914 she was taken over as a troopship. She spent much of the war in the Eastern Mediterranean and on 1st Jan.1917 was torpedoed by the German submarine UB-47 off Cape Matapan, Greece. She was en route to Alexandria with 2,400 Scottish troops aboard; of these 85 were drowned, together with 36 crew. The escorting destroyer HMS RIFLEMAN took off 650 and the remainder of the survivors were towed in their lifeboats to Crete by armed trawlers. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor, vol.1, p.155] [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.12, Cunard Line]

IXION 1912
belonged to the China Mutual Steam Nav.Co which was part of the Ocean SS Co together with Alfred Holt's Blue Funnel Line, all of which had Greek mythological names. I have records of this company's ships calling at US East Coast and Gulf ports on the way to the Far East via Panama, so have little doubt that this is the right ship. She was a 10,229 ton ship, 506ft x 60ft, one funnel, two 'goalpost' masts, twin screw, 11 knots. Accommodation for 12-1st and 600-steerage passengers (this is probably for Chinese). Built 1912 by Scotts, Greenock for Far East service. May 7th 1941 torpedoed and sunk by U.94 while 200 miles SW of Iceland en route Glasgow - New York with a cargo of whisky.

JACATRA / GOTHIA / LIPSOS / ANNA STROWIG / RUDOLF / MAGUYLA 1884
was built by Raylton, Dixon & Co, Middlesborough in 1884 as the JACATRA for the Insulinde SS Co, Amsterdam. She was a 2,381 gross ton ship, length 314.5ft x beam38.1ft, straight stem, one funnel, two masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. There was accommodation for 20-1st and 550-3rd class passengers. Launched on 13/3/1884, she was purchased by Hamburg America Line on 30/6/1886 and renamed GOTHIA. She commenced sailing from Stettin to Gothenburg and New York on 2/8/1886 and made 15 round voyages on this service, the last one commencing 1/1/1889. On 26/2/1891 she transferred to the Hamburg - New York service and commenced her last voyage on this route on 7/4/1892. She transferred to the Stettin - Helsingborg - Gothenburg - Christiansand - New York route on 23/7/1892 until her last voyage with this company started in July 1894.(7 round voyages). In 1898 she was sold to the Deutsche Levant Line and renamed LIPSOS. In 1913 she went to Wm Eisenach of Stettin who renamed her ANNA STROWIG and in 1914, went to other German owners and was named RUDOLF. Ceded to France in 1919 as war reparations, she went to Lalande Lofebrie & Cie in 1922 and was renamed MAGUYLA. She was scrapped in 1923.

JAMAICA SETTLER 1929 see HIGHLAND LADDIE 1910

JAMES PARKER / PANAMA / PRESIDENT HOOVER / REGINA / REGINA PRIMA 1938
was a 10,021 gross ton ship, length 493ft x beam 64ft, one funnel, one mast, twin screw, speed 17 knots, accommodation for 202-1st class passengers. Built by Bethlehem Steel Co, Quincy in 1938 as the PANAMA for the Panama Railroad Co, New York and completed Apr.1939 for the New York - Cristobal service. 13th Jun.1941 taken over as a US Army Transport and renamed JAMES PARKER. Jan.1946 handed over to US Maritime Commission, refitted for passengers and renamed PANAMA. Used on her previous service. 1948 rebuilt to 9978 tons. 1953 Company changed it's name to Panama Canal Co, New York. 1957 sold to American President Line, renamed PRESIDENT HOOVER. Rebuilt to 10,603 tons and used on the San Francisco - Hong Kong service. 1964 sold to Chandris Line, Piraeus, Greece, renamed REGINA and refitted for 650 passengers. Employed on Mediterranean and Caribbean cruising. 1967 transferred to the Panamanian flag. 1973 renamed REGINA PRIMA. 1979 laid up at Piraeus. Dec.1985 arrived in tow at Aliaga-Izmir where she was scrapped. [Great Passenger Ships of the World by Arnold Kludas, vol.4 (contains photos*) & vol.6]

