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Banana Boats index

The Fleets

Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd / Kaye Steam Navigation Co. / Kaye Tanker Management Co.

Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. became established as shipowners in 1912, but the origins of the business can be traced back to 1893 when Frederick Kaye left the employment of Houlder Brothers to form F. Kaye and Company. Operating from an office in Great St. Helens, London, the business was mainly concerned with the management of steamers of the River Plate Fresh Meat Company (later the British and Argentine Meat Company Ltd.), but also included a coaling service, insurance department and the London Agency for the Prince Line River Plate Service, and later their Mediterranean Service.
Such was the success of the firm that on the 27th March 1905 it was incorporated as a limited liability company under the title of Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd., with Frederick Kaye as Chairman. By that time they had moved offices to 5, Fencourt, and later to 118, Fenchurch Street, London. As a result of Frederick Kaye's knowledge of the live cattle trade, the company was entrusted with the task of negotiating freight on the homeward route on behalf of a number of companies for the American Armour and Swift meat organisations.
In 1912 it was decided to enter shipowning on their own account, and in consequence a subsidiary company, the Chasehill Steamship Co. Ltd. was formed, and their first vessel the 21 year old steamer CHASEHILL (4,853 gross tons) was acquired, followed a year later by the 30 year old CHASE MANOR (2,084 gross tons). The latter vessel only remained in the fleet for about one year; thus at the outbreak of the First World War, the company still owned only one ship. However, on the 22nd February 1915, whilst carrying a cargo of coal southwards she was captured by the German cruiser KRONPRINZ WILHELM and her cargo was removed. Thereafter having been heavily damaged she was released and on 12th March arrived at Pernambuco. The company did not trade her further and she was sold and the Chasehill Steamship Co. Ltd. was wound up.
On 31st December 1918, Frederick Kaye relinquished his post as Managing Director but retained his position as Chairman. His son, Sydney, was appointed Managing Director. Sydney had been awarded the OBE in recognition of his services throughout the War as the Secretary of the Refrigerated Tonnage Committee of the Ministry of Food, a post he undertook again on the outbreak of the Second World War. A number of developments occurred during 1918, including the opening of an office at Liverpool, and the acquisition by The Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. Ltd. and Furness, Withy and Co. Ltd. of a large shareholding in the company. Thereafter an Advisory and Executive Committee was formed with a representa tive of Royal Mail and Houlder Brothers acting in conjunction with the Board of Directors.
On 13th February 1919 a new company, The K Steamship Co. Ltd., was incorporated with a fully paid up capital of £5,000 and in that year three ageing steamers were acquired. During 1922 a further subsidiary was formed, Kaye Steam Navigation Co. Ltd., and the first vessel built to their own order, the KAYESON (3518 gross tons), was placed under its ownership. The first chapter in the company's history closed during 1924 with the death of the founder Frederick Kaye, but his son Sydney succeeded him as Chairman. By 1925 there were eight vessels being operated by Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. of which one was owned by the management company, five by The K Steamship Co. Ltd. and two by the Kaye Steam Navigation Co. Ltd.
The most significant event in the company's history occurred during 1926 when Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. acquired the trading rights of R. P. Houston and Company in the United Kingdom/River Plate trade from Cayzer, Irvine and Co. Ltd., and Bell's Agency in Buenos Aires was taken over. Thereafter the Liverpool office traded as R. P. Houston and Co. Ltd. and to take full advantage of this new venture orders were placed with Lithgows Ltd. of Port Glasgow for the construction of four new steamers. The ships were financed by a partnership between Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. and the shipbuilders in the form of the jointly owned Walmar Steamship Co. Ltd. A further new company, the Kaye Transport Co. Ltd., was formed during 1930.
Meanwhile during 1929 negotiations had taken place with Jamaican interests for the management by Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. of four former Nelson Line refrigerated steamers which were placed under the ownership of the Jamaica Direct Fruit Line Ltd. These vessels were converted for the carriage of bananas and inaugurated a direct service from Kingston to Rotterdam and London.
Prior to the Second World War a further nine ships were acquired, of which two were newbuildings from the yard of Lithgows Ltd. Two further companies were formed, the Coolham Steamship Co. Ltd. in 1934 and a single ship company, the Marconi Steamship Co. Ltd. in 1937. Whilst the company had a regular liner service between the United Kingdom and the River Plate, and managed the Jamaican vessels, they also maintained an active interest in world-wide trades and committed a number of ships to general tramping.
At the outbreak of the Second World War they owned a fleet of eleven ships, of which eight were lost through enemy action and one through collision. Two Jamaican vessels were lost through enemy action, plus a further Jamaican vessel through collision. In addition, three ships managed on behalf of the British Government were also lost.
Meanwhile in 1941 Sydney Kaye died. His son Marsden spent a period in the business, but after his death in 1952 there was no member of the family involved in the management of the company.
The fleet owned by the company at the end of hostilities consisted of two ships, the MARGALAU of 1926 and the MARSDALE delivered by Lithgows Ltd. during 1940. Of the Jamaica Banana Producers Steamship Co. Ltd. fleet, only the JAMAICA PRODUCER of 1934 survived. In order to remedy this, four ships were acquired during 1946 from the British Government under their Ship Disposal Scheme, plus a further vessel the following year. With this rebuilt fleet the company resumed the peace?time pattern of trade and whilst the majority were engaged in the River Plate service a timehonoured participation was maintained in general tramping.
