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SHIP DESCRIPTIONS - L

Please note that ships often changed hands and names many times. If an entry is just the name of the vessel followed by a "see..." then that vessel was renamed and you will find the full history under the redirected name.

L'AQUITAINE 1899 see NORMANNIA 1890

LA BOURDONNAIS 1921 see SCHARNHORST 1904

LA BOURGOGNE 1885
The LA BOURGOGNE was built in 1885 by Forges & Chantiers de la Mediteranee, La Seyne for the Compagnie Generale Transatlantique (French Line). She was a 7,395 gross ton vessel, length 494.4ft x beam 52.2ft, two funnels, four masts, iron and steel construction, single screw and a speed of 17 knots. There was accommodation for 390-1st, 65-2nd and 600-3rd class passengers. Launched on 8/10/1885, she sailed on her maiden voyage from Havre to New York on 19/6/1886. In Feb.1896 she collided with, and sank the steamer ATLAS off the US coast. In 1897-8 she was fitted with quadruple expansion engines and her masts reduced to two. On 4/7/1898 she was sunk in collision in dense fog with the British sailing ship CROMARTYSHIRE off Cape Sable. At the time, she was carrying 506 passengers and 220 crew of whom 549 were lost. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.656]

LA BRETAGNE / ALESIA 1885
The LA BRETAGNE was built in 1885 by CGT, St Nazaire for Compagnie Generale Transatlantique (French Line). She was a 7112 gross ton vessel, length 495.4ft x beam 51.8ft, two funnels, four masts, single screw and a speed of 17 knots. Accommodation for 390-1st, 65-2nd, and 600-3rd class passengers. Launched on 9/9/1885 she sailed from Havre on her maiden voyage to New York on 14/8/1886. In 1895 she was rebuilt with quadruple expansion engines, two masts and 3rd class accommodation increased to 1,500. On 8/6/1912 she left Havre on her last voyage to New York and then went to the French company, Cie Sud Atlantique. In 1919 she was renamed ALESIA and in December 1923 she was sold for scrap in Holland, but broke her tow near Texel island and ran aground to become a total loss. [Posted to the Emigration-Ships Mailing List by Ted Finch - 9 September 1997]

LA CHAMPAGNE 1885
The ship LA CHAMPAGNE was a 7,087 gross ton vessel, length 493.4ft x beam 51.8ft, two funnels, four masts, single screw and a speed of 17 knots. Accommodation for 390-1st, 65-2nd and 600-3rd class passengers. Built by CGT, St Nazaire, she was launched for Compagnie Generale Transatlantique (French Line) on 15th May 1885. Her maiden voyage started on 22nd May 1886 when she left Havre for New York. On 7th Aug.1887 she collided with and sank the French ship VILLE DE RIO JANEIRO, sustaining serious damage herself. Rebuilt in 1896 with two masts, new engines and her 3rd class accommodation increased to 1,500. On 17th Feb.1898 she fractured her propeller shaft and drifted until 23rd Feb, when she was sighted by the Warren Liner ROMAN who towed her to Halifax. Her last Havre - New York sailing started on 21st Jan.1905 and she was then transferred to the Mexican service. She resumed Havre - New York for two round voyages in Mar/Apr.1906 and then returned to the Mexico service. In 1913 she was transferred to St Nazaire - Panama sailings and on 28th May 1915 stranded at St Nazaire and broke her back.[North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.656]

LA FRANCE 1871
3,811 gross tons, length 426ft x beam 36ft (129.84m x 10.97m), two funnels, two masts, iron hull, single screw, speed 11 knots. Launched Nov.1870 by Forges & Chantiers de la Mediteranee, La Seyne for Societe Generale de Transports Maritimes (SGTM), she started sailings between Marseilles, Brazil and Argentina in 1871 and called at Italian ports. She was scrapped at Marseilles in 1895. [South Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor]

LA GASCOGNE 1886
7,395 gross tons, length 495.4ft x beam 52.2ft, two funnels, four masts, single screw, speed 17 knots, accommodation for 390-1st, 65-2nd and 600-3rd class passengers.
Laid down by Forges & Chantiers de la Mediterannee, La Seyne as L'ALGERIE but completed as LA GASCOGNE for Compagnie Generale Transatlantique, Le Havre. 18th Sep.1886 maiden voyage Havre - New York. 1894 rebuilt with two masts and 3rd class passenger accommodation increased to 1,500. 4th Mar.1911 last voyage Havre - New York. 1912 sold to Cie. Sud Atlantique, Bordeaux and used on the Bordeaux - South America route. Aug.1914 used as a French Auxiliary Cruiser but soon returned to the company. 26th Feb.1915 chartered back to CGT and Bordeaux - New York for three voyages. 1915 again requisitioned by the French Government and used as a naval depot ship at Salonica. 1919 scrapped at Genoa.

LA GRANDE DUCHESSE / CITY OF SAVANNAH / CAROLINA 1896
5,018 gross ton passenger ship, length 380ft x beam 47.8ft, twin screw, speed 17 knots. Completed Oct.1896 by Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Co, Newport News as LA GRANDE DUCHESSE for Plant Investment Co., New Haven, Conn. The owners refused delivery, the boilers were replaced and in 1898 she was chartered to the U.S. Government for transport service. Finally accepted by the owners in Apr.1899. In 1901 she was sold to Ocean SS Co. of Savannah, Savannah and renamed CITY OF SAVANNAH. 1905 sold to United States & Porto Rico Nav. Co., New York renamed CAROLINA. 1908 transferred to New York & Porto Rico SS Co., Bath, Maine. 1914 re-engined with single screw. 2nd June 1918 captured, shelled and sunk by German submarine U.151 in position 38.57N 73.06W on voyage San Juan to New York with passengers and sugar.[Register of Merchant Ships Completed in 1896 by Starke / Schell]

LA LORRAINE / LORRAINE II 1899
Built in 1899 by CGT, St Nazaire, the LA LORRAINE was a 11,146 gross ton ship, length 563.1ft x beam 60ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 20 knots. There was accommodation for 446-1st, 116-2nd and 552-3rd class passengers. Launched on 20/9/1899 for the Compagnie Generale Transatlantique (French Line) she sailed on her maiden voyage from Havre to New York on 11/8/1900. On 25/7/1914 she started her last voyage on this route before the war and between 1914 and 1917 was used as an Armed Merchant Cruiser and renamed LORRAINE II. In 1918 she reverted to her original name and commenced her first voyage in May 1918 when she sailed between Bordeaux and New York. Her last sailing on this route commenced on 19/1/1919 and on 22/2/1919 she resumed the Havre - New York service. In May 1922 she was refitted to carry cabin and 3rd class passengers only and on 1/10/1922 commenced her final Havre - New York sailing. In December 1922 she was scrapped at St Nazaire. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.658]

LA NAVARRE 1892
The LA NAVARRE was built by Compagnie Generale Transatlantique, St Nazaire for their own company in 1892. She was a 6,648 gross ton ship, length 471ft x beam 50.5ft, straight stem, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 15 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 235-1st, 69-2nd and 74-3rd class. Launched on 4/11/1892, she sailed from St Nazaire on her maiden voyage to Vera Cruz on 21/11/1893. On 28/7/1894 she started a single Havre - New York round voyage, and then resumed West Indies sailings. She returned to the Havre - New York service on 12/3/1898 and continued on this route for seven round voyages, the last commencing 8/10/1898. She was sold in 1924 and scrapped the following year at Dunkirk. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.657]

LA PROVENCE / PROVENCE II 1905
The LA PROVENCE was built by Chantiers & Ateliers de St Nazaire, St Nazaire in 1905 for the Copmpagnie Generale Transatlantique (French Line). This was a 13,753 gross ton ship, length 602.3ft x beam 65ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 21 knots. There was accommodation for 422-1st, 132-2nd and 808-3rd class passengers. Launched on 21/3/1905, she sailed from Havre on her maiden voyage to New York on 21/4/1906. She commenced her last voyage on this service on 6/6/1914 and was then converted to an Armed Merchant Cruiser and renamed PROVENCE II. On 16/2/1916 she was torpedoed and sunk in the Mediterranean by the German submarine U.35 with the loss of 830 lives. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.659]

LA SAVOIE 1900
The LA SAVOIE was built for Compagnie Generale Transatlantique (French Line) by CGT, St Nazaire in 1900. She was a 11,168 gross ton ship, length 563.1ft x beam 60ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 20 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 437-1st, 118-2nd and 398-3rd class. Launched on 31st Mar.1900, she sailed from Havre on 31st Aug.1901 on her maiden voyage to New York and took approx 6.5 days for the crossing. She continued this service until starting her last voyage on 18th Jul.1914. Fitted as an Armed Merchant Cruiser, she was employed in general patrol and trooping work until Jan.1915 when she joined the French Mediterranean Fleet. Used as an Armed Transport, she landed troops in the Dardanelles and Eastern Mediterranean operations and was damaged by Turkish shore batteries. In 1916 she evacuated part of the Serbian army to Corfu and returned to Toulon for extensive repairs. This appears to have ended her war service, but it wasn't until 1919 that she was returned to her owners. She resumed Havre - New York sailings on 26th Apr.1919 and in Mar.1923 was refitted to carry 430-cabin and 613-3rd class passengers. On 24th Sep.1927 she commenced her last Havre - New York - Havre voyage and was then sold and scrapped at Dunkirk the following year. In the 21 years she spent on the North Atlantic route, she made 446 crossings, carrying a total of 275,000 passengers and steaming 1,382,000 miles.[North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.658] [La Savoie of 1901 by J.H.Isherwood, Sea Breezes Magazine, April 1965]

LA TOURAINE 1890
Built in 1890 by Compagnie Generale Transatlantique, St Nazaire, for the same company (CGT), she was an 8,893 gross ton ship, length 520.2ft x beam 56ft, two funnels, three masts, twin screw and a speed of 19 knots. There was accommodation for 392-1st, 98-2nd and 600-3rd class passengers. Launched on 21/3/1890, she sailed from Havre on her maiden voyage to New York on 20/6/1891. Between November 1900 and January 1902 she was refitted at St Nazaire, bilge keels fitted, engines overhauled, masts reduced to two, her tonnage increased to 8,429, and her 3rd class accommodation increased to 1,000. On 21/1/1903 she was damaged by fire at Havre - grand staircase, dining saloon and de luxe cabins rebuilt and resumed Havre - New York sailings. In 1910 she was again refitted to carry 69-1st, 263-2nd and 686-3rd class passengers. She commenced sailings from Havre to Quebec and Montreal with 2nd and 3rd class only, in May 1913 and made her last voyage on this service in June 1914 (5 round voyages). On 13/3/1915 she commenced her last Havre - New York crossing and on 13/4/1915 started Bordeaux - New York sailings. She resumed Havre - New York voyages with cabin and 3rd class passengers on 9/2/1919 and commenced her final voyage on this service on 26/9/1922. She was scrapped at Dunkirk in October 1923. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.657]

LABRADOR / NOUVEAU MONDE 1865
The LABRADOR was launched by Chantier de Penhoet at St Nazaire in 1865 as the NOUVEAU MONDE for the French Line (Compagnie Generale Transatlantique). Her dimensions were 3200 gross tons, length 346.6ft x beam 43.8ft. She was an iron built, side paddle wheel steamer with two funnels and two masts (rigged for sail) and a service speed of 12 knots. There was accommodation for 128-1st, 54-2nd and 29-3rd class passengers. She made her maiden voyage from St.Nazaire to Vera Cruz and was then transferred to the Havre - New York service for one voyage. She was then put onto the St.Nazaire - West Indies run. In 1875, she was lengthened to 394.9ft, 4612 tons and converted from paddle to a single screw vessel. A third mast was added and she was renamed LABRADOR. From 20th Nov.1875 she returned to the Havre - NY service until 1886 when she was transferred to the Havre - Panama run. She was sold in 1904 and scrapped at Genoa in 1905. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.651]