JAN BREYDEL / DANMARK 1880
3,414 gross ton ship, length 340ft x beam 40ft, one funnel, three masts, rigged for sail, iron hull, single screw, speed 11 knots. Built by C.Mitchell & Co, Walker-on-Tyne (engines by T. Clark & Co, Newcastle), she was launched for the Engels Line of Antwerp in Jan.1880. She left Newcastle on 16th Aug.1880 for New York and Antwerp and started regular Antwerp to New York voyages for the joint Engels - White Cross Line service on 25th Sep.1880. Her last voyage on this service started 19th Jul.1888 and she was then sold to the Thingvalla Line of Copenhagen and renamed DANMARK. She sailed from Antwerp on 27th Sep.1888 for New York and Copenhagen, and on 21st Nov.1888 started her first voyage from Copenhagen to Christiania, Christiansand and New York. On 6th Apr.1889 she sank at sea, the passengers and crew being rescued by the Atlantic Transport Line ship MISSOURI. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor, vol.3]

JASON / PHILOMENE / PRINKIPOS 1866
1,653 gross tons, length 247.5ft x beam 32.4ft, one funnel, three masts, iron hull, single screw, speed 10 knots. Built by A & J. Inglis, Glasgow and launched for the Royal Netherlands SS Co in Sep.1866. Her first Amsterdam - New York voyage started on 9th Sep.1881 and her tenth and last started 11th Dec.1883. The company then ceased New York sailings. On 17th Mar.1892 the ship was stranded off Chios, Greece, was refloated, sold to British owners and renamed PHILOMENE. In 1896 she became the Greek owned PRINKIPOS and was scrapped in 1911. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor, vol.3, p.1069]

JEDDO 1859
1,632 gross tons, length 277.3ft x beam 35.8ft, two funnels, three masts (rigged for sail), iron hull, side paddle wheel propulsion, speed 10 knots. Built 1859 by John Laird, Birkenhead for the P & O Line, she sailed in Feb.1859 on her positioning voyage to Bombay in 57 days. She made two Bombay - Suez voyages before transferring to the Bombay - Sydney service in July 1860. On 2nd Feb.1866 she grounded on the Choul Cader reef, 30 miles from Bombay with no loss of life but became a total loss. Captain Granger was in command at the time. Information from North Star to Southern Cross by John Maber and "Merchant Fleets in Profile, vol.1" by Duncan Haws.

JELUNGA / LEON XIII / SANTIAGO / JEHANGIR / WING SHING 1890
was a 5,191 gross ton ship, length length 410.5ft x beam 48.2ft (125,12m x 14,69m), one funnel, three masts (rigged for sail), steel construction, single screw and a designed speed of 12 knots. There was accommodation for 80-1st and 42-2nd class passengers. Built by Wm Denny & Bros, Dumbarton for the British India Associated Steamers, she was launched as the JELUNGA on 30th Oct.1890. Her maiden voyage started on 2nd Feb.1891 when she sailed from London for Suez, Batavia and Brisbane. In 1893 she was chartered to Cia Trasatlantica, Spain who renamed her LEON XIII and used her as a troop transport for the Cuban rebellion. Reverted to B.I.A.S in 1894 and the Queensland service, she was again chartered to Cia Trasatlantica in 1896 and renamed SANTIAGO. Returned to B.I.A.S in Dec.1896 and reverted to her original name and to the London - Australia service, she made two Boer War trooping voyages in 1900. In 1902 she made trooping voyages between Madras and Hong Kong and on 27th July while on passage from Shan-hai-Kwan to Calcutta with troops, her propeller shaft snapped and she was towed to Singapore where the troops transferred to another ship. In 1903 she transferred to the ownership of British India Steam Navigation Co and om 21st Mar.1908 was sold to Robert, Shankland & Co who used her on the London - Hamburg - Rotterdam - Halifax - New York route for three round voyages under the name of New York & Continental Line. With the liquidation of this company, she reverted to B.I.S.N.Co in settlement of her mortgage. Sold to Bombay & Persia Steam Nav. Co. in July 1914, renamed JEHANGIR and used on the Bombay - Persian Gulf route. In 1921 she came under the ownership of Lau Wei Chun, Hong Kong and was renamed WING SHING. She went aground at Hong Kong on 18th Aug.1923, was salved and broken up. [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.11, British India S.N.Co.]