During 1953 the final dry cargo vessel to join the fleet, the MARYLYN, was delivered from J. Readhead and Sons Ltd. of South Shields. In 1959 Lithgows Ltd. completed the JAMAICA PLANTER, which was the first banana carrier to join the fleet for 25 years. In common with other British shipowners, Kaye also entered the field of tanker operation when, in 1961, the KAYESON (28,132 gross tons) was delivered by Hawthorn Leslie (Shipbuilders) Ltd., Newcastle. Although registered in the ownership of The K Steamship Co. Ltd. she was managed by a newly formed company, Kaye Tanker Management Co. Ltd. Gradually the trade from the River Plate was taken over by the Argentine Government owned Empresa Lineas Maritimas Argentinas (E.L.M.A.) and the company served as agents for this service for many years at Liverpool and London. By 1965 the last of the dry cargo ships, the MARYLYN, had been disposed of, leaving only the tanker KAYESON in the fleet together with the two managed Jamaican ships.
During 1973, Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. was absorbed into the Furness, Withy Group and in consequence the KAYESON was transferred to the ownership of Royal Mail Lines Ltd., but still remained under the management of Kaye Tanker Management Co. Ltd. With the formation of a Jamaican national line under the title of J.M.M. Atlantic Line, the banana carriers passed out of Kaye management. Between 1973 and 1977 the motorship LIMPSFIELD, later renamed LINDFIELD, was registered under the ownership of The K Steamship Co. Ltd. The last connection with Kaye ended during 1981 with the sale by Furness, Withy of the tanker KAYESON. Thus ended the history of this well known and respected company, which will be remembered for the wide range of its activities in the shipping industry.

Many thanks to Henk Jungerius and Ted Finch for his assistance in collecting this data. The following list was extracted from various sources. This is not an all inclusive list but should only be used as a guide. If you would like to know more about a vessel, visit the Ship Descriptions (onsite) or Immigrant Ship web site.

  • Fleet including ships owned by:
    • Chasehill S.S. Co. Ltd.
    • Coolharn S.S. Co. Ltd.
    • General Trading Co. Ltd.
    • The K S.S. Co. Ltd.
    • Kaye S. N. Co. Ltd.
    • Kaye Transport Co. Ltd.
    • Marconi S.S. Co. Ltd.
    • Northland Ltd.
    • Walmar S.S. Co. Ltd.

Funnel:

Fleet:

Funnel Flag Funnel Flag
  Kaye, Son and Co. Kaye Steam Navigation Co.
Vessel Built Years in Service Tons
Azul 1919 O.N. 142712 | 1919 launched by Caird and Co. Ltd., Greenock as the tank steamer War Burman for The Shipping Controller (A. Weir and Co. managers). Converted to a cargo ship whilst fitting out and April 1919 completed as Burgondier for Lloyd Royal Belge (Great Britain) Ltd., London. 1922 transferred to Lloyd Royal Belge Soc. Anon., Belgium. 1926 sold to Buenos Ayres Great Southern Railway Co. Ltd. (A. Holland and Co. Ltd. managers), London and renamed Azul. 1935 acquired by Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. 1936 sold to Georgian Steam Navigation Co. Ltd., Cardiff and renamed David Dawson. 1937 sold to J. A. Coulouthros and N. N. Embiricos, Greece and renamed Penteli. 1939 sold to Brockley Hill S. S. Co. Ltd. (Counties Ship Management Co. Ltd, managers), London and renamed Brockley Hill. 24th June 1941 torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U651 whilst on a voyage from Montreal to London with a cargo of grain as part of Convoy HX 133. Her crew of 42 were rescued. 5,287
Chase Manor 1883 O.N. 87147 | bult by Blair and Co. Ltd., Stockton on Tees. July 1883 launched by T. Turnbull and Son, Whitby as Zephyrus for Turner, Brightman and Co., London. 1913 acquired by Chasehill S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers) and renamed Chase Manor. 1914 sold to J. J. King and Sons Ltd. and broken up at Garston. 2,084
Chasehill 1891 O.N. 98893 | completed by W. Doxford and Sons, Sunderland as Hawkes Bay for Tyser Line Ltd. (Tyser and Co. managers), London. 1912 acquired by Chasehill S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers) and renamed Chasehill. 22nd Feb. 1915 captured by the German auxiliary cruiser KRONPRINZ WILHELM in a position 06.15S. 28.15W. whilst on a voyage from Newport, Mon. to Zarate with a cargo of coal.1915 released, heavily damaged, in a position 06.57S. 26.05W. after her cargo had been removed. 1915: Sold to Essex Chase S.S. Co. Ltd. (Meldrum and Swinson managers), London. 18th Jan. 1916 foundered in North Atlantic in a position 40N. 63W. approx. whilst on a voyage from New York to Havre with general cargo. Her crew of 32 was saved. 4,583
Galvan 1918 O.N. 142429 | May 1918 completed by Harland and WoIff Ltd., Belfast as War Lemur for The Shipping Controller (Thomas Dunlop and Sons managers). 1919 sold to Cunard S.S. Co. Ltd., Liverpool and renamed Verentia. 1926 sold to Cree Investment Co. Ltd. (A. Weir and Co. managers), Glasgow and renamed Foreric. 1927 transferred to Bank Line Ltd. (same managers ) 1927 sold to Buenos Ayres Great Southern Railway Co. Ltd. (A. Holland and Co. Ltd. managers), London and renamed Galvan. 1935 acquired by Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. 1937 sold to Pedder and Mylchreest Ltd., London. Resold to Nisshin Kaiun Shokai Ltd., Japan. Resold to Chang Shu Chang, China and renamed Pei Tai. 1938 sold to Kitagawa Sangyo Kaiun K.K., Japan and renamed Hokutai Maru. 30th March 1944 bombed and sunk by U.S. carrier based aircraft off Babeithuap in the Palau Islands. 5,185
Jameson 1924 O.N. 147610 | built by North Eastern Marine Engineering Co. Ltd., Newcastle upon Tyne. April 1924 completed by W. Dobson and Co., Newcastle upon Tyne for Kaye Steam Navigation Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 1934 transferred to Coolharn S.S. Co. Ltd. (same managers) and renamed Joyous. 14th April 1940 lost in collision at Kilometre 472 in the River Parana whilst on a voyage from Santa Fe to River Mersey with a cargo of maize. 3,585
Joyous   see Jameson.  