LABRADOR 1891
Built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast for the Dominion Line in 1891, this was a 4,737 gross ton ship, length 401ft x beam 47.2ft, straight stem, one funnel, four masts, steel construction, single screw and a speed of 15 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 100-1st, 50-2nd and 1,000-3rd class. Launched on 11th Apr.1891, her maiden voyage from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal started on 20th Aug.1891. She made a record westbound passage of 6 days 8 hours between Moville, Ireland and Father Point in Aug.1894, and on 1st Mar.1899 while on passage St John, NB to Liverpool, she was wrecked on Skerryvore, Hebrides with no loss of life. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor, vol.2, p.807]

LACONIA 1856
1982 gross tons, length 304ft x beam 31.7ft, clipper bows, one funnel, two masts (rigged for sail), iron hull, single screw, speed 9 knots. Built 1856 by J. & G. Thompson, Glasgow as a brig for Georges Michael Papayanni, she was used on the Liverpool - Mediterranean service terminating at Constantinople. 1870 rebuilt to the above dimensions, fitted with a third mast and re-engined. On 13th Mar.1874 while sailing Alexandria - Algiers with returning Mecca pilgrims, while nearing Tunis, 278 passengers were washed overboard by a freak wave, but only 9 were drowned. In 1901 the Papayanni fleet was transferred to J. R. Ellerman, but the LACONIA was scrapped at Genoa in 1902 as too old for his use. [Merchant Fleets, vol.16 by Duncan Haws]

LACONIA 1911
18,099 gross tons, length 600.3ft x beam 71.3ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 17 knots. Accommodation for 300-1st, 350-2nd and 2,200-3rd class passengers. Built by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson, Wallsend-on-Tyne (engines by Wallsend Slipway Co), she was launched for the Cunard Steamship Co on 27th Jul.1911. Her maiden voyage started on 20th Jan.1912 when she sailed from Liverpool for Queenstown (Cobh) and New York. On 3rd Feb.1912 she started her first voyage from New York to Naples and Fiume and on 26th Mar.1912 commenced her first Liverpool - Queenstown - Boston sailing. Her last voyage on this route started on 29th Sep.1914 and she was then converted to an Armed Merchant Cruiser. Returned to Cunard in 1916, she resumed Liverpool - New York sailings on 9th Sep.1916 and commenced her last voyage when she left Liverpool on 3rd Feb.1917. On 25th Feb.1917 she was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U.50 in the North Atlantic with the loss of 12 lives.[North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.158]

LACONIA 1921
The LACONIA was built by Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson, Wallsend-on-Tyne in 1921 for Cunard SS Co. She was a 19,680 gross ton ship, length 624ft x beam 73.7ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 16 knots. There was accommodation for 350-1st, 350-2nd and 1,500-3rd class passengers. Launched on 9th Apr.1921, she started her maiden voyage 25th May 1922 when she left Southampton for Queenstown (Cobh) and New York. On 22nd June 1922 she started her first Liverpool - Queenstown - Boston - New York sailing and on 26th June 1923 commenced the first of four Hamburg - Southampton - Cherbourg - New York sailings. She resumed Liverpool - Queenstown - New York voyages on 1st Dec.1923 and in Apr.1928 was refitted to carry cabin, tourist and 3rd class passengers. Her last Liverpool - New York round voyage started on 12th Aug.1939 and she then proceeded to Portsmouth for conversion to an Armed Merchant Cruiser and served with the Royal Navy. Refitted as a troopship in Sept.1941. On 12th Sep.1942, with 2,732 people on board, including 1,800 Italian prisoners-of-war, she was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U.156 at position 5.05S 11.38W in the South Atlantic. As the submarine approached the scene of the sinking, it was realized who was on board, and the U.156 took on survivors and called for help from all nearby ships in an open radio message. She also sent a coded message to Flag Officer (Submarines) and the U.506 and U.507 as well as the Italian submarine CAPELLINI were sent to assist. The French Vichy government were also asked for help and despatched the cruiser GLOIRE, sloop d'URVILLE and minesweeper ANNAMITE. The German submarines were now overflowing with survivors - Italians, Poles (who had been guarding Italian prisoners), British soldiers and women and children. The U.156 had, at one time 260 survivors on board. A start was made to collect the LACONIA's lifeboats together, care for the wounded and distribute provisions. On Sept.16th an American Liberator bomber flew over the U.156 which had four lifeboats in tow, was displaying a large Red Cross flag, and tried in vain to contact the plane by morse. The plane turned away, but later returned and made four bombing runs on the submarine, releasing six bombs, one of which went between the lifeboats causing one to capsize, while another damaged the submarine. At this, the U.156 put the 55 Britons and 55 Italians still on board into the lifeboats and sailed off for repairs. On Sep.17th the U.506 with 142 survivors on board was also attacked by aircraft, but managed to dive in time to escape. The French ships arrived on the 17th and took on board 1,111 survivors, including about 400 Italians. As a result of this event, the Flag Officer (submarines), issued an order to all U-boats that the rescuing of survivors of sunken ships was to be discontinued. This order was interpreted by the British prosecutors at the Nurenberg War Crimes Trials as an order to murder, but the International Military Court did not agree with this interpretation. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.164][Great Passenger Ships of the World by Arnold Kludas, Vol.2,p.138]

LADY EGLINTON 1853
I can confirm that there was a LADY EGLINTON belonging to the British & Irish Steam Packet Co in 1853. She was a 768 gross ton screw driven steamship, length 192ft x beam 28ft, built by Robert Napier, Glasgow. She had a clipper stem, one funnel, three masts and a speed of 9 knots. Chartered to the Canadian Steam Nav. Co in June 1853 and made two Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal voyages, then chartered to the South American & General Steam Nav. Co for the Liverpool - River Plate service for one voyage in Oct.1853 and as a Crimean War Transport in 1854. I don't know what she was used for after this date but in 1865 she was lengthened by 30ft and I assume she went onto the UK - Ireland service for her owners. She wasn't scrapped until 1891-2, so may very well have been chartered for an Australia voyage. Details from South Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor and The B+I Story by Ernest Reader, Sea Breezes Magazine, Sept.1950.

LADY HAWKINS 1928
7,988 gross tons, built 1928 and owned by Canadian National Steamships Ltd, Montreal. On 19th Jan.1942 she was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U.62 (Zapp) while 150 miles from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in position 35.00N 72.30W while sailing independently from Halifax N.S and Boston, Mass. to Bermuda with 212 passengers and general cargo. The Master, Capt. H. O. Giffen, 85 crew, one gunner, and 164 passengers were lost. The Chief Officer, 21 crew and 49 passengers were rescued after 5 days in an open boat by the U.S. ship COAMO and landed at Puerto Rico. The Chief Officer, P. A. Kelly was awarded the MBE and the Lloyds War Medal for bravery at sea.

LAFAYETTE 1863
The LAFAYETTE was built by Scott & Co, Greenock (engines by Greenock Foundry Co) in 1863 for Compagnie Generale Transatlantique (French Line). She was a 3,375gross ton ship, length 346.6ft x beam 43.8ft, straight stem, two funnels, two masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, side paddle wheel propulsion and a speed of 12 knots. There was accommodation foor 128-1st, 54-2nd and 29-3rd class passengers. Launched on 15th Oct.1863, she sailed on her maiden voyage from Havre to New York on 24th Aug.1864. She started her twelfth and last sailing on this service on 2nd Aug.1866 and on 11th Oct.1866 transferred to the St Nazaire - Panama route. In 1868 she was re-engined, converted to twin screw propulsion and had a mizzen (third) mast added. She resumed Havre - Brest - New York voyages on 23rd Apr.1869 and commenced her 15th voyage on this service on 18th Aug.1871. On 23rd Sep.1871 she was damaged by fire in dock at Havre, was repaired and had her engines compounded. She then went back to the St Nazaire - Panama service on 7th Jul.1873. On 22nd May 1874 she resumed Havre - Brest - New York sailings and made three round voyages on this route, the last starting on 12th Feb.1876. She subsequently sailed between St Nazaire and Panama except for one St Nazaire - Fayal - New York voyage starting on 20th Mar.1905. She was scrapped at Brest in 1906. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.651]

LAFAYETTE / MEXIQUE 1914
11,953 gross tons, length 546.7ft x beam 64.0ft, two funnels, two masts, quadruple screw, speed 16 knots, accommodation for 500-1st, 350-2nd and 1,500-3rd class passengers. Launched by Chantiers & Ateliers de Provence, Port de Bouc on 27th May 1914 as the ILE DE CUBA, she was completed as the LAFAYETTE for Compagnie Generale Transatlantique (French Line). Her maiden voyage Bordeaux - New York started 31st Oct.1915 and her ninth on this route started 8th Oct.1916. She was then converted to a hospital ship until recommencing commercial service between Havre and New York on 8th Nov.1919. On 10th Sep.1924 she started her last Havre - Plymouth - New York voyage and was then transferred to St. Nazaire - West Indies sailings. In Jan.1927 she was refitted with accommodation for cabin and 3rd class passengers and started a single round voyage Bordeaux - New York on 22nd Jan.1927. 1928 renamed MEXIQUE and used on the Vera Cruz route except for one Havre - New York voyage on 4th Sep.1929. On 19th Jun.1940 she was mined and sunk at Le Verdon on the River Gironde while being used as a troop transport. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.2, p.661-2 by N.R.P.Bonsor] Photographs in "Great Passenger Ships of the World, vol.2" by Arnold Kludas, ISBN 0-85059-242-9.

LAHN 1887 / RUSS
The LAHN was built by Fairfield Co Ltd, Glasgow in 1887 for Norddeutscher Lloyd (North German Lloyd]. She was a 5,099 gross ton ship, length 448.4 ft x beam 49ft, two funnels, four masts, single screw and a speed of 18 knots. There was accommodation for 224-1st, 106-2nd and 700-3rd class passengers. Launched on 7/9/1887, she sailed from Bremen on her maiden voyage to Southampton and New York on 1/2/1888. In 1896, her masts were reduced to two and on 1/10/1901 she commenced her last Bremen - Southampton - New York voyage. She was transferred to the Genoa - Naples - New York service on 13/11/1901 and commenced her last voyage on this route on 4/2/1904. Later the same year, she was sold to the Russian navy and renamed RUSS. She was scrapped in 1927. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.553]

LAKE CHAMPLAIN / RUTHENIA / KING GEORGE V / CHORAN MARU 1900
The LAKE CHAMPLAIN was built by Barclay, Curle & Co,Ltd, Glasgow in 1900 for Elder Dempster's Beaver Line. She was a 7,392 gross ton ship, length 446ft x beam 52ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 13 knots. Accommodation was provided for 100-1st, 80-2nd and 500-3rd class passengers. Launched on 31/3/1900, she sailed on 15/5/1900 from Liverpool on her maiden voyage to Quebec and Montreal. On 21/5/1901, she was the first merchant ship to be fitted with permanent wireless telegraphy apparatus and on 6/4/1903 was taken over with the rest of Beaver Line's fleet by Canadian Pacific. In 1906 her accommodation was modified to carry 150-2nd and 1,000-3rd class passengers and on 7/3/1913 she was renamed RUTHENIA. She commenced sailings between Trieste and St John,NB on 20/3/1913 and completed 5.5 round voyages on this service, the last starting in Jan 1914. On 4/2/1914 she left St John,NB for London and in Sep 1914 commenced her last London - Quebec - Montreal voyage. She arrived at Belfast in Nov 1914 and was converted into a dummy of the battleship HMS KING GEORGE V. In summer 1915 she became a store ship and in 1916 was used as a naval oiler. In 1929 she became an oil hulk at Singapore and in 1942 was captured by the Japanese and renamed CHORAN MARU. Recaptured by Allied forces in 1945, she stranded in the Moesi River in 1946, was refloated and towed to the Clyde. Arriving there on 18/6/1949, she was broken up at Dalmuir. [North Atlantic seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, Vol.3,p.1308] [Canadian Pacific, 100 years by George Musk]