JERUSALEM / BERGENSFJORD / ARGENTINA / ALIYA 1913
The JERUSALEM (there was a later one of 1957) was originally the BERGENSFJORD. She was built in 1913 by Cammell Laird & Co, Birkenhead for the Norwegian American Line and was a 10,666 gross ton ship, length overall 530ft x beam 61.2ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 15 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 100-1st, 250-2nd and 850-3rd class. Launched on 8/4/1913, she sailed on her maiden voyage from Christiania (Oslo) on 25/9/1913 for Christiansand, Stavanger, Bergen and New York. In July 1924 she was beached following an engine room explosion shortly after leaving Bergen, and her passengers transferred to other ships. She was repaired and resumed Christiania - New York sailings on 26/9/1924. She was refitted to carry 367-cabin class and 572-3rd class passengers in November 1925 and in September 1927 was again altered to accommodate 90 cabin, 155-tourist and 500-3rd class. Her machinery was modified in 1933, her tonnage increased to 11,015 tons and in January 1939 she was refitted to carry cabin and 3rd class only. She left Bergen on her last voyage to New York on 7/4/1940 and in November 1940 became an Allied troopship. After the war, she went to Home Lines of Panama, was renamed ARGENTINA, and commenced Genoa - South America sailings on 13/1/1947. In 1949 she was adapted to accommodate 126-1st, 250-cabin and 574-tourist class and in September 1949 commenced her first Genoa - Central America sailing. On 13/7/1951 she started her first New York - Naples - Genoa voyage, August 1951 - first Genoa - Naples - Halifax, September 1951 - first Genoa - Naples - Halifax - New York. Her last Naples - Genoa - Lisbon - Halifax - New York crossing took place in November 1952, and she commenced a single New York - Hamburg - New York voyage on 26/11/1952. Her last New York - Mediterranean crossing started on 20/12/1952 and in 1953 she was sold to Zim Lines of Israel. Renamed JERUSALEM and refitted to carry 38-1st and 741-tourist passengers. On 29/4/1953 she started a service between Haifa, Limasol, Malta, Cannes, Halifax and New York and made 11 round voyages on the N. Atlantic, the last one starting in August 1955 when she left Haifa for Piraeus, Halifax and New York. In 1957 she was renamed ALIYA to enable her name to be used for a new ship, and in 1959 was scrapped at Spezia. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor, vol.4, p.1442]

JOHAN DE WITT / NEPTUNIA 1919
10,519 gross tons, length o'all 523ft x beam 59.2ft, one funnel, one mast, twin screw, speed 16 knots. Built by Nederlandsche Scheepsbouw Maatschappij, Amsterdam and launched on 2nd May 1919 for the Netherlands Steamship Co as the JOHAN DE WITT with two funnels and two masts and accommodation for 197-1st, 120-2nd and 36-3rd class passengers. Her maiden voyage started 27th Jul.1920 when she left Amsterdam for Southampton, Suez and the Dutch East Indies. Laid up in Dec.1930, she re-entered service in Nov.1932, refitted in 1933 and in 1940 was fitted out at Sydney as a troopship.During the war she sailed under Orient Line management. Returned to Nederland Line in 1945.  Sold to Compania Maritima del Este, Panama on 15th Dec.1948, she was rebuilt with only one funnel and renamed NEPTUNIA with accommodation for 251-1st and 563-tourist class passengers. In May 1949 she started her first voyage from Genoa to Lisbon, New York, Naples, Piraeus and Haifa. Her last sailing for these owners commenced 9th Apr.1951 from New York to Boston, Cherbourg, Southampton and Bremen. Sold to the Neptunia Shipping Co, Panama in 1954 she sailed between Bremen and New York or Quebec/Montreal with intermediate calls. On 2nd Nov.1957 she struck Daunts Rock at Cobh and was beached in sinking condition. Refloated in March 1958, she was towed to Holland where she was scrapped. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor, vol.4, p.1655-6] [The Centenary of Stoomvart Maatschappij Nederland by G.J. de Boer, published 1970 by the World Ship Society] [Great Passenger Ships of the World by Arnold Kludas, vol.2, ISBN 0-85059-242-9 contains four photos of the ship]