Kambole 1915 O.N. 137464 | built by Richardsons, Westgarth and Co. Ltd., Sunderland . July 1915 completed by J. Priestman and Co., Sunderland as Malvern Range for Neptune Steam Navigation Co. Ltd. (Furness, Withy and Co. Ltd. managers), Liverpool. 1922 acquired by The K S. S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye Son and Co. Ltd. managers) and renamed Kambole. 29th April 1937 sold to Barry Shipping Co. Ltd., Cardiff. 30th April 1937 sold to Stanhope S.S. Co. Ltd. (J. A. Billmeir and Co. managers), London and renamed Stanthorpe. 1938 sold to O.E. Bertin, China and renamed Yolande Bertin. 1941 sold to Panamanian Freighters (Wallem and Co. managers) Panama and renamed Honduras. 1946 sold to Cargueros Panamenos S.A. (same managers). 1947 sold to E-Hsiang S.S. Co., China and renamed Foo Hsiang. 1953 sold to Japanese shipbreakers and arrived at Osaka 9th Nov.1953 to be broken up. 4,524
Kamir 1918 O.N. 140562 | Jan. 1918 completed by New Waterway Shipbuilding Co., Schiedam as Sidlaw Range for Neptune Steam Navigation Co. Ltd. (Furness, Withy and Co. Ltd. managers), Liverpool. 1922 acquired by The K S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers) and renamed Kamir. 1934 sold to Tramp Shipping Development Co. Ltd. and Lemos and Co. (Rethymnis and Kulukundis Ltd. managers), Greece and renamed Kyriakoula, 1935 owners restyled as A. G. and D. G. Lemos and Tramp Shipping Development Co. Ltd. 26th Feb. 1941 sunk during an air attack S.W. of Rockall whilst on a voyage from Liverpool to Halifax in ballast. Her crew of 28 was saved. 4,407
Kayak 1900 O.N 110630 | built by G. Clark Ltd., Sunderland. Jan.1900 completed by W. Pickersgill and Sons, Sunderland as Penrith Castle for Lancashire Shipping Co. Ltd. (J. Chambers and Co., managers), Liverpool, 1916 sold to Atlantic and Eastern S. S. Co. Ltd. (J. Glynn and Son managers), Liverpool and renamed Alaveno. 1922 Acquired by Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. and renamed Kayak. 1926 sold to Anglo-Maritime Shipping Ltd. (F. S. Edwards manager), London and renamed City of Patras. 1927 sold to Pandeli Bros. S.S. Co., Greece and renamed Zannis Pandelis. 13th March 1928 wrecked in English Roads, Bonavista Islands whilst on a voyage from Barry to Rio de Janeiro with a cargo of coal. 3,663
Kayeson (1) 1922 O.N. 146232 | 1922 completed by J. and A. van der Schuyt Scheepswerf and Machinefabriek, Papendrecht for Kaye Steam Navigation Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 1929 sold to Cia. Naviera Vascongada, Spain and renamed Serantes. 1957 sold to Transportes, Aduanas y Consignaciones S.A., Spain. 1958 renamed Sac Tarragona. 1976 sold to Descasa and broken up at Barcelona. 3,518
Kayeson (2) 1929 O.N. 161317 | built by North Eastern Marine Engineering Co. Ltd., Newcastle upon Tyne. Nov.1929 completed by Hawthorn, Leslie and Co. Ltd., Newcastle upon Tyne for Kaye Steam Navigation Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 1934 transferred to Coolham S.S. Co. Ltd. (same managers). 2nd Oct. 1940 torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U32 in a position 51.12N. 24.22W. whilst on a voyage from Liverpool to Montevideo with general cargo and coal. The crew of 38 were lost. 4,606
Kayeson (3) 1961 O.N. 302531 | March 1961 completed by Hawthorn Leslie (Shipbuilders) Ltd., Newcastle upon Tyne for The K S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye Tanker Management Co. Ltd. managers). 1974 transferred to Royal Mail Lines Ltd. (same managers). 1981 sold to Mid East Ship Trade Corp., Panama, and renamed Aounallah and resold to Oriental Commercial Establishment, Saudi Arabia for use as a bunkering vessel at Jeddah. 1983 sold to Pakistani shipbreakers and arrived at Karachi for breaking up 17th May 1983. 28,132
Kemmel (1) 1896 O.N. 106021 | 1896 completed by W. Doxford and Sons Ltd., Sunderland as Bullionist for Angier Bros., London. 1897 sold to Cayzer, Irvine and Co., Glasgow. 1898 sold to Nautilus Steam Shipping Co. Ltd. (F. and W. Ritson managers), Sunderland and renamed Orange Branch. 1919 acquired by The K S. S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers) and renamed Kemmel. 23rd Feb.1920 wrecked at St. Vincent, Cape Verde Islands whilst on a voyage from Rosario to Constantinople with a cargo of meat and flour. 3,460
Kemmel (2) 1914 O.N. 135337 | built by Rankin and Blackmore, Greenock. Feb.1914 completed by Russell and Co., Port Glasgow as Ardgarry for S.S. Ardgarry Co. Ltd. (Lang and Fulton Ltd. managers), Greenock having been launched as Loch Na Torren. 1919 sold to Johnston Line Ltd. (Furness, Withy and Co. Ltd. managers), Liverpool and renamed Stanmore. 1923 acquired by The K S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers) and renamed Kemmel. June 1934 sold to Lithgows Ltd. and broken up at Port Glasgow. 4,526
Khartum 1891 O.N. 98954 | 1891 completed by Wigham Richardson and Co., Newcastle upon Tyr as Woolloomooloo for Wilhelm Lund, London. 1900 sold to British and South American Steam Navigation Co. Ltd. (R. P. Houston and Co. managers), Liverpool and renamed Harmonides. 1919 acquired by The K S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers) and renamed Khartum. 1927 sold to A. Ardito and broken up at Genoa. 3,521
Kut 1892 O.N. 101917 | built by Wigham Richardson and Co., Newcastle upon Tyne. Aug.1892 completed by Sunderland Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Sunderland as Warrnambool for Wilhelm Lund, London. 1900 sold to British and South American Steam Navigation Co. Ltd. (R. P. Houston and Co. managers), Liverpool and renamed Harmodius. 1919 acquired by The K S.S. Co. Ltd, (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers) and renamed Kut. 1926 sold to T. W. Ward Ltd. and broken up at Briton Ferry. 3,513
Limpsfield 1970 O.N. 360757 | Oct. 1970 completed by Helsingor Skibs. and Mask., Helsingor as Cap Melville for Olau-Line A/S. (Ole Lauritzen manager), Denmark. 1973 renamed Olav Rolf. 1973 acquired by The K S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye Tanker Management Co. Ltd. managers) and renamed Limpsfield. 1976 renamed Lindfield. 1977 transferred to The Cairn Line of Steamships Ltd. (same managers). 1980 sold to Cia. Argentina de Transportes Maritimos S.A., Argentina and renamed Marfrio. Still in service (1983). 6,012
Lindfield   see Limpsfield.  