LAKE ERIE / TYROLIA / CENTURION / SAXOL / ASPENLEAF / PRYGONA 1899
The LAKE ERIE was built by Barclay, Curle & Co Ltd, Glasgow in 1899 for Elder Dempster Line. She was a 7,550 gross ton ship, length 446ft x beam 52ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 13 knots. There was accommodation for 100-1st, 80-2nd and 500-3rd class passengers. Launched on 21/11/1899, she left Liverpool on her maiden voyage to Cape Town on 30/1/1900 as a Boer War transport and made 8 round voyages on this route. On 24/6/1902 she commenced her first voyage from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal and in 1903 was acquired by Canadian Pacific together with the Canadian interests of the Elder Dempster Line. She commenced Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal sailings for her new owners on 28/4/1903 and in 1906 was refitted to carry 150-2nd and 1,000-3rd class passengers. In 1910 she was chartered to the Allen Line and commenced London - Quebec - Montreal voyages on 14/5/1910. She made 25 round voyages for the Allen Line, the last one commencing 6/2/1913 when she left St John, NB for London. In 1913 she was renamed TYROLIA for Canadian Pacific and in April of that year started sailings from Trieste to Quebec and Montreal. She commenced her last voyage on this service in February 1914 when she left Trieste for St John NB and on 28/2/1914 sailed from St John for Liverpool. In August 1914 she commenced her last London - Quebec - Montreal voyage and on 28/10/1914 was converted to the dummy battleship - HMS CENTURION. She later became a troop transport and then a store ship. In 1916 she was fitted with tanks, converted to a naval oiler and was renamed SAXOL. On 7/10/1916 she went to Lane & MacAndrew Ltd and was renamed ASPENLEAF. Transferred to the Shipping Controller on 7/11/1917 and on 12/9/1919 was sold to the Anglo Saxon Petroleum Co (Shell Oil). Renamed PRYGONA on 11/1/1921 and was sold to Petersen & Albeck, Copenhagen on 6/2/1925 for scrap. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3, p.1307] [Canadian Pacific - 100 years by George Musk]

LAKE HURON 1881
4,040 gross tons, length 385ft x beam 42.8ft, one funnel, three masts, iron hull, single screw, speed 11 knots, accommodation for 70-1st, 50-2nd and 900-3rd class passengers. Built by the London & Glasgow Co, Glasgow, she was launched for the Canada Shipping Co. (Beaver Line) on 10th Sep.1881. Her maiden voyage started 9th Nov.1881 when she left Liverpool for New York (first NY sailing of the company) and on 27th Apr.1882 she started her first Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal sailing. Her last voyage on this service started 22nd Oct.1898 and in Dec.1898 she made a Batum - Halifax sailing to take the Doukhabors from Russia to Canada. She resumed Liverpool - Canada sailings on 15th Jul.1899 under the ownership of Beaver Line of Steamers (Elder Dempster & Co.) who had taken over the company, and commenced her final voyage on 18th Oct.1900. She was scrapped at Genoa the following year. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.3,p.974-5, by N.R.P.Bonsor]

LAKE MANITOBA 1880
3,322 gross tons, length 355ft x 40.2ft, one funnel, three masts, iron hull, single screw, speed 11 knots, accommodation for 85-1st, 45-2nd and 900-3rd class passengers. Launched on 26th Apr.1880 by J & G. Thomson for Canada Shipping Co., she started her maiden voyage on 10th Jun.1880 between Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal. 30th Nov.1881 first winter service voyage Liverpool -- New York. On 14th Jun.1885 she was wrecked on Miquelon Island with no loss of life. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.3, p.974 by N. R. P. Bonsor]

LAKE MANITOBA / IVER HEATH 1901
The LAKE MANITOBA was a 9,674 gross ton ship built by Swan Hunter, Wallsend-on-Tyne in 1901 for Elder Dempster's Beaver Line. Her details were - length 469.5ft x beam 56.2ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 13 knots. There was accommodation for 122-1st, 130-2nd and 500-3rd class passengers. Launched on 6/6/1901, she sailed from Liverpool on her maiden voyage to Quebec and Montreal on 24/9/1901. She was rebuilt to 8,850 tons and on 24/9/1902 sailed on her first voyage between South Africa and Bombay as a Boer War transport (2 round voyages). On 6/4/1903 she went to Canadian Pacific and her tonnage was increased to 9,674 gross tons. She started her first voyage for her new owners on 5/5/1903 when she left Liverpool for Quebec and Montreal. In 1909 her accommodation was altered to carry 350-2nd and 1,200-3rd class passengers and on 26/8/1918 she was gutted by fire at Montreal and scuttled. Refloated in Sept.of that year and repaired, she resumed North Atlantic services with cargo only. In 1920 she was sold to Canada Steamship Lines and renamed IVER HEATH and in 1923 went to Stelp & Leighton Ltd(Crete Shipping Co). She was scrapped in 1924. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.1308] [Canadian Pacific 100 years by George Musk]

LAKE MEGANTIC 1875
2,219 gross tons, length 321ft x beam 35.2ft, one funnel, three masts, iron hull, single screw, speed 10 knots. Accommodation for passengers in three classes. Built 1875 by London & Glasgow Co, Glasgow for the Canada Shipping Co., she was launched on 5th Jun.1875 and started her maiden voyage on 21st Jul.1875 from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal. On 1st Dec.1875 she started her first Liverpool - Portland - Baltimore sailing and on 30th Jul.1878 was wrecked on Anticosti Island with no loss of life. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.3, p.974 by N. R. P. Bonsor]

LAKE MEGANTIC 1900 see ARAWA 1884

LAKE MICHIGAN 1901
The LAKE MICHIGAN was built in 1901 by C.S.Swan & Hunter, Wallsend-on-Tyne (engines by Richardsons, Westgarth & Co, Hartlepool) for Elder Dempster & Co. She was a 9,240 gross ton ship, length 469.5ft x beam 56.2ft, one funnel,four masts, twin screw and a speed of 13 knots. There was accommodation for 500-3rd class passengers. Launched on 28th Sep.1901, she sailed from the UK in Mar.1902 on her maiden voyage to St John NB and then on to Capetown as a Boer War transport. On 6th Apr.1903 she passed to ownership of Canadian Pacific and on 26th May 1903 commenced her first from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal. She collided with the SS MATTERHORN in the English Channel on 21st Feb.1904 and was beached at Dungeness. Refloated four days later and towed to Gravesend for repairs. In Aug.1904 she started London - Antwerp - Quebec - Montreal sailings and her 3rd class accommodation was increased to 2,150. Damaged by a mine off Brest on 15th Nov.1916 she reached port and was repaired. On 16th Apr.1918 she was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U.100 while 93 miles NW of Eagle Island.[North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.1308] It may be of interest that the "Lake" ships, when arrived at Montreal often had their 3rd class berths dismantled and replaced with cattle stalls, and carried upward of 1200 head of cattle to the London market.

LAKE NEPIGON 1875 / GOLDEN FLEECE
The steamship LAKE NEPIGON was built by Lonodn & Glasgow Co, Glasgow, for the Beaver Line, and launched on 22 February 1875. 2,209 tons; 97,86 x 10,73 meters/321.1 x 35.2 feet (length x breadth); straight bow, 1 funnel, 3 masts; iron construction, screw propulsion, service speed 10 knots; 1st-, 2nd-, and steerage-class accommodation. 27 April 1875, maiden voyage, Liverpool-Quebec-Montreal. 16 December 1875, first voyage, Liverpool-Portland-Baltimore. 7 December 1881, first voyage, Liverpool-New York (winter service). July 1893, damaged by ice in the Straits of Belle Isle; returned to Montreal. 19 June 1894, last voyage, Montreal-Liverpool. 1895, renamed GOLDEN FLEECE (British). 9 June 1896, wrecked near Port Morant Jamaica [Noel Reginald Pixell Bonsor, North Atlantic Seaway; An Illustrated History of the Passenger Services Linking the Old World with the New (2nd ed.; Jersey, Channel Islands: Brookside Publications), vol. 3 (1979), p. 974. Pictured in Michael J. Anuta, Ships of Our Ancestors (Menominee, MI: Ships of Our Ancestors, 1983), p. 164, courtesy of the Peabody Essex Museum, East India Square, Salem, MA 01970. [Posted to the Emigration-Ships Mailing List by Michael Palmer - 3 January 1998]

LAKE ONTARIO 1887
The LAKE ONTARIO was a 4502 gross ton ship, length 374.5ft x beam 43.5ft, clipper bows, two funnels, three masts, single screw, speed 12 knots. Accommodation for 200- 1st, 85-2nd and 1,000-3rd class passengers. Built by J. Laing, Sunderland (engines by G. Clark, Sunderland), she was launched for the Beaver Line on 10th Mar.1887 and her maiden voyage from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal started 10th Jun.1887. In Aug.1896 she collided with Dominion Line's VANCOUVER in the St.Lawrence River, and in Jan.1898 collided with Wilson Line's HINDOO in the Atlantic, both times receiving only slight damage. In Mar.1899 the company became Beaver Line of Steamers (Elder Dempster & Co.), and continued Liverpool - Canada sailings until starting her last voyage Liverpool - St.John NB on 28th Mar.1903. In 1905 she was scrapped in Italy.[North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.975]

LAKE SIMCOE 1901 see EMS 1884

LAKE SUPERIOR 1884
4,562 gross tons, length 400ft x beam 44.2ft, one funnel, three masts, iron hull, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. Accommodation for 190-1st, 80-2nd and 1,000-3rd class passengers. Built by J & G. Thomson, Glasgow, she was launched for the Beaver Line on 4th Dec.1884. Her maiden voyage started on 7th May 1885 when she left Liverpool for Quebec and Montreal. In July 1894 she sustained slight damage when she collided with an iceberg in Belle Isle Strait and commenced her last sailing on 29th Oct.1898 between Liverpool, Quebec and Montreal. The company went into liquidation in 1899 and resumed service later the same year as the Beaver Line of Steamers (Elder Dempster & Co.). In April 1899 she sailed from Batum to Halifax and Liverpool and resumed Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal sailings on 3rd Jun.1899. Her final voyage from Liverpool for St John, NB started on 18th Mar.1902 and she was wrecked near St John NB on the homeward voyage on 31st Mar.1902 with no loss of life. She was later salvaged and scrapped where she lay. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.975]

LAKE WINNIPEG 1879
3,300 gross tons, length 355.2ft x beam 40.2ft, one funnel, three masts, iron hull, single screw, speed 11 knots, accommodation for 85-1st, 45-2nd and 900-3rd class passengers. Launched on 26th May 1879 by J. & G. Thomson, Glasgow for the Canada Shipping Co., she started her maiden voyage on 9th Aug.1879 from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal. On 17th Nov.1881 she commenced winter sailings between Liverpool and New York and on 2nd Jan.1887 started her first Liverpool - Boston - New York voyage. Re-engined in 1891 and started her last voyage on 2nd Jul.1898 between Liverpool, Quebec and Montreal. She was then sold to Turkey and renamed GARB. In 1912 she was torpedoed and sunk by an Italian warship.[North Atlantic Seaway, vol.3, p.974 by N. R. P. Bonsor]

LAKONIA 1899
O.N.11195, 4,686 gross tons, length 401.7ft x beam 49.2ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 12 knots, accommodation for 8-1st class passengers. Launched on 24th Apr.1899 by London & Glasgow Eng. & Iron Shipbuilding Co., Glasgow for the Donaldson Brothers, Glasgow, she started her maiden voyage on 17th Jun.1899 when she left Glasgow for Quebec and Montreal. Chartered to the Phoenix Line in Dec.1908 she made three Antwerp - New York voyages for this company before resuming Donaldson sailings. In Apr.1924 she was scrapped at Genoa.[North Atlantic Seaway, vol.3,p.1012 by N.R.P.Bonsor] [Donaldson Line by P. J. Telford]