JOHAN VAN OLDENBARNEVELT / LAKONIA 1929
was built by Nederlandsche Scheepsbouw Maatschappij, Amsterdam for the Nederland Line in 1929. She was a 19,787 gross ton ship, length overall 609.2ft x beam 74.8ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 19 knots. There was accommodation for 338-1st, 281-2nd and 64-3rd class passengers. Launched on 3/8/1929 for Nederland Line, she was chartered to Holland America Line in 1939 and carried out one round voyage from Amsterdam (dep 30/8/1939) to New York, carrying 634-1st class passengers. From 1940 - 1945 she was used as an Allied troopship and after the war was refitted as a one class vessel. On 2/9/1950 she commenced her first voyage from Amsterdam via Suez to Australia with 1,414 passengers. In July 1954 she made her first voyage chartered to the Netherlands Government from Rotterdam to Quebec and Montreal and in Aug.1958 made her last voyage on this service (11 Round voyages). In 1958-59 she was rebuilt at Amsterdam to 20,314 tons and accommodation for 1,210 one-class passengers and on 2/4/1959 commenced her first voyage from Amsterdam to Southampton, Suez, Australia, New Zealand, Panama Canal, Port Everglades (dep 5/6/1959), Bermuda, Southampton and Amsterdam. On 30/6/1962 she commenced her last similar voyage, but included a call at New York (dep 12/9/1962) having made 12 round voyages on this route. In 1963 she was sold to the Greek Line and renamed LAKONIA but on 22/12/1963 was destroyed by fire, 200 miles NNE of Madeira, with the loss of 128 lives. The hulk was taken in tow but she sank on 29/12/1963, 250 miles SW of Gibraltar. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor, vol.4, p.1758]

JOHN BELL 1854 / ST PATRICK / DIAMANT / NINO FRAVEGA
John Bell was originally built as a sailing ship in 1854 and had engines installed in 1857. Chartered by Montreal Ocean SS Co (Allan Line) in 1862 and purchased by them and renamed ST PATRICK in 1863. Sailed between Glasgow and Canada. Engines removed in 1875, sold to German owners in 1879 renamed DIAMANT, sold to Italy in 1894 renamed NINO FRAVEGA. Scrapped 1905.

JOHN ELDER 1869
3,832 gross tons, length 382ft x beam 41.7ft, one funnel, three masts, clipper bows, iron hull, single screw, speed 12.5 knots, accommodation for 70-1st, 100-2nd and 273-3rd class passengers. Crew of 104.
Launched on 29th Aug. 1869 by John Elder & Co., Glasgow and named for her builder, she was owned by Pacific Steam Navigation Co.. She was completed after the death of John Elder and named as a tribute to the changes affected by his compound engines. Liverpool and started her maiden voyage from Liverpool to Valparaiso on 13th Dec.1869. In Feb.1872 after four round voyages, she was rebuilt and lengthened to 406.4ft, re-boilered and given a second funnel. In 1877, her third mast was removed and she was placed on the joint PSNCo. - Orient Line Australian service and started her first voyage from Adelaide via Suez to Liverpool on 19th April. On 27th Jan. 1879 she started her first London - Melbourne - Sydney voyage and commenced her last on this route on 27th May 1886 before reverting to the Liverpool - Valparaiso service. On 17th Jan.1892 she was wrecked in fog on Cape Carranza Rocks en route Valparaiso to Talcahuano, Chile with 139 passengers but with no loss of life. [Merchant Fleets vol.8 by Duncan Haws]

JOHN L. STEPHENS 1852
The steamship JOHN L. STEPHENS was built in New York in 1852 by Smith and Diamond. She was a sidewheeler, with three decks and the old-fashioned beam engine, and when she first appeared was brigantine rigged. She was regarded as immense in the early days of her career on the northern route. Her dimensions were: length, two hundred and seventy-five feet; beam, forty-one feet ; depth of hold, twenty-four feet; tonnage, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-six. Capt.Chris Dall ran her in 1867, and was succeeded by Metzger, Johnson, Bolles, Conner, Mackie, and others. In 1878 the steamer was sold in San Francisco to Sisson, Wallace & Co., to go to Alaska, where she was used as a floating cannery, and on her return was so old and tender that she was retired from service and broken up the following year. E. W. Wright, "The Alaska Purchase, Advent of Many Fine Steamers on Puget Sound," Lewis & Dryden's Marine History of the Pacific Northwest. New York: Antiquarian Press, Ltd., 1961., p.159.