Lomas 1919 O.N. 143206 | 1919 launched by Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. Ltd., Glasgow as the tank steamer War Pioneer for The Shipping Controller (Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Co. Ltd. managers). Management subsequently transferred to A. Holland and Co. Ltd. Converted to a cargo ship whilst fitting out and May 1919 completed as Brazilier for Lloyd Royal Beige (Great Britain) Ltd., London. 1922 transferred to Lloyd Royal Beige Soc. Anon., Belgium. 1926 sold to Buenos Ayres Great Southern Railway Co. Ltd. (A. Holland and Co. Ltd. managers), London and renamed Lomas. 1935 acquired by Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. 1936 sold to Severn S.S. Co. Ltd. (Mark Whitwill and Son managers), Bristol and renamed Avon Cliff. 1937 managers restyled as Mark Whitwill (Shipping) Ltd. 1937 sold to Soc. Anon. Emanuele V Parodi, Italy and renamed Italo Balbo. 9th Sept.1941 torpedoed off the Isle of Elba by the Dutch submarine 024 and sank the following day. 5,256
Marcella 1928 O.N. 160349 | built by Rankin and Blackmore Ltd., Greenock. Feb. 1928 completed by Lithgows Ltd., Port Glasgow for Kaye, Son and Cc Ltd. 1929 transferred to Kaye Transport Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd managers). 13th March 1943 torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U107 in a position 42.45N. 13.31W. whilst on a voyage from Manchester and River Clyde to Freetown and Table Bay with 500 tons of commercial cargo and 6800 tons of stores. The crew of 35 and 9 gunners were lost. 4,592
Marconi 1917 O.N. 137532 | built by Harland and WoIff Ltd., Belfast driving twin screws. Feb. 1917 completed by Harland and Wolff Ltd., Glasgow as Marconi for Liverpool, Brazil and River Plate Steam Navigation Co. Ltd. (Lamport and Holt Ltd. managers), Liverpool. 1934 transferred to Lamport and Holt Line Ltd. 1937 acquired by Marconi S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 20th May 1941 torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U109 whilst on a voyage from Manchester to Rio Grande in ballast as part of Convoy HX.126. Eleven of her crew were killed, eleven reported missing and 56 were saved. 7,402
Margalau 1926 O.N. 148748 | built by J. G. Kincaid and Co. Ltd., Greenock. April1926 completed by Lithgows Ltd., Port Glasgow for Walmar S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 1950 sold to Karachi Steam Navigation Co. Ltd., Pakistan and renamed Pakistan Prosperity. 1965 sold to Pakistani shipbreakers. 4,541
Margay (1) 1910 O. N. 127457 | built by Richardsons, Westgarth and Co. Ltd., Sunderland. 1910 completed by Northumberland Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Newcastle upon Tyne as Cape Transport for Empire Transport Co. Ltd. (Houlder Bros. and Co. Ltd. managers), London having been launched as Graciana for Furness, Withy and Co. Ltd., West Hartlepool. 1929 sold to Chios S.S. Co. Ltd. (Saliaris Bros. managers), Greece and renamed Christoforos. Dec. 1931 seized by The Admiralty Marshal. 1932 acquired by Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. and renamed Margay. April 1933 sold to Italian shipbreakers and broken up at Genoa. 4,139
Margay (2) 1946 O.N. 180901 | built by North Eastern Marine Engineering Co. (1938) Ltd., Newcastle upon Tyne. 1946 completed by Bartram and Sons Ltd., Sunderland for The KS.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 1962 sold to Wing Tak S.S. Co. (Hong Kong) Ltd., Hong Kong and renamed Star Pink. 1966 renamed Ocean Pink. 1967 sold to Pac-Trade Navigation Co., Liberia and renamed Maria Ana. 1969 sold to Velta Cia. Ltda., Nicaragua and renamed Velta. 13th Feb 1971 sank in a position 32.07N. 23.26W. after developing leaks whilst on a voyage from Macapa to Bilbao. 4,972
Margot 1926 O.N. 149754 | built by Rankin and Blackmore Ltd., Greenock. Dec.1926 completed by Lithgows Ltd., Port Glasgow for Walmar S.S. Co Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 23rd May 1942 torpedoed, shelled and sunk by the German submarine U588 in a position 39N. 68W. approx. whilst on a voyage from New York to Alexandria via Trinidad with 5500 tons of general cargo and military stores. One member of the crew was lost. 4,542
Marina 1935 O.N. 164458 | built by D. Rowan and Co. Ltd., Glasgow. 1935 completed by Lithgows Ltd., Port Glasgow for The K S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 18th Sept.1940 torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U48 in a position 56.46N. 21.15W. whilst on a voyage from Glasgow to River Plate with 5700 tons of general cargo and coal. Two of the crew were lost. 5,088