LANCASHIRE / KINA / LITUANIA 1889
4,248 gross tons, length 400.7ft x beam 45.2ft, one funnel, four masts, single screw, speed 13 knots. Built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast as the cargo ship (12 passengers) LANCASHIRE for Bibby Line, she was launched on 27th Apr.1889 and used on the UK - Burma service. In 1892 she was converted to carry 70-1st class passengers and in 1905 was sold to Danish East Asiatic Co and renamed KINA. Transferred to the Russian American Line in 1907, fitted with accommodation for 1st class, 100-2nd class and 1,050-3rd class passengers and renamed LITUANIA. 4th Jul.1907 first voyage Libau - Rotterdam - New York. Oct.1907 went aground in fog on Swedish coast at Skillinge and returned to Libau for repairs. 1st Apr.1912 last voyage Libau - Halifax - New York. 1913 sold to Japan renamed DAITEN MARU. 6th Mar.1918 torpedoed and sunk by U-Boat in the Mediterranean. [Merchant Fleets vols.29 & 43 by Duncan Haws] [North Atlantic Seaway vol.3, p.1355 by N.R.P.Bonsor]

LANCASHIRE 1914
9,542 gross tons, length 482.3ft x beam 57.3ft, one funnel, four masts, single screw, speed 15 knots, accommodation for 295-1st class passengers. Built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast for the Bibby Line, her construction was delayed by the war, and she wasn't launched until Jan.1917. Immediately taken over under the Liner Requisition Scheme, she sailed in August from Birkenhead for Rangoon. In 1918 she repatriated French prisoners of war and Belgian refugees and in 1919 was used as a troopship between Antwerp / Plymouth and Australia and then UK - USA with returning troops. 1920 Released to Bibby Line and refitted to passenger ship standards, converted from coal to oil fuel. Used on the UK - Far East passenger service and also for trooping work. 1930 converted to a permanent troopship. Nov.1939 carried the first contingent of the Indian Expeditionary Force from Bombay to Marseilles. June 1944 acted as commodore ship for the Juno Beach D-Day landings. 1945 Converted to a store and supply ship for the Pacific fleet. Used at Hong Kong to restore power supplies after the war ended and then assisted with the repatriation of sick troops. 1946 reconditioned into a peacetime troopship and mainmast removed. Trooped to India, Cyprus and the Far East. 1956 replaced by OXFORDSHIRE and scrapped at Barrow in Furness. [Merchant Fleets, vol.29 by Duncan Haws]

LANCASTRIA 1924 see TYRRHENIA 1920

LANDSBOROUGH 1853
Wooden hulled 3-masted full rigged ship, built 1853 by J. F. Foster, Medford, Mass. as the MORNING STAR. 1,066 gross tons. 1863 purchased by J. Baines Black Ball Line, renamed LANDSBOROUGH and used on Liverpool - Melbourne service. 1864-65 London - Queensland route. 1866 sold. 1867-69 London - Sydney on charter.back to Baines. [No later info]

LAPLAND / SHUNA / SOFIA M / SCUTARI / VARVARA 1872
(There was a ship called LAPLAND belonging to Currie's Castle Line which later became Union-Castle Mail SS Co.) This one was a 1,269 gross ton ship built in 1872 for the Leith, Hull & Hamburg Steam Packet Co. She was chartered to D.Currie and used on the S.Africa Mail service and sold to him in 1875. Later used on the S.African coastal service. Reverted to UK - Continental service in 1882. Became SHUNA (British) in 1902, SOFIA M (Greece) in 1906, SCUTARI (Turkey) in 1911, VARVARA (Greece) in 1912 and torpedoed and sunk by a submarine in the Mediterranean on 19/7/1917. [The Cape Run by W.H.Mitchell and L.A.Sawyer]

LAPLAND 1908
The LAPLAND was built in 1908 by Harland & Wolff, Belfast for the Red Star Line of Antwerp. She was a 17,540 gross ton ship, length 605.8ft x beam 70.4ft, two funnels, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 17 knots. There was accommodation for 450-1st, 400-2nd 1,500-3rd class passengers. Launched on 27th Jun.1908, she sailed from Antwerp on her maiden voyage to Dover and New York on 10th Apr.1909 under the Belgian flag. She started her last voyage on this service on 4th Jul.1914 and on 1st Sep.1914 commenced sailing between Liverpool and New York. On 29th Oct.1914 she commenced Liverpool - New York sailings under the British flag while under charter to Cunard Line. In April 1917 she was mined off the Mersey Bar Lightship, but managed to reach Liverpool and in June 1917 she was requisitioned and converted to a troopship. On 23rd Nov.1918 she commenced her first voyage after the Armistice when she sailed from Liverpool for New York for the White Star Line and on 2nd Aug.1919 started her sixth and last round voyage on this service. On 16th Sep.1919 she transferred to the Southampton - New York route under charter to White Star Line and made three round voyages on this route, the last starting 27th Nov.1919. She was refitted to 18,565 gross tons with passenger accommodation for 389-1st, 448-2nd and 1,200-3rd class and resumed service for the Red Star Line, but under the British flag on 3rd Jan.1920 when she sailed from Antwerp for Southampton and New York. In April 1927 she was altered to carry cabin, tourist and 3rd class passengers and on 29th Apr.1932 started her last voyage between Antwerp, Southampton, Havre, New York (arr.8/5, dep.11/6), Cobh and Antwerp. Between 1932-33 she was used on London - Mediterranean cruises and in October 1933 was sold to Japanese owners. She was scrapped at Osaka the following year. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2, p.858] - [Posted to The ShipsList by Ted Finch - 11 March 1998]

LAGARFOSS / PROFIT 1904
1,126 gross tons, length 225ft x beam 33.7ft, single screw. Built 1904 as the PROFIT for D/S A/S Profit (Hans Kjaer & Co), Drammen, Norway by Nylands Verksted, Christiania. 1907 sold to D/S A/S Produce (same manager). 1917 sold to H/f Eimskipafelag Islands,Reykjavik, Iceland (Iceland Steamship Co), renamed LAGARFOSS. Used on the Reykjavik - Copenhagen - Leith service. 1919 sold to A/S S. Bjornsson, Reykjavik. 1920 reverted to ownership of to H/f Eimskipafelag Islands,Reykjavik, Iceland. 1949 scrapped Copenhagen.

LARGS BAY 1921
13,853 gross tons, length 161,80m x beam 20,81m (530.85ft x 68.3ft), one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 15 knots. Accommodation for 12-1st and 712-3rd class passengers. Built by Wm Beardmore & Co, Glasgow, she was launched for the Australian Commonwealth Line of Steamers on 20th Jun.1921 and was registered at Adelaide. She was one of five sister ships, one of which was the famous JERVIS BAY. On 4th Jan.1922 she sailed from London on her maiden voyage via Suez to Fremantle, Adelaide, Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane. Sold to White Star Line in May 1928, she was re-registered in London and continued on the same service. Rebuilt to 14,184 gross tons and converted to a single class ship with accommodation for 550-tourist class passengers in 1931. In April 1933, following the collapse of the Kylsant organisation which owned White Star Line, the Aberdeen & Commonwealth Line was formed and the LARGS BAY was transferred to the new company. In Aug.1941 she became a troop transport and served in the Far East, North Africa and Italian campaign. Damaged by a mine at the entrance to the Bay of Naples on 2nd Jan.1944. Returned to her owners and reconditioned in 1948-9 and refitted to carry 290-tourist class passengers, she resumed service from London and Southampton via Suez to Colombo and Sydney. Her final sailing started on 11th Jan.1957 and in April she arrived at Barrow-in-Furness for breaking up. She was the last ship owned by the Aberdeen & Commonwealth Line which ceased to exist after her sale. [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.17, Aberdeen and Aberdeen & Commonwealth Line] [North Star to Southern Cross by John M.Maber]

LASCELLES / AMEDEO / PLATA 1878
Built in 1878 by Barrow Shipbuilding Co, Barrow as the LASCELLES for the British owned Johnston Line. This was a 1,942 gross ton ship, length 300ft x beam 34ft, clipper stem, one funnel, three masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. Launched on 17th Apr.1878, she was used by Johnston Line until 1883 when she was purchased by the Italian company, Raggio and renamed AMEDEO. In 1885 she went to Navigazione Generale Italiana, was renamed PLATA and started her first Palermo - New York voyage on 2nd Jan.1886. On 24th Jun.1894 she commenced her 20th and last voyage between Licata, Palermo and New York. She also made Genoa - River Plate sailings. In 1910 she came under the ownership of Soc.Nazionale di Servizi Marittimi and in 1913 went to Marittima Italiana. On 3rd Dec.1916 she was torpedoed and sunk by an enemy submarine near Alexandria with the loss of six lives. [South Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, p.300][North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.1113]

LAURA / EUROPA / BRAGA 1907
6,125 gross tons, length 415.3ft x beam 49.6ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw, speed 15 knots, accommodation for 50-1st, 75-2nd and 1,500-3rd class passengers. Launched 15th Feb.1907 by Russell & Co, Port Glasgow for Unione Austriaca, Trieste. 11th May 1907 maiden voyage Trieste - Patras - New York. 8th May 1914 started last voyage Trieste - Palermo - Algiers - New York and then made a subsequent voyage to South America. 1914-1917 took refuge at Bahia. 2nd Jul.1917 seized by Brazil and renamed EUROPA for Lloyd Nacional, Brazil. Dec.1919 handed to France as war reparations, sold to Fabre Line renamed BRAGA, fitted with accommodation for 130-cabin and 1,350-3rd class passengers. 10th Dec.1920 first voyage Marseilles - Naples - Palermo - New York. 16th Sep.1926 started last crossing New York - Azores - Mediterranean. 16th Nov.1926 wrecked on Aspro Island, Greece.[North Atlantic Seaway, vol.3,p.1330 by N.R.P. Bonsor]

LAURENTIAN 1893 see POLYNESIAN 1872

LAURENTIC (1) ex ALBERTA 1908
White Star Line - Laurentic [1] Built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast in 1908 as the "Alberta" but launched as the "Laurentic" 14,892 gross tons, length 550.4ft x beam 67.3ft, one funnel, two masts, three screws and a speed of 16 knots. Accommodation for 230-1st, 430-2nd and 1,000-3rd class passengers. Maiden voyage 29/4/1909 from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal, on 13/9/1914 she was commissioned at Montreal as a transport for the Canadian Expeditionary Force. On 23/1/1917 she was sunk off Northern Ireland by a mine laid by the German submarine U.80 with the loss of 354 lives. After the Great War most of the UKP5 million bullion she was carrying was recovered.