JULIA LUCKENBACH 1902see ZAANDAM 1882

JUMNA 1886
was a 5,191 gross ton ship, built by Wm Denny & Bros, Dumbarton in 1886 for British India Associated Steamers. Her details were - length 411.4ft x beam 48.2ft, one funnel, three masts (rigged for sail), single screw and a speed of 12 knots. There was accommodation for 87-1st, 30-2nd and 200-steerage class passengers. Launched on Mar.22nd 1886, she started her maiden voyage from London to Brisbane on Sep.21st. and in 1889 was used as a Boer War Transport. She returned to the UK - India - Australia route in 1900 and was eventually scrapped in Italy in 1907. An interesting aside, is that her captain (Captain Birkett) was dismissed in May 1889 for marrying a lady passenger at sea! [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.11, British India S.N.Co]

JUNO / AFRA / LECA / EL AMIGO / EDITH F / CECILIA 1882
Official No.82524, 1,292 gross tons, length 250.2ft x beam 32.2ft, and built with accommodation for 20-1st, 8-2nd and 400-steerage class passengers. Launched by Earle's Shipbuilding and Engineering Co, Hull on 23rd Mar.1882 for Thos Wilson & Co, Hull and used on the Scandinavia/Baltic to UK service until Sep.1888 when she was sold to Tyne Steam Shipping Co, Newcastle. 1903 owners became Tyne-Tees Steam Shipping Co. 1914 detained by German authorities at Hamburg. 1915 abandoned to her insurers and returned to Britain in 1918. Apr.1919 sold to A.Lazarus, London, 1920 sold to Companhia de Guine, Oporto renamed AFRA later renamed LECA. 1921 sold to J.Armstrong, Houston renamed EL AMIGO and registered in Panama. 1923 sold to Hammond Oil Co, Tampico, Mexico. 1927 sold to American Fruit Co, Houston renamed JUNO and registered in Nicaragua. 1931 sold to Gulf Coast SS Line, Houston renamed EDITH F, Nicaragua. 1933 sold to Galveston Foreign Traders renamed CECILIA, Nicaragua. 1935 sold to J.M.Nichols, Moss Point, Pascagoula, Miss. for scrapping. [Wilson Line by John Harrower]

JURA 1854
was a 2,241 gross ton ship, built by J&G Thomson, Glasgow in 1854 for the Cunard Line. Her details were - length 314ft x beam 36ft, clipper stem, one funnel, three masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. Launched on 27/6/1854, she arrived at Liverpool from the Clyde on 26/9/1854 and became a Crimean War transport. On 12/3/1857 she sailed under charter to the European & Australian R.M.Line from Southampton to Alexandria and started her last voyage on this service on 12/7/1857. On 16/9/1857 she commenced Cunard sailings between Liverpool, Cork and New York and on 6/2/1861 started her last Liverpool - New York voyage. During this period she made two chartered voyages for the Allan Line between Liverpool, Quebec and Montreal, commencing 6/9/1860 and 11/4/1861. She was then purchased by the Allan Line and resumed Liverpool - Canada voyages on 24/10/1861. On 3rd November 1864 she was wrecked in the River Mersey with no loss of life. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.144-5]

JUSTICIA / STATENDAM 1914
was a 32,120 gross ton ship, built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast in 1914 as the second STATENDAM for the Holland America Line. Her details were - length 740.5ft x beam 86.4ft, three funnels, two masts, triple screw and a speed of 18 knots. Launched on 9.7.1914, she was requisitioned before completion and on 7.4.1917 was handed over as a troopship. Renamed JUSTICIA and under White Star Line management she was used on transatlantic trooping duties. On 19th July 1918, only four months before the Armistice, she was torpedoed by the German submarine UB.64, 20 miles from Skerryvore, Scotland, but escaped serious damage. Two hours later she was again torpedoed by the same submarine but remained afloat. A third attack was made but without result. On the following day, while being towed, she was again torpedoed and sunk by the UB.124. There were 10 fatalities. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor, vol.2, p.766] [Sea Breezes magazine, Dec.1951]

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