Marlene 1920 O.N. 144671 | July 1920 completed by Barclay, Curle and Co. Ltd., Glasgow as Highland Warrior for Nelson Steam Navigation Co. Ltd. (H. and W. Nelson Ltd. managers), London. 1932 sold to Royal Mail Lines Ltd., London. 1933 renamed Nogoya. 1936 acquired by The K S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers) and renamed Marlene. The original engine was replaced with that removed from the tanker INVERGLASS 6901/24 which was being broken up. 1939 transferred to Kaye Transport Co. Ltd. (same managers). 1940 sold to Galbraith, Pembroke and Co. Ltd., London. 4th April 1941 torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U124 in a position 08.15N. 14.19W. whilst on a voyage from Calcutta to U.K. via Walvis Bay and Freetown with 7100 tons of general cargo and 1500 tons of pig iron. Thirteen of her crew were lost. 6,507
Marquita 1941 O.N. 172790 | 1941 completed by Taikoo Dock and Engineering Co. of Hong Kong Ltd., Hong Kong as Empire Almond for The Ministry of War Transport (W. Runciman and Co. Ltd. managers). 1944 management transferred to Coolham S.S. Co. Ltd. 1945 management transferred to Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. 8th May 1946 acquired by Coolharn S. S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd., managers) and renamed Marquita. 1951 renamed Marsland. 1959 sold to Polish Steamship Co., Poland and renamed Huta Zgoda. 1964 reported sold to Polish shipbreakers and 30.6.1964 arrived at Szczecin to be cut down to a hulk and renamed Mp-Zome-12. 10th July 1978 arrived in tow at Faslane to be broken up by Shipbreaking Industries Ltd. 6,860
Marsdale 1940 O.N. 167422 | built by North Eastern Marine Engineering Co. (1938) Ltd., Newcastle upon Tyne. 1940 completed by Lithgows Ltd., Port Glasgow for The K S.S. Co. A. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 1957 sold to Black Star Line Ltd, Ghana and renamed Volta River. 1965 sold to Psara Shipping Co. .A., Greece and renamed Psara. 24th May 1967 arrived at Spezia to be broken up. 4,890
Marshall 1946 O.N. 180854 | built by North Eastern Marine Engineering Co. (1938) Ltd., Sunderland. April 1946 ompleted by Shipbuilding Corporation Ltd., (Wear Branch), Sunderland for The K S.S. Co. Ltd., (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers), having been launched as Empire Kedah for Ministry of transport (Glover Bros. Ltd. managers) and acquired 17th April 1946 on delivery from the builders. 1962 sold to Cerrahogullari Umuni Nakliyat Vapurculuk ve Ticaret T.A.S., Turkey and renamed M. Nurfan. 25th Sept. 1969 arrived at Istanbul to be broken up by Avram Kohen. 7,311
Marsland (1) 1926 O.N. 149741 | built by Rankin and Blackmore Ltd., Greenock. Nov. 1926 completed by Lithgows Ltd., Port Glasgow for Walmar S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 2nd July 1933 wrecked at South Head,. St. John's, Newfoundland whilst on a voyage from Cadiz to St. John's with a cargo of salt. 4,542
Marsland (2)   see Marquita.  
Marslew 1926 O.N. 148767 | built by J. G. Kincaid and Co. Ltd., Greenock. July 1926 completed by Lithgows Ltd., Port Glasgow for Walmar S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 24th Feb.1941 torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U95 whilst on a voyage from Glasgow and Liverpool to Montevideo and Villa Constitucion with 6000 tons of general cargo. She had been part of Convoy OB.288 which had dispersed. The captain and 12 crew were lost. 4,542
Martagon 1945 O.N. 180155 | built by Vickers-Armstrong Ltd., Barrow. April 1945 completed by Shipbuilding Corporation Ltd. (Wear Branch), Sunderland as Empire Prome for Ministry of War Transport (W. Runciman and Co. Ltd. managers). 1946 management transferred to Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. 26th Nov. 1946 chartered by Walmar S.S. Co. Ltd. 25th July 1947 acquired by Walmar S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers) and renamed Martagon. 15th Nov. 1957 beached in River Elbe following a collision with the German steamer MOSELSTEIN 6968/54. Refloated, badly damaged the following day and proceeded to Hamburg for repairs. 1959 sold to Ipar Transport Co. Ltd., Turkey and renamed Mehmet Ipar. 1970 sold to llhami Soher-Balat and broken up at Halic, Turkey, having been laid up there since 15th June 1963. 7,086
Martita 1946 O.N. 180917 | built by George Clark (1938) Ltd., Sunderland. 8.1946: Completed by Shipbuilding Corporation Ltd. (Tyne Branch), Newcastle upon Tyne for The K S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers), having been launched as Empire Gantock for Ministry of Transport (Haldin and Philipps Ltd. managers) and acquired 8th Aug. 1946 on delivery from the builders. 1960 sold to Cia. Nav. Almadin S.A., Greece and renamed Maroudio. 1965 sold to East and West Africa Shipping Co., Panama and renamed Thalie. 1968 sold to Vado Alti Forni et Acciaierie S.p.A. and arrived at Ligure, Italy 15th June 1968 to be broken up. 7,369