LAURENTIC (2) 1927
The LAURENTIC was a 18,724 gross ton ship, length 578.2ft x beam 75.4ft, two funnels, two masts, three screws and a speed of 16 knots. Accommodation for 594-cabin, 406-tourist and 500-3rd class passengers. Built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast, she was launched for the White Star Line on 16th Jun.1927 and started her maiden voyage from Liverpool to New York on 12th Nov.1927. On 27th Apr.1928 she commenced Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal sailings and on 3rd Oct.1932 collided with the British s/s LURIGETHAN in Belle Isle Strait, damaging both ships. Transferred to the Cunard-White Star Line in 1934, she started her last Montreal - Quebec - Liverpool crossing on 14th Sep.1934 and was subsequently used for cruising. On 18th Aug.1935 she collided in the Irish Sea with the Blue Star Line ship NAPIER STAR causing six deaths and in Dec.1935 was laid up at Southampton. She made a trooping voyage to Palestine in 1936 and was shifted to lay up in Falmouth in 1938. Converted to an Armed Merchant Cruiser on the outbreak of war in 1939, she was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U.99 (Kretchsmer) in the Atlantic on 3rd Nov.1940, west of Black Rock in position 54.09N 13.44W. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.2 by N.R.P.Bonsor] [British & Commonwealth Merchant Ship Losses to Axis Submarines by A. J. Tennent]

LAWANG / DAHOME / KAISSERI / ERITREA 1890
2,470 gross tons, length 300.6ft x beam 41ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 11 knots. Accommodation for 40-1st and 20-2nd class passengers. Built by C.S.Swan & Hunter, Wallsend-on-Tyne (engines by Wallsend Slipway Co Ltd), she was launched for German owners (Kingsin) as the LAWANG on 27th Nov.1890. Purchased by Cie de Navigation Mixte of Marseilles in 1895, she was renamed DAHOME and used for their West Africa service. Sold to Furness Withy in May 1898, she started her first voyage from Liverpool to St. John's NF and Halifax on 16th Jul.1898. Sold to Turkey in 1911 and renamed KAISSERI, she was captured on 4th Oct.1911 by the Italian cruiser PUGLIA at Tripoli during the Turko_Italian War. Used as an Italian military transport and renamed ERITREA, she was eventually scrapped in 1923. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.1036][Furness Withy by David Burrell] [Sea Breezes magazine, March 1958]

LEERDAM / NEDERLAND 1881
The LEERDAM was a 2,796 gross ton ship, built by Nederlandsche Stoomboot Mij, Fijenoord (Rotterdam) in 1881. Her details were - length 322.1ft x beam 40ft, straight stem, one funnel, two masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. There was accommodation for 44-1st and 392-3rd class passengers. Built as a speculation for the builders and launched on 28/4/1881 as the NEDERLAND, in the absence of purchasers she ran for them on the North Atlantic. However, in 1882 she was bought by the Holland America Line and renamed LEERDAM. Her first Rotterdam - New York voyage started on 16/9/1882 and her first Amsterdam - New York voyage on 13/3/1883. On 7/6/1884 she resumed Rotterdam - New York sailings and on 1/10/1887 resumed Amsterdam - New York service. Her last voyage on this route commenced on 19/3/1889 and on 16/12/1889 she was sunk in collision with the British steamer GAW-QUAN-SIN in the North Sea with no loss of life, while on voyage from Rotterdam to Buenos Aires. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.910]

LEERDAM 1920
8,854 gross tons, length 466ft x beam 58.2ft, two funnels, two masts, single screw, speed 13 knots, accommodation for 14-1st, 174-2nd and 800-3rd class passengers. Built by Nieuwe Waterweg, Schiedam, Holland, she was launched on 6th Dec.1920 for Holland America Line's Rotterdam - Cuba - Mexico service. 1934 laid up due to the depression, she was rebuilt with one funnel and accommodation for 30-cabin and 60-3rd class passengers. On 13th Oct.1934 she started her first Rotterdam - New York sailing and in 1940 came under Allied control until 1946 when she commenced Rotterdam - Baltimore sailings. Her last Baltimore - Rotterdam crossing was in Dec.1952 and she was then laid up at Rotterdam until 1954 when she was scrapped at Yokohama. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.3,p.914 by N.R.P.Bonsor] [Merchant Fleets, vol.28 by Duncan Haws]

LEICESTER 1891
was a 1,002 ton ship, 241ft x 32ft, one funnel, two masts, speed 15 knots, accommodation for 50-1st and 360-emigrant class passengers. Built 1891 by Earle's Shipbuilding Co, Hull for the Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway Co. She was one of four sister ships which operated a daily service between Hamburg and Grimsby. 1897 transferred to the Great Central Railway Co on take over. In 1914 she was requisitioned as a naval store carrier and on 12th Feb.1916 en route Portsmouth to Cromarty with general cargo, she struck a mine and sank off Folkestone with the loss of 17 lives.

LEICESTERSHIRE / BRITISH EXHIBITOR / ZAMZAM 1909
The LEICESTERSHIRE was built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast in 1909 for the Bibby Line and was a sister ship to the GLOUCESTERSHIRE. Her details were - 8,059 gross tons, length 467.2ft x beam 54.3ft x depth 31.7ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 15 knots. There was accommodation for 230 single class passengers. She sailed from Birkenhead in September 1909 on her maiden voyage to India. In August 1914 she was taken over as an Indian Expeditionary Force transport until November when she was returned to her owners. In 1917 she was again taken over under the liners requisition scheme, and in 1918 spent some time carrying troops to North Russia to fight the Bolsheviks. She then made a voyage to Melbourne repatriating Australian troops. After this service she was returned to Bibby Line, rebuilt from coal to oil burning and modernised. Resumed service on the Rangoon route until 1930 when she was sold to the British National Exhibition Ship Co Ltd, who intended to run her round the Empire as a floating exhibition of British goods. Converted by Cammel Laird, Birkenhead, she was renamed BRITISH EXHIBITOR and in 1931 was opened in the Thames for inspection. However, in 1932 the company went into voluntary liquidation and the whole scheme was abandoned. The ship was then laid up at Southampton Water until purchased by Egyptian owners in 1933 to be used in the pilgrim trade between Egypt and Jeddah. Renamed ZAMZAM, she continued in this trade until 1941 when, although a neutral ship and having stopped on demand, she was shelled and sunk in the Atlantic by the German raider ATLANTIS (ex-Hansa Line's GOLDENFELS) with loss of one life. 320 survivors transferred to German ship DRESDEN.[Bibby Liner "Leicestershire" by Capt.J.H.Isherwood, Sea Breezes Magazine, April 1951]

LEIPZIG 1869
The LEIPZIG was a 2,388 gross ton ship, built by Caird & Co, Greenock in 1869 for North German Lloyd of Bremen. Her details were - length 290.2ft x beam 39ft, clipper stem, one funnel, two masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. There was accommodation for 84-1st and 600-3rd class passengers. Launched on 13th Feb.1869, she sailed from Bremen on her maiden voyage to Southampton and Baltimore in May 1869. On 13th Jan.1872 she commenced the first of five Bremen - New York voyages and in 1883 her engines were compounded by Henniges, Bremen. She started her last Bremen - Baltimore crossing on 12th May.1886 and was subsequently used on the S.American service. She started her last voyage on 19th May 1894 and was sold to Hamburg owners the same year. In 1898 she was scrapped at Hamburg. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2, p.547]

LEON XIII / TAROBA / ISLA DE CUBA 1888
LEON XIII 5,087 gross tons, length 410.4ft x beam 46.1ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 14 knots, accommodation for 117-1st, 58-2nd and 1,000-3rd class passengers. Built by A.& J. Inglis, Glasgow, she was launched on 31st Jan.1888 as the TAROBA for the British India S.N.Co. In May 1894 she was sold to Cia.Trasatlantica, Spain and renamed ISLA DE CUBA and in 1896 renamed LEON XIII for the same owners. On 26th May 1900 she started her first voyage from Barcelona to Cadiz, New York, Havana and Vera Cruz and commenced her last on this route on 25th Jan.1922. She made one further Barcelona - Cadiz - Vera Cruz - Havana - New York - Cadiz - Barcelona voyage in Feb.1926 and was scrapped in Italy in 1931. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.3,p.1255 by N.R.P.Bonsor]

LEONARDO DA VINCI 1960
33,340 gross tons, length 767.3ft x beam 92.2ft, twin screw, speed 23 knots, accommodation for 413-1st, 342-cabin class and 571-tourist passengers. Launched on 7th Dec.1958 by Ansaldo Societa per Azioni, Genoa for Italia Line, her maiden voyage was a Mediterranean cruise. On 30th Jun.1960 she started her first voyage from Genoa to Cannes, Naples and New York and on 19th Jul.1965 started her first passage between Naples - Genoa - Barcelona - Halifax - New York. In 1976-77 she was employed cruising from New York with the occasional transatlantic crossing. Then sold to Italian Cruise International who chartered her to Costa Line for cruising. 1978 laid up at La Spezia. July 1980 caught fire, towed from harbour, completely burnt out and sank in shallow water. 1981 wreck salvaged, towed to La Spezia and 1982 scrapped.

LEOPOLDVILLE / LANDANA / CABO DE EIZAGUIRRE 1904
4085 gross tons, length 375.5ft x beam 47ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw, speed 12 knots, accommodation for 90-1st and 50-2nd class passengers. Built by Sir Raylton Dixon & Co, Middlesbrough she was completed Apr.1904 as the LEOPOLDVILLE for Cie. Belge Maritime du Congo. 1908 sold to African SS Co (Elder Dempster & Co) renamed LANDANA. 1910 sold to Cia. Trasatlantica Espanoles renamed CABO DE EIZAGUIRRE and used on the Barcelona - Las Palmas - Cape Town - Singapore - Manila service. 1917 name recorded as C. DE EIZAGUIRRE. 26th May 1917 struck mine off Robben Island, Table Bay which had been laid by the German raider WOLF. The ship broke in half and sank within five minutes. One lifeboat got away and one survivor was later found on a raft. 24 survived and 125 lives were lost. ["Elder Dempster, A Fleet History" by J. E. Cowden & J. O. C. Duffy.]

LEOPOLDVILLE / ABINSI 1910
6365 gross tons, length 400.5ft x beam 53.3ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw, speed 15 knots, accommodation for 170-1st and 18-2nd class passengers. Completed Apr.1910 by Harland & Wolff, Belfast as the LEOPOLDVILLE for Cie. Maritime Belge du Congo. July 1914 acquired by with Elder Line renamed ABINSI. 15th Jul.1917 missed by a torpedo off Ireland. Aug.1917 transferred to African SS Co (Elder Dempster). 26.3.1933 sold to Smith, Houston & Co, Glasgow for scrapping. 2.8.1933 left Liverpool in tow of tugs FLYING FOAM and FLYING KITE for Glasgow. 5.8.1933 re-sold to Douglas & Ramsey and scrapped. ["Elder Dempster, A Fleet History" by J. E. Cowden & J. O. C. Duffy.]