Marton 1933 O.N. 163329 | built by D. Rowan and Co. Ltd., Glasgow. April 1933 completed by Lithgows Ltd., Port Glasgow for The K S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 8th May 1941 bombed and extensively damaged by German aircraft whilst in drydock at Liverpool. Her crew were ashore at the time. 27th July 1941 towed to Tranmere Beach and broken up. 4,969
Marylyn (1) 1930 O.N. 161369 | built by Rankin and Blackmore Ltd., Greenock. Feb.1930 completed by Lithgows Ltd., Port Glasgow for Kaye Transport Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 31st Oct.1942 torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U174 in a position 00.46S. 32.42W. whilst on a voyage from Buenos Aires and Montevideo to Trinidad and U.K. with general cargo. Fifteen of the crew were lost. 4,555
Marylyn (2) 1953 O. N. 185967 | Oct. 1953 completed by J. Readhead and Sons Ltd., South Shields for Walmar S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 1965 sold to Elmsley S.S. Corp., Liberia and renamed Ionic Sky. 1967: Sold to Kaanthos Compania Maritima S.A., Liberia and renamed Kaanthos. 1969 sold to Antinous Shipping Co. Ltd., Liberia and renamed Antinous. 1971 sold to Ocean Glory Nav. Inc., Liberia and renamed Ocean Glory. 4th July 1971 sank about 40 miles off Madras after developing leaks in the engine room whilst on a voyage from Bandar Shahpour to Visakhapatnam. 7,602
Northland 1903 O.N. 115967 | built by Rankin and Blackmore, Greenock. March 1903 completed by Russell and Co., Port Glasgow as Highland Enterprise for Nelson Line (Liverpool) Ltd. (H. and W. Nelson Ltd. managers), London. 1925: Registered under Nelson S.N. Co. Ltd. (same managers). 1929: Sold to J. Bennett (Billingsgate) Ltd., London and converted to a mother?ship for trawlers fishing off Greenland. 1930 sold to Northland Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers), London, renamed Northland and converted to a fish factory ship. 1932 sold to London Whaling Co. Ltd., London and renamed Thorland. 1933 sold to Thorland Ltd., London. 12th April 1940 seized at Sandeflord by German forces and used as a storage ship. May 1945 retaken by Allied forces. 1946 sold to Den Norske Stat (Fiskeridepartementet), Norway. 1947 sold to Rafisklaget, Norway. 1948 sold to A/S. D/S. Thorland (Johs. Overa manager), Norway. 1951 sold to Metal Industries Ltd. and 8th Aug.1951 arrived at Faslane to be broken up. 5,201
Poltava 1889 O.N. 139078 | completed by Rostocker Act. Ges., Rostock as Georg for H. Schuldt, Germany. 6th Aug. 1914 captured by H.M.S. CORMORANT and taken to Gibraltar. 1915 sold to Tyzack and Branfoot, Newcastle upTyne and renamed George R. 1915 acquired by Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd and renamed Poltava. 19th April 1917 mined and sunk 3 miles N.N.E. from Souter Point on a voyage from River Tyne with a cargo of coal. 945
Polymnia 1903 O.N. 137443 | 1903 completed by Blohm and Voss A.G., Hamburg as Henriette Woermann for Woermann Linie Kornmandit. Ges., Germany. 7th Sept.1914 captured by H.M.S. CUMBERLAND in the Cameroon River. 1915 sold to Cunard S.S. Co. Ltd., Liverpool and renamed Polymnia. 1917 acquired by Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. 15th May 1917 torpedoed and sunk 15 miles W. of the Lizard by the German submarine UC75 whilst on a voyage from Huelva to Lisbon with a cargo of iron ore and fruit. 2,426
Veraston 1906 O.N. 124318 | built by Central Marine Engine Works, West Hartlepool. Oct. 1906 completed by Wm. Gray and Co. Ltd., West Hartlepool as Veraston for Merchiston S.S. Co. Ltd. (W Scott and Co. managers), West Hartlepool. 1917 acquired by General Trading Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 1920 sold to Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Co. Ltd, London, converted to a case oil carrier and renamed Volsella. 1948 sold to unlisted Chinese owners. 1950 sold to Hong Kong Chiap Hua Manufacturing Co., and broken up at Hong Kong. 1,825
 
Ships Managed for
Jamaica Direct Fruit Line Ltd. (1929-1934)
Jamaica Banana Producers S.S. Co. Ltd. (1934-1977)
 
Vessel Built Years in Service Tons
Jamaica Merchant 1911 O.N. 132559 | July 1911 completed by Cammell Laird and Co. Ltd., Birkenhead as Highland Piper for Nelson Steam Navigation Co. Ltd. (H. and W. Nelson Ltd. managers), London. 1929 acquired by Jamaica Direct Fruit Line Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers), London and renamed Jamaica Merchant. 1935 sold to Standard Fruit and S.S. Co. Ltd., Jamaica. 1937 sold to Italian shipbreakers and broken up at Trieste. 7,459
Jamaica Perseverance   see Jamaica Producer (2).  
Jamaica Pioneer 1931 O.N. 156134 | built by D. Rowan and Co. Ltd., Glasgow. 1931 completed by Lithgows Ltd., Port Glasgow for Jamaica Banana Producers S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 25th Aug. 1940 torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U100 in a position 57.05N. 11.02W. whilst on a voyage from Kingston, Jamaica to Avonmouth with a cargo of 1900 tons of bananas. Two of the crew were lost. 5,349
Jamaica Planter (1) 1911 O.N. 129182 | March 1911 completed by Carnmell Laird and Co. Ltd., Birkenhead as Highland Loch for Nelson Steam Navigation Co. Ltd. (H. and W. Nelson Ltd. managers), London. 1929 acquired by Jamaica Direct Fruit Line Ltd. (Kaye, Son and d. Ltd. managers), London and renamed Jamaica Planter. 1935 sold to P. and W. McLellan and broken up at Bo'ness. 7,482
Jamaica Planter (2) 1936 O.N. 164703 | built by J. G. Kincaid and Co. Ltd., Greenock. August 1936 completed by Lithgows Ltd., Port Glasgow as Jamaica Planter for Hadley Shipping Co. Ltd., London. 1940 acquired by Jamaica Banana Producers S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 22nd Jan. 1941 mined off Barry Island on a voyage from Kingston to Avonmouth and beached in Old Harbour, Barry. 13th Feb. 1941 refloated and beached in Whitmore Bay. 18th Feb. 1941 refloated and docked at Barry for repair. 1st July 1941 damaged during an air attack at Barry. 27th Dec. 1944 sank following a collision with the United States tanker WELLESLEY (9933/43) in Barry Roads whilst on a voyage from Halifax to Avonmouth. 4,098
Jamaica Planter (3) 1959 O.N. 174251 | built by D. Rowan and Co. Ltd., Glasgow. Dec. 1959 completed by Lithgows Ltd., Port Glasgow for Jamaica Banana Producers S. S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 1974 sold to Universal Seaways Co. Private Ltd. (Great Pacific Navigation Co. Ltd. managers), Singapore and renamed Fine Fruit. 1976 sold to Lien Hong Iron and Steel Works who commenced demolition 19th Aug. 1976 at Kaohsiung. 6,159
Jamaica Producer (1) 1910 O.N. 129139 | built by Rankin and Blackmore, Greenock. Oct. 1910 completed by Russell and Co., Port Glasgow as Highland Glen for Nelson Steam Navigation Co. Ltd. (H. and W. Nelson Ltd. managers), London. 1929 acquired by Jamaica Direct Fruit Line Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers), London and renamed Jamaica Producer. 20th Nov. 1933 severely damaged by fire in East India Dock, London. 1934 declared a total loss and towed to Rotterdam to be broken up by F. Rijsdijk. 7,472
Jamaica Producer (2) 1934 O.N. 156140 | built by D. Rowan and Co. Ltd., Glasgow. June 1934 completed by Lithgows Ltd., Port Glasgow as Jamaica Producer for Jamaica Banana Producers S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers), having been laid down as Jamaica Perseverance. 1962 sold to British Iron and Steel Corporation, allocated to T.W. Ward Ltd. and arrived at Barrow 8th May 1962 to be broken up. She was handed over to the shipbreakers the following day. 5,325
Jamaica Producer (3) 1962 O.N. 174255 | built by D. Rowan and Co. Ltd., Glasgow. June 1962 completed by Lithgows Ltd., Port Glasgow for Jamaica Banana Producers S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 1977 management transferred to Jamaica Producers Marketing Co. Ltd. 1981 sold to Bimberton Shipping Corporation, Panama, renamed Miranda and converted into a livestock carrier. 1982 sold to Cattle Purcell Express Shipping Corporation of Liberia, Liberia and renamed Cattle King. 1982 renamed Cattle Purcell Express. 1983 renamed Cattle Express. Still in service (1983). 5,781
Jamaica Progress 1932 O.N. 156136 | built by D. Rowan and Co. Ltd., Glasgow. April 1932 completed by Lithgows Ltd., Port Glasgow for Jamaica Banana Producers S.S. Co. Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 31st July 1940 torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U99 in a position 56.26N. 08.3OW. whilst on a voyage from Kingston, Jamaica to Holyhead with a cargo of 2100 tons of bananas, 74 cases of citrus fruit and 5 tons of coconuts. Six crew and one gunner were lost. 5,351
Jamaica Settler 1910 O.N. 129082 | April 1910 completed by Cammel Laird and Co. Ltd., Birkenhead as Highland Laddie for Nelson Steam Navigation Co. Ltd. (H. and W. Nelson Ltd. managers), London. 1929 acquired by Jamaica Direct Fruit Line Ltd. (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers), London and renamed Jamaica Settler. 1934 transferred to Jamaica Banana Producers S.S. Co. Ltd. (same managers). 1935 sold to W. H. Arnott Young and Co. Ltd. and broken up at Dalmuir. 7,256
 
Ships Managed for
The British Government in World War Two
 
Vessel Built Years in Service Tons
Empire Alde 1934 O.N. 181664 | built by the Shipbuilders. 1934 completed by Bremer Vulkan Schiffbau and Masch., Vegesack as Pelikan for Afrikanische Frucht Compagnie A.G. (Reederei F. Laeisz G.m.b.H. managers), Germany. 1940 taken over by the German Navy. May 1945 taken at Brunsbuttel by Allied forces, allocated to Ministry of War Transport (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers) and renamed Empire Alde. 1947 sold to Elders and Fyffes Ltd., London and renamed Pacuare. 1959 sold to West of Scotland Shipbreaking Co. Ltd. and 22nd Sept. 1959 arrived at Troon to be broken up. 3,264
Empire Almond   see Marquita.  
Empire Asguith 1944 O.N. 169187 | built by North Eastern Marine Engineering Co. (1938) Ltd., Newcastle upon Tyne. Nov. 1944 completed by Shipbuilding Corporation Ltd. (Tyne Branch), Newcastle upon Tyne for Ministry of War Transport (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 1945 management transferred to R. Chapman and Son. 1946 management transferred to Counties Ship Management Co. Ltd. 12th March 1947 sold to Brockley Hill S.S. Co. Ltd. (Counties Ship Management Co. Ltd. managers), London and renamed Brockley Hill. 1950 sold to Vandar Shipping Co. Ltd., London. 1951 renamed Starcrest. 1951 sold to Bay Shipping Co. Ltd., London. 1951 transferred to Crest Shipping Co. Ltd., London. 1956 sold to Codemar Cia. de Empresas Maritimas S.A., Liberia and renamed Argosy. 1959 sold to lpar Transport Co. Ltd., Turkey and renamed Nezihi Ipar. 1970 sold to llhami Soher-Balat and broken up at Halic, Turkey where she had been laid up since 3rd Dec. 1962. 7,082
Empire Merchant 1938 O.N. 167377 | built by Masch. Augsburg-Nurnburg A.G., Augsburg. 1938 completed by Deutsche Werft A.G. Bet Finkenwarder, Hamburg as Pomona for Afrikanische Frucht Compagnie A.G. (Rederi F. Laeisz G.m.b.H. managers), Germany. 3rd Sept. 1939 taken as a prize at London, allocated to Ministry of Shipping (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers) and renamed Empire Merchant. 16th Aug. 1940 torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U100 in a position 55.23N. 13.24W. whilst on a voyage from Avonmouth to Kingston, Jamaica with 200 tons of general cargo and mail. Six crew and one gunner were lost. 4,864
Empire Prairie 1941 O.N. 168977 | built by D. Rowan and Co. Ltd., Glasgow, Dec. 1941 completed by Lithgows Ltd., Port Glasgow for Ministry of War Transport (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 7th April 1942 sailed from Halifax on a voyage to Table Bay and Alexandria with 9022 tons of general cargo and disappeared with a crew of 44 and 5 gunners. She is believed to have been torpedoed and sunk 10th April 1942 by the German submarine U654. 7,010
Empire Prome   see Martagon.  