LES ALPES / BRITISH PRINCESS 1882
3,864 gross tons, length 420ft x beam 42.2ft (128.04m x 12.86m), one funnel, four masts, single screw, speed 12 knots, accommodation for 1st, 2nd and 1,200-3rd class passengers. Built in 1882 as the BRITISH PRINCESS by Harland & Wolff, Belfast for British Shipowners Ltd, she sailed on charter to the American Line between Liverpool and Philadelphia. In 1896 she was sold to Societe Generale de Transports Maritimes, Marseilles and renamed LES ALPES. Her first voyage from Marseilles to South America started on 24th March 1896. In 1907 she was sold to Compagnie de Navigation France-Amerique and continued Marseilles - Spain - South America sailings until 1910 when she was scrapped. [South Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, ISBN 0-905824-06-7 contains a photo of the ship]

LESSING / NERTHE 1874
3,496 gross tons, length 375.1ft x beam 40ft, one funnel, two masts, iron hull, single screw, speed 13 knots, accommodation for 90-1st, 100-2nd and 800-3rd class passengers. Launched on 20th Feb.1874 by A. Stephen & Sons, Glasgow for the Adler Line, Hamburg. she started her maiden voyage from Hamburg to New York on 28th May 1874. In 1875 she was purchased by Hamburg Ameruca Line and continued Hamburg - Havre - New York sailings. 1882 rebuilt with two funnels. 22nd Apr.1888 last voyage Hamburg - Havre - New York and then sold to Messageries Maritimes, Marseilles and renamed NERTHE. 1897 scrapped. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.1 by N.R.P.Bonsor]

LETIMBRO 1883
The LETIMBRO was built by Blackwood & Gordon, Port Glasgow in 1883 for Raggio of Italy. She was a 2,237 gross ton ship, length 299.2ft x beam 37.2ft, one funnel, two masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 20-1st and 700-3rd class. Launched on 24th Feb.1883, she was purchased in 1885 by Navigazione Generale Italiana in 1885 and started her first voyage for these owners on 27th Aug.1885 when she left Palermo for Catania, Patras, Messina, Palermo and New York. She commenced her 30th and last transatlantic voyage on 3rd Jan.1895 when she sailed from Girgenti for Catania, Messina, Palermo and New York. In 1910 she was sold to Soc. Nazionale di Servizi Marittimi and in 1913 came under the ownership of Sicilia Line. On 29th Jul.1916 she was torpedoed and sunk by an enemy submarine while 120 miles from Benghazi, Libya. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.1113]

LETITIA 1912
The first LETITIA was a short lived ship. Built by Scott's Shipbuilding and Engineering Co, Greenock for the Donaldson Line of Glasgow, she was a 8,991 gross ton ship, length 470.4ft x beam 56.9ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 14 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 300-2nd and 950-3rd class. Launched on 21st Feb.1912, she left Glasgow on 4th May 1912 on her maiden voyage to Quebec and Montreal. Employed as a hospital ship during the Great War, she was wrecked on 1st Aug.1917 at Chebucto Head, Halifax, NS with no loss of life. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.1014]

LETITIA / EMPIRE BRENT / CAPTAIN COOK 1924
Built as the LETITIA in 1924 by the Fairfield Co, Glasgow for the Donaldson Line of Glasgow. She was a 13,475 gross ton ship, length overall 538ft x beam 66.4ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 15 knots. There was accommodation for 516-cabin and 1,000-3rd class passengers. Launched on 14th Oct.1924, she sailed from Glasgow on her maiden voyage to Liverpool, Quebec and Montreal on 24th Apr.1925, and she ran a joint service with the ill-fated ATHENIA to Quebec and Montreal in the summer and Halifax and St John NB in the winter. In 1927 her accommodation was altered, to carry 298-cabin, 310-tourist and 964-3rd class passengers. In 1939 she was requisitioned by the Admiralty and commisioned as an Armed Merchant Cruiser. She later became a troopship and was extensively damaged in 1943 and was temporarily repaired in the USA. In 1944 she was taken over by the Canadian Government and converted into a hospital ship with a medical staff of 200 and a capacity for 1,000 wounded. Over the next year or so she carried over 7,000 sick and wounded back to Canada and was on her way to the Pacific theatre of war when Japan surrendered. She was then used for the repatriation of Canadian troops and families. While still engaged in this work, she was sold in 1946 to the Ministry of Transport and renamed EMPIRE BRENT. While on route to Halifax in 1947, she collided with and sank the STORMONT in the River Mersey and had to be drydocked in Birkenhead with stem damage. In December 1947, she was completely overhauled on the Clyde and refitted as a troopship. Used for trooping voyages to India and the Far East until 1949 when she commenced an emigration service between the UK and Australia with a capacity for 965 emigrants. Withdrawn from this service late in 1950, she was laid up for about six months and was then completely reconditioned as a New Zealand emigrant ship with accommodation for 1,088 passengers in two-, four-, and six berth cabins. Renamed CAPTAIN COOK, her ownership was to pass gradually to the New Zealand government, who were paying for her by instalments. She commenced sailings from Glasgow via Panama to Wellington on 5th Feb.1952, taking about 33 days, sometimes being used to repatriate troops from the Far East on the return voyage. From April to October 1955 she was chartered to Donaldsons and made seven round voyages between Glasgow, Liverpool and Montreal, but then went back to the New Zealand service. In 1957 she had a fire while in Wellington, but was able to sail to the UK for repairs. She arrived at Glasgow at the end of her 25th New Zealand voyage in February 1960, was laid up at Falmouth and was then sold to British Iron and Steel Corporation, towed to Inverkeithing and broken up. [Donaldson Atlantic Liner "Letitia" of 1925 by Captain J.H.Isherwood, Sea Breezes Magazine, September 1967]

LIBAN 1882
2,269 gross ton passenger ship, length 91.52m x beam 11.03m, one funnel, two masts, iron hull, single screw, speed 12 knots. Launched Sep.1882 by R. Napier & Sons, Glasgow for Compagnie Fraissinet, Marseilles, she was initially used on the Marseilles - India service. On 1st Nov.1887 she commenced her first Marseilles - Genoa - Montevideo - Buenos Aires voyage and continued South America voyages until starting her last on 1st Sep.1890. The company then withdrew from the South America route to concentrate on their new West Africa service. On 7th Jun.1903 the LIBAN was rammed and sunk off Marseilles by the Fraissinet steamer INSULAIRE with the loss of about 100 lives. [South Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor]

LICHTENFELS / CUBANGO / BISCO 1903
5,734 gross tons, 1903 built by Flensburger Schiffsbau Gesellschaft, Flensburg for the Hansa Line, Bremen. 1914 interned at Mormugao, 1916 seized by Portugal and renamed GOA for the Portuguese Government. 1924 sold to Cia. Nacional de Navegaceo, Lisbon renamed CUBANGO. 1950 sold to British Iron & Steel Corp. and renamed BISCO 5 for voyage to Milford Haven where she was scrapped.

LIGURIA 1874
4,666 gross tons, length 433.5ft x beam 45ft, clipper bows, two funnels, three masts (rigged for sail), single screw, speed 14 knots, accommodation for 100-1st, 150-2nd and 340-3rd class passengers. Built 1874 by John Elder & Co, Glasgow for Pacific Steam Navigation Co, she entered the Birkenhead - Valparaiso service on 9th Sep.1874. In 1880 she transferred to Orient Line management and started her first London - Suez - Melbourne - Sydney voyage on 12th May 1880. Her last Australian voyage started on 9th May 1890 and on 17th Sep.1890 she reverted to Pacific Steam's Valparaiso service. In 1893 she was re-engined to give a speed of 15knots and the sailing rigging removed from her masts. 1903 scrapped in Genoa. [Merchant Fleets, vol.8 by Duncan Haws]

LIGURIA / AFFON 1901
4,865 gross tons, length 403ft x beam 46.6ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 14 knots. Accommodation for 56-1st and 1,194-3rd class passengers. Built by G.Ansaldo & Co, Sestri Ponente she was launched for Navigazione Generale Italiana on 15th Jan.1901. Her maiden voyage from Naples to New York started 16th Feb.1901 and she continued this service except for two Genoa - Naples - New York voyages under charter to La Veloce in 1909. In 1911 she was sold to Russia and renamed AFFON and was scrapped in 1928. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3, p.1115]

LIMBURGIA / JOHANN HEINRICH BURCHARD / RELIANCE 1914
The RELIANCE was a 19,618 gross ton ship, built in 1914 by J.C.Tecklenborg as the JOHANN HEINRICH BURCHARD for Hamburg America Line. Her details were - length 590.4ft x beam 72.5ft, three funnels, two masts, triple screw and a speed of 17 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 315-1st, 301-2nd and 850-3rd class. She carried a crew of 480. Launched on 10/2/1914, she was provisionally delivered on 20/11/1915 but due to the Great War, never sailed under her original name. On 8/6/1916 she was handed over to Royal Holland Lloyd as reparations for Dutch neutral ships sunk by the Germans, and renamed LIMBURGIA. In 1918 the Allies demanded the transfer of the ship and a long delay ensued. On 3/2/1920 she left Bremerhaven for Amsterdam, still under claim and then served on the South America route. Finally, in 1922 she was transferred to United American Line, New York under agreement with Germany to re-open a passenger service between New York and Hamburg. She was refitted to carry 290-1st, 320-2nd and 400-3rd class passengers, 19,582 gross tons and renamed RELIANCE. On 2/5/1922 she commenced her first Hamburg - Southampton - Cherbourg - New York voyage and in 1923 was transferred to the Panamanian flag. Her last voyage on this service commenced 25/6/1926 and she was then re-acquired by Hamburg America Line. On 24/8/1926 she resumed Hamburg - Southampton - Cherbourg - New York sailings for these owners and in May 1930 was refitted to carry 1st, tourist and 3rd class passengers. In June 1931 she was again altered to carry 1st and tourist class only and on 6/8/1935 started her final Hamburg - New York voyage. She was subsequently engaged in cruising until 1937 when she was modernised by Blohm & Voss, fitted with broader funnels and given accommodation for 633-1st and 186-2nd class passengers. On 7/8/1938 she was gutted by fire at Hamburg and in 1940 was sold and scrapped by Krupp at Bremerhaven. [North Atlantic Seaweay by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.418] [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.4, Hamburg America Line]

LINCOLN / ELIKON 1883
The LINCOLN belonged to the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway Co, which was a forerunner to the Great Central Railway Co. She was a 1,075 gross ton ship, length 251.5ft x beam 32.2dt, one funnel, two masts, iron hull, single screw, speed 12 knots. There was accommodation for 48-1st, ?-2nd and 288-emigrant class passengers. Built by Earle's Shipbuilding Co, Hull in 1883, she was used on the Grimsby to Hamburg route and later on the Grimsby to Rotterdam/Antwerp routes. On 11th Mar.1894 she collided with and sank the Danzig steamer LINING in the River Maas, and in June 1902 attended at the Royal Naval Review at Spithead. She stranded at Hasborough Sands, Norfolk on 20th Jan.1911, but all the passengers were taken off by lifeboat abd she was refloated. Sold to the Achaia Steamship Co, Patras, Greece in 1914 and renamed ELIKON, she was torpedoed and sunk in the Bay of Biscay on 1st Feb.1917 on a voyage from Bilbao to Cardiff. [A Century of North Sea Passenger Steamers by A.Greenway, ISBN 0-7110-1338-1 which contains a photo of the ship]

LINCOLN CITY / CHICAGO / SALERNO 1884
Built as the LINCOLN CITY by E.Withy & Son, West Hartlepool (engines by T.Richardson & Co, Hartlepool) in 1884 for the Furness Direct Scandinavian and American SS Co Ltd, this was a 2,729 gross ton ship, length 301ft x beam 40ft, straight stem, one funnel, two masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. There was capacity for 20-1st, 30-2nd and 700-3rd class passengers. Launched on 29th Mar.1884, she was purchased by Wilson Line of Hull in 1885 and renamed CHICAGO. She started her first Hull - Boston - New York voyage on 9th Mar.1885 and her last Hull - New York sailing commenced 13th Apr.1898. In 1898 she was renamed SALERNO and sailed from Newcastle for Dundee and New York on 23rd Jul.1898. Her last Newcastle - New York voyage started 18th Nov.1900 and she was sold to Wilhelmsen of Norway in 1901. On 30th Jun.1905 she was wrecked on Lichfield Shoal, Halifax, NS. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.1033]

LINDA WOERMANN 1895
1,377 gross tons, 878 net tons, length 70.7m x beam 10.4m, one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 8½ knots, accommodation for 9-1st, 6-2nd and 6-3rd class passengers.
Built 1895 by Flensburger Schiffbau Ges., Hamburg as the GUTRUNE for Dampschiff Rhederei von 1889, Hamburg. 26th April 1902 sold to Woermann Line, Hamburg renamed LINDA WOERMANN and used on the Hamburg - West Africa service. Aug.1914 laid up at Beira on the outbreak of war and seized by Portuguese authorities on 3rd Feb.1916. Renamed PUNGUE and managed by Transportes Maritimos do Estado, Lisbon. 1925 sold to S. Benoliel & Azancot, Lisbon renamed LUNA. 1927 sold to Soc. Anon. Cooperative de Navigation, Marseille, France renamed VILLE D'ALEXANDRETTE. 1929 sold to Slobodna Bokeska Plovidba. Tivat / Kotor, Yugoslavia renamed ANTON IVOVIC. 1934 sold to Alfred Kalm, Tallinn, Estonia renamed MARGO. 1940 taken over by the British Ministry of War Transport, London, managed by P. MacAllum & Co, Cardiff. 3rd Nov.1947 scuttled in position 47.36N 09.31W with a cargo of obselete ammunition.

LITUANIA 1907 see LANCASHIRE 1889

LIVARDEN 1928
The Norwegian "Livarden" was a cargo ship built by F.Schichau, Elbing in 1928 for H.C.Horn of Hamburg as the "Heinz Horn", and was 4,091 gross tons. At the end of WWII she was earmarked for transfer to Holland, but this does not appear to have happened, and she eventually passed to the Norwegian shipowner, Johan Eliassen of Bergen in 1947. She was then renamed "Livarden" and stayed with this company until 1954 when she was purchased by the Crete Shipping Co of London and was renamed "Crete Avon." On October 7th 1955 she broke down while 400 miles West of the Azores while on passage from Antwerp to Havana with a cargo of iron and steel. The ship's engineers tried for nine days to repair her and she was eventually towed to Ponta Delgada by the Dutch tug "Thames". After it was discovered that she had a fractured crankshaft, she was towed to Falmouth, where she lay for 4 months and was eventually towed to the Mersey for repairs. I don't have any later information on this ship. [Sea Breezes magazine, April 1956.]

LIVORNO / MARSDIN 1870
The LIVORNO was a 1,367 gross ton ship, length 240ft x beam 34.3ft, iron hull, single screw. Launched by Humphrys & Pearson, Hull on 19th Feb.1870 as the MARSDIN for Brownlow, Lumsden & Co, Hull, the owners became Brownlow, Marsdin & Co later the same year. In 1875 she was fitted with new engines, lengthened to 258ft and rebuilt to 1,424 gross tons. Purchased by Thos.Wilson & Co in 1878, she was renamed LIVORNO in 1889. On 14th Mar.1901 she was sold to Sambur Steam Ship Co, Liverpool and on 1st Jun.1907 she stranded at Valsorarna, Gulf of Bothnia, was subsequently refloated but declared a constuctive total loss and scrapped. [Wilson Line by John Harrower]

LLANDOVERY CASTLE 1913
11,423 gross tons, length 500.1ft x beam 63.3ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw, speed 14 knots, accommodation for 234-1st, 116-2nd and 100-3rd class passengers. Fitted with refrigerated cargo space. Built 1913 by Barclay, Curle & Co., Whiteinch (Yard No.504) she was designed for the Union-Castle Mail S.S. Co.'s Royal East African service which operated between London and East Africa via Suez. Launched on 3rd Sep.1913 she was completed in Jan.1914 and arrived at Durban on 6th March. Because of the shortage of ships after the outbreak of war, she was placed on the Southampton - Capetown mail service and in Dec.1915 was requisitioned as a troop transport. In Jul.1916 she was fitted as a 622 bed hospital ship and was in service from 27th July. On 7th Dec. she was set alight by German prisoners which she was transporting, but the fire was extinguished at Dover. On 27th Jun.1918 she was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U.86 while 116 miles SW from Fastnet Rock on voyage Halifax to Liverpool even though displaying a brightly illuminated red cross on her side. All personnel were evacuated safely, but the submarine surfaced and opened fire on the lifeboats. Only 24 were rescued out 258, including 94 nurses and medical staff. [Union-Castle Line by Peter Newall also contains photos of the ship] [Wartime Disasters at Sea by David Williams]

LLANSTEPHAN CASTLE 1913
Built by the Fairfield Shipbuilding Co, Glasgow in 1913 for the Union-Castle Mail SS Co, this was a 11,346 gross ton ship, length 500.5ft x beam 63.3ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 14 knots. There was accommodation for 195-1st, 165-2nd and 100-3rd class passengers. Launched on 29th Aug.1913 she made her maiden voyage to East and South Africa shortly before the outbreak of the Great War. On her second voyage she reached Zanzibar on the homeward voyage, but on hearing reports that the German cruiser KONIGSBERG was in the vicinity, she returned to Durban and was then transferred to the UK - West coast - South Africa mail service. She remained on this service until 1917 when she was taken up by the liner requisition scheme and used for North Atlantic trooping work. After the war she returned to the Capetown service until 1920 when she resumed the East African service. In 1922 she was transferred to the "Round Africa" route making calls at Naples or Genoa, Suez, Aden, Mombasa, Tanga, Dar-es-Salaam, Beira, Lourenco Marques, Durban and East London, Capetown and home via West Africa. In 1938 she was converted from coal to oil fuel and continued in commercial service after the start of WWII. In Aug.1940 she carried 300 children evacuees from Liverpool to Capetown and in August 1941 sailed from Liverpool as commodore ship of the first of the Russian convoys, returning with 200 released Polish airmen. She was then sent to the Far East to operate as a transport in the Burma campaign and was later taken over as a unit of the Royal Indian Navy. After refit after the end of the war, and with accommodation for 231-1st and 198-torist class passengers, she rejoined the round Africa service. After the introduction of more modern ships, she was withdrawn from service in 1952 and scrapped at Newport, Wales.[Steamers of the Past by J.H.Isherwood, Sea Breezes magazine, Sept.1974][The Cape Run by W.H.Mitchell and L.A.Sawyer]

L. N. HVIDT 1857
357 gross ton steamship, 170ft x 22ft, iron hull, built 1857 by J. Henderson & Sons, Renfrew for A/S Det Almindelige danske Dampskibs-Selskab (Cornelius Peter August Koch),Copenhagen and used on their Baltic - Copenhagen - Hull service. On 28th Sep.1861 she collided with the s/s NEVA in the Kattegat and it was decided to withdraw her from British ports to prevent her arrest. She was then used on the Baltic - Copenhagen - Antwerp service. 1864 chartered to Danish Government as a troopship. 1867 taken over by DFDS for the Copenhagen - Norway run. 1878 sold and renamed RAP. Used on various services for several owners until 1894 when renamed OLGA. 1898 renamed ARCONA. 1st Feb.1904 she sprang a leak and sank off Tynemouth.

LOMBARDIA / JEROUSALIM 1901
The LOMBARDIA was built by G. Ansaldo & Co, Sestri Ponente, Italy in 1901 for Navigazione Generale Italiana. She was a 4,815 gross ton ship, length 403ft x beam 46.6ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw and a speed of 14 knots. There was accommodation for 58-1st and 1,302-3rd class passengers. Launched on 24th Apr.1901, she left Naples on her maiden voyage to New York on 12th Jun.1901. On 16th Mar.1909 she was chartered to La Veloce and made two round voyages for them, between Genoa, Naples and New York. She then resumed sailings for NGI until commencing her last voyage between Genoa, Naples, Palermo and New York on 21st Mar.1911. Sold to Russian owners the same year and renamed JEROUSALIM, she was eventually scrapped in 1928.[North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.1115]

LONDON SHIPPER 1923
O.N.147474, 7939 gross tons, length 450.4ft x beam 58ft, single screw, speed 14 knots. Built 1923 by Furness Shipbuilding Ltd, Haverton Hill-on-Tees for Norfolk & North American Steam Shipping Co (Furness, Withy & Co), London. 1929 transferred to Prince Line renamed BRITISH PRINCE, 1935 sold to Charente SS Co, (T & J. Harrison), Liverpool renamed STATESMAN. 17th May 1941 bombed and sunk at 56.44N 13.45W on voyage New Orleans to Belfast and Liverpool with a cargo of steel. [Register of Merchant Ships completed in 1923 by W. Schell]

LONE STAR STATE / PRESIDENT TAFT / PRESIDENT HARDING / VILLE DE BRUGES 1920
The PRESIDENT HARDING was built by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, NJ as the LONE STAR STATE in 1920 for the United States Lines. She was a 13,869 gross ton ship, length 516.5ft x beam 72.2ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 18 knots. There was accommodation for 320-1st and 324-3rd class passengers. Launched on 23/12/1920, she sailed from New York on her maiden voyage to Plymouth, Cherbourg, Bremen, Southampton, Cherbourg and New York on 25/3/1922. After this voyage, she was renamed PRESIDENT TAFT and started the first of two similar voyages under this name on 29/4/1922. She was then renamed PRESIDENT HARDING and resumed the same service on 8/7/1922. On 7/4/1926 she was refitted to carry cabin and 3rd class passengers, and in April 1931 altered to carry cabin, tourist and 3rd class. In February 1932 she went back to Cabin and 3rd class and on 16/8/1939 commenced her last crossing from Hamburg to Havre, Southampton, Cobh and New York. On 22/9/1939 she started a single round voyage from New York to Cobh and Pauillac(Bordeaux), and on 25/10/1939 started a single New York - Southampton round voyage. She was sold to the Belgian owned Societe Maritime Anversoise in 1940, renamed VILLE DE BRUGES and commenced her first New York - Havre crossing on 15/3/1940. On 14/5/1940 she was bombed by German aircraft in the River Scheldte; beached and burnt out. In 1952 she was demolished. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.4,p.1546]

LORD CLIVE / CLIVE 1871
The LORD CLIVE was built by R & J Evans, Liverpool in 1871 for G.M.Papayanni of Liverpool. She was a 3,386 gross ton vessel, length 381ft x beam 40.1ft, one funnel, four masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 12 knots. I have no information on the number of passengers carried. Launched on 28/10/1871, she was chartered to the Dominion Line and commenced her first voyage for them on 15/9/1872 from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal. On 7/11/1872 she started her first voyage from Liverpool to Boston and Portland and commenced her last voyage to Boston for this company on 9/7/1873. In Sept.1873 she went back to G.M.Papayanni management and stayed on the Liverpool - Boston service. On 15/12/1875 she was chartered to the American Line and sailed between Liverpool and Philadelphia until 1888 when she was bought by the Lord Clive SS Co. (American Line) but continued under the British flag, on the Liverpool - Philadelphia service until commencing her last voyage on 27/9/1893. In 1896 she went to Gastaldi & Co, Genoa and was renamed CLIVE but continued under the British flag and was chartered to Furness Line. They used her from 8/11/1896 between New York, Naples and Genoa until, after making her last voyage, commencing 1/3/1897 from Leghorn to Genoa, Naples and New York, she was scrapped in April 1898. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2, p.803]

LORD GOUGH 1878
The LORD GOUGH was a 3,655 gross ton ship, one funnel, four masts (rigged for sails), iron hull, single screw, speed 12 knots. Built by Laird Bros, Birkenhead she was launched in Nov.1878 for G.M.Papayanni, Liverpool. Chartered to American Line, she started her first Liverpool - Philadelphia voyage in Apr.1879. In 1888 she was purchased by the Lord Gough SS Co (managed by American Line), but continued to sail under the British flag. Her last Liverpool - Philadelphia sailing started 9th Feb.1895 and the following year she was sold to Aberdeen Atlantic Line. Re-sold in Jul.1898, she was scrapped at Genoa in 1899.[North Atlantic Seaway, vol.3,p.940 by N.R.P.Bonsor] [Merchant Fleets, vol.16, Ellerman Lines by Duncan Haws]

LOUIS PASTEUR 1943 / STELLA AZZURRA
The LOUIS PASTEUR was a standard wartime built Liberty Ship. Built by Permanente Metals, near Richmond, California and delivered in Dec.1943, she was sold to commercial owners in 1948. In 1963 she went to Italian owners and was renamed STELLA AZZURRA and was eventually scrapped at Venice in March 1967.[The Liberty Ships by L.A.Sawyer & W.H.Mitchell]