Empire Rhondda 1923 built. by Ottensener Maschinenfabrik G.m.b.H., Altona. 1923 completed by Schiffswerft und Masch. (v. Jansen und Schmilinsky) A.G., Hamburg as Pasajes for Oldenburg-Portugiesische Dampfschiffs Rhederei, Germany. May 1945 taken by Allied forces at Frederikshavn and allocated to Ministry of War Transport (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers) and renamed Empire Rhondda. 14th Feb. 1946 allocated to U.S.S.R. and renamed Henri Barbusse. 1968 deleted from Lloyds Register due to an absence of up to date information. 1,998
Empire Turnstone   see Western City.  
Empire Wharfe 1938 O.N. 180732 | built by Akt. Burmeister and Wain, Copenhagen. 1938 completed by Oresundsvarvet A/B Landskrona as Viator for Skibs. A/S. Viator (C. H. Sorensen and Sonner managers), Norway. 1939 sold to Fruchtreed. Harald Schuldt and Co. K.G., (Reederei H. Schuldt managers), Germany and renamed Angelburg. 1939 taken over by the German Navy. May 1945 retaken at Wilhelmshaven by Allied forces, allocated to Ministry of War Transport (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers) and renamed Empire Wharfe. 1947 sold to Elders and Fyffes Ltd., London and renamed Zent. 1962 sold to Van Heyghen Freres and 2nd July 1962 arrived at Bruges to be broken up. 3,072
Empire Zephyr 1941 O.N. 168675 | built by D. Rowan and Co. Ltd., Glasgow. April 1941 completed by C. Connell and Co. Ltd., Glasgow for Ministry of War Transport (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 1944 management transferred to Kelston S. S. Co. Ltd. 1946 sold to Kelston S. S. Co. Ltd. (John I. Jacobs and Co Ltd. managers), London and renamed Valewood. 1949 sold to Ampleforth S.S. Co. Ltd. (Charles Cravos and Co. managers), Cardiff and renamed Ampleforth. 1959 sold to British Iron and Steel Corporation, allocated to Smith and Houston Ltd. and arrived at Port Glasgow 12th Aug. 1959 to be broken up. 6,327
Ocean Vesper 1942 O.N. 168630 | built by General Machinery Corporation, Hamilton, Ontario. Jan. 1942 completed by Todd-California Shipbuilding Corporation, Richmond, California for Ministry of War Transort (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 1942 management transferred to Connell and Grace Ltd. 1946 management transferred to Thompson Steamshipping Co. Ltd. 1950 sold to The Clan Line Steamers Ltd. (Cayzer, Irvine and Co. Ltd. managers), Glasgow. 1951 renamed Clan Macqueen. 1954 sold to British and South American Steam Navigation Co. Ltd. (Houston Line (London) Ltd. managers), London and renamed Herminius. 1958 sold to Pan Norse S.S. Co. S.A., Panama and renamed Ekberg. 1963 sold to Marine Development and Supply S.A., Panama. 1964: Sold to Koshin Sangyo K.K. and arrived at Onomichi 11th Dec. 1964 to be broken up. 7,174
Ocean Vestal 1942 O.N. 168815 | built by General Machinery Corporation, Hamilton, Ontario. Jan. 1942 completed by Todd-California Shipbuilding Corporation, Richmond, California for Ministry of War Transport (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 18th Nov 1946 sold to Thompson Steamshipping Co. Ltd., London. 1947 renamed Farningham. 1951 sold to The Clan Line Steamers Ltd. (Cayzer, Irvine and Co. Ltd. managers), Glasgow. 1952 sold to British and South American Steam Navigation Co. Ltd. (Houston Line (London) Ltd. managers), London and renamed Hellenes. 1957 sold to The Clan Line Steamers Ltd. (Cayzer, Irvine and Co. Ltd. managers), Glasgow. 1958 sold to Malabar S.S. Co. Ltd., India and renamed Janmada. 1962 sold to Abid & Co., Bombay, who commenced demolition 15th April 1962. 7,174
Samythian 1943 O.N. 169801 | built by Springfield Machine and Foundry Co., Springfield, Mass. 1943 completed by New England Shipbuilding Corporation for United States War Shipping Administration and bareboat chartered to Ministry of War Transport (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 1947 returned to United States Maritime Commission. 1951 transferred to United States Department of Commerce. 1961 sold to Union Minerals Et Alloys Cororation New York, and resold to Cove Contractors Inc., who commenced demolition 11.1961 at Panama City. 7,219
Western City 1918 O.N. 168319 | built by Kerr Turbine Co., Wellsville, New York. June 1918 completed by Columbia River Shipbuilding Corporation, Portland, Oregon as Western City for United States Shipping Board, having been laid down as War Arrow for The Shipping Controller. 1937 transferred to United States Maritime Commission. 14th Feb. 1941 sold to Ministry of War Transport (Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd. managers). 1942 renamed Empire Turnstone. 23rd Oct. 1