LOUISIANA / HUDSON / HOLLAND 1858
Built by Palmer Bros & Co, Jarrow-on-Tyne as the HUDSON for North German Lloyd in 1858. This was a 2,266 gross ton ship, length 307ft x beam 40.8ft, clipper stem, two funnels (later reduced to one), three masts (rigged for sails), iron construction and a speed of 10 knots. Accommodation for 70-1st and 750-3rd class passengers. Launched on 12th Jun.1858, she started her maiden voyage on 11th Sep.1858. After this voyage she was damaged by fire in dock at Bremerhaven on 2nd Nov., towed to Palmer's yard where she was rebuilt and had one funnel removed. Purchased by Fernie Bros in 1862 and renamed LOUISIANA she commenced Liverpool - New York sailings on 22nd Mar.1863. Her fifth and last sailing for these owners on this service started 12th Nov.1863 and she was then sold to the National Line of Liverpool. She started Liverpool - Queenstown (Cobh) - New York sailings on 4th Feb.1864 and continued this service until 1869-70 when she was lengthened to 395.1ft; 3,847 gross tons and re-engined. Her 3rd class accommodation was increased to carry 1,300 passengers and she was renamed HOLLAND. She resumed Liverpool - Queenstown - New York voyages on 20th Apr.1870 and on 19th Nov.1871 made a single round voyage between London and New York. Her last Liverpool - Queenstown - New York sailing started on 11th Sep.1872 and she transferred to London - New York voyages on 31st Oct.1872. Resumed Liverpool - Queenstown - New York on 7th May 1891 and made her last Liverpool - New York sailing on 12th Nov.1892. In 1893 she was sold to French owners and was scrapped in 1894. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.611]

LUCANIA 1893
12,952 gross tons, length 601ft x beam 65.2ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw, speed 21 knots, accommodation for 600-1st, 400-2nd and 1,000-3rd class passengers. Launched on 2nd Feb.1893 by Fairfield Co, Glasgow for the Cunard SS Co., she left Liverpool on 2nd Sep.1893 on her maiden voyage to Queenstown and New York. She made several record transatlantic passages, the fastest being 5 days 7 hours 23 mins. Her final New York voyage started 26th Jun.1909 and on 14th Aug.1909 she was destroyed by fire at Huskisson Dock, Liverpool and subsequently scrapped. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.1,p.154 by N.R.P.Bonsor]

LUCANIA 1893
Cunard Line LUCANIA - (1893 - 1909) Gross Tonnage - 12,952. Dimensions - 183.17 x 19.87m. Number of funnels - 2. Number of masts - 2. Construction - Steel. Propulsion - Twin-screw.Engines - Ten-cylindered triple-expansion. Service speed - 21 knots. Builder - Fairfield Co.Ltd., Glasgow. Launch date - 2 February 1893. Passenger accommodation - 600 1st class, 400 2nd class, 1,000 3rd class. The entry into service of two new Cunarders, the CAMPANIA and LUCANIA, in 1893 really started the great international race for supremacy of the North Atlantic. At around this time Germany began to try to build up its mercantile and naval fleets to equal those of the British. Germany was becoming more influential in European politics, and although the two new vessels held the North Atlantic speed records for four years, from 1897 onwards German liners swept all opposition from the seas for the next ten years. The two ships were built on the Clyde at Govan and were enormous vessels in comparison to their contemporaries. The Lucania was launched on 2 February by the Chairman of Fairfields, Sir William Pearce MP. On its maiden voyage on 2 September 1893 it set the record crossing from Liverpool to New York. The two sister ships continued to set new speed records and remained unchallenged until 1898 when the German liner, KAISER WILHELM DER GROSSE, took all the Atlantic records and the Blue Riband. The Lucania continued to provide a highly efficient Liverpool to New York service for Cunard until 1909. Since the arrival of the MAURETANIA and LUSITANIA, however, the LUCANIA was becoming surplus to requirements and spent some time each year laid up at Liverpool. In 1909 it made only one voyage to New York before being laid up in the Huskisson Dock, Liverpool. On 14 August 1909 a fire was discovered on board and by the time the firebrigade arrived the fire was out of control. By the early hours of the morning, with water still being pumped onto the ship, the LUCANIA took on a list. After being pulled upright by tugs it was towed to the middle of the dock and settled firmly in the mud. The blaze finally extinguished at noon.The LUCANIA was seriously damaged and the only part of the ship still intact was the engine-room bulkhead. Although there was still another two months until its next scheduled voyage it was decided, after inspection, that the damage was too great to make repairs a viable option. It was then sold to Thomas Ward, the shipbreakers, and soon sailed to Swansea to broken up. [From the Cunard Website - Submitted via E-mail by Batya Olsen - 20 December 1997]

LUCERNE 1878
The LUCERNE was a 1,925 gross ton steamer, length 291ft x beam 34.3ft, one funnel, three masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. There was accommodation for 1st and 3rd class passengers. Built by Laird Bros, Birkenhead for the Allan Line, she was launched in March 1878 and commenced her maiden voyage from Glasgow for South America on 27/9/1878. Her first Glasgow - Halifax - Boston voyage started on 4/4/1879, and between 1879 - 1883 she sailed between Glasgow, Quebec and Montreal with one annual round voyage to South America. In 1884 she transferred to London - Quebec - Montreal or Halifax voyages plus one to S.America, and from 1889 onwards sailed mostly between Glasgow and S.America. On 19/3/1898 she commenced her last voyage from Glasgow to St John's NF and was sold the same year to A.Harvey & Co, St John's NF. She was wrecked on 3/2/1901 while on passage from Ardrossan to St John's NF. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.315]

LUCISTON / SHEAF MOUNT 1924
The SHEAF MOUNT was built by R. Duncan, Glasgow in 1924 as the LUCISTON for the Luciston Steamship Co which was one of the single ship companies owned by William S. Miller & Co, Glasgow. She was 5,017 gross tons, length 404.9ft x beam 53.0ft, speed 10 knots and engaged in general tramping. In 1939 she was sold to Sheaf Steam Shipping Co, Newcastle (W. A. Souter & Co) and renamed SHEAF MOUNT. On 25th Dec.1941 she was bombed and damaged by aircraft in the North Atlantic and was torpedoed and sunk by the U.605 on 24th Aug.1942 at 48.55N 35.10W in convoy ONS122. There were 31 lives lost and 27 survivors. [The World's Merchant Fleets,1939 by Roger Jordan] [British Tramps by I. G. Stewart]

LURLINE 1908
This was the second LURLINE, built 1908 by Newport News Shipbuilding Co. for Matson Line, San Francisco. She was a 5,928 gross ton passenger / cargo ship, 412.8ft x 53.1ft, engines aft, speed 13½ knots, accommodation for 51 passengers. Used on the San Francisco - Hawaii service. During WWI she transferred to the Philippines route for the War Shipping Administration but returned to normal service after the war. 1928 sold to Alaska Packers Association, San Francisco renamed CHIRIKOE. 1940 - 1946 U.S. Army transport ship. 1947 sold to Jugoslavenska Linijska Plovidba, Yugoslavia renamed RADNIK. 1953 scrapped at Split. [Cargoes by W. L. Worden]

LURLINE / ELLINIS 1931
18,021 gross tons, length 632ft x beam 79.4ft, twin screw, speed 22 knots, accommodation for 550-1st and 250-2nd class passengers. Built 1931 by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp, Quincy, USA as the LURLINE for Matson Nav. Co., San Francisco. Completed Dec.1932 and started maiden voyage. a round-the-world cruise in Jan.1933. She then entered the San Francisco - Honolulu service. 1942 taken over as a troopship and between 1946-1948 was completely refitted. She then re-entered the San Francisco - Los Angeles - Honolulu service. Sep.1963 sold to Dimitri Chandris, Piraeus, renamed ELLINIS and registered in the name of Marfuenza Cia. Mar, S.A. Refitted at North Shields with accommodation for 1,668-single class passengers. 30th Dec.1963 first voyage Piraeus - Sydney. 1964 entered round-the-world service Rotterdam - Sydney - Rotterdam. From 1975 she was used for cruising only and in 1980 was laid up at Piraeus. 1986 scrapped Taiwan. [Great Passenger Liners of the World, vols.3 & 6 by A. Kludas]

LUSITANIA 1871
This was a 3,877 gross ton ship, length 379.9ft x beam 41.3ft, one funnel, three masts (rigged for sail), clipper stem, iron construction, single screew and a speed of 12 knots. There was accommodation for 84-1st, 100-2nd and 270-3rd class passengers. Built by Laird Bros, Birkenhead, she was launched in June 1871 for the Pacific Steam Navigation Co. Her maiden voyage started on 13th Oct.1871 when she left Liverpool for Valparaiso via Cape Horn. Chartered to Anderson & Anderson's Orient-Pacific Line in Feb.1877, she started her first Plymouth - Melbourne voyage on 28th Jun.1877 and made the passage in 40 days. In 1878 she was purchased by the Orient Steam Navigation Co and continued on the London - Australia service. She was commissioned as an Armed Merchant Cruiser for six months in 1885 during the Russian scare, returned to her owners and re-engined in 1886. She was sold to Elder Dempster's Beaver Line on 31st Mar.1900 and was used on the Liverpool - Halifax - St John NB service. Reverted to Pacific Steam Nav. Co. in July for six months and went back to the Beaver Line in Feb.1901. Chartered to the Allan Line, she was wrecked on 26th Jun.1901 on Cape Race with no loss of life.[North Star to Southern Cross by John M. Maber][Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.1, P&O Line; vol.8, Pacific Steam Nav. Co.; vol.20, Elder Dempster Lines]

LUSITANIA 1906
The LUSITANIA was built in 1906 by John Brown & Co, Glasgow for the Cunard Steamship Co Ltd. She was a 31,550 gross ton ship, length 762.2ft x beam 87.8ft, four funnels, two masts, four screws and a speed of 25 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 563-1st, 464-2nd and 1,138-3rd class. Launched on 7th Jun.1906, she sailed from Liverpool on her maiden voyage to Queenstown (Cobh) and New York on 7th Sep.1907. She broke both the eastbound and westbound records for the fastest passage, her fastest being 4 days 16 hours 40 mins from Queenstown to Ambrose in August 1909. Her last Liverpool - New York voyage started on 17th Apr.1915, She sailed from New York on 1st May and was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U.20 on 7th May near the Old Head of Kinsale, Ireland with the loss of 1,198 lives. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.157]

LUTZOW / HUNTSEND 1907
The LUTZOW was a 8,818 gross ton ship, length 462.3ft x beam 57.6ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 14 knots. Accommodation for 104-1st, 104-2nd and 1,700-3rd class passengers. Built by AG Weser, Bremen, she was launched for North German Lloyd on 17th Dec.1907 and left Bremen on her maiden voyage to New York on 11th Apr.1908. She started her third and last voyage on this service on 20th Jun.1908 and then transferred to Bremen - Suez - Far East voyages. She started a single Bremen - New York round voyage on 14th Jun.1913 and commenced her last Far East voyage on 8th Jul.1914. Captured by British forces in Aug.1914, she was renamed HUNTSEND and sailed under this name until 1923 when she was resold to NGL and resumed her original name. Refitted to carry cabin and 3rd class passengers, she started her first Bremen - Halifax - New York sailing on 14th Jun.1924 and commenced her final Bremen - New York sailing on 7th Apr.1932. Scrapped in 1933. {North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.568]

LYNGENFJORD / AMRONTO / EASTERN VALOUR 1948
3,800 tons, 407ft x 54.1ft, freighter with limited passenger accommodation. Launched 17th Oct.1947 by A/B Lindholmens Varv., Gothenburg for Norwegian America Line and delivered in Feb.1948. 1970 sold to A/S Omronto & Co (Sverre Asmundsen), Haugesund renamed AMRONTO, 1976 sold to Cardigan Bay Shipping Co (Gulfeast Ship Management Ltd), Panama renamed EASTERN VALOUR, Dec.1979 laid up at Karachi, Apr.1980 arrived at Kaohsiung, Taiwan for scrapping. [Norwegian America Line by B. Pedersen & F. W. Hawks, ISBN 0-905617-79-7, contains photo of the ship]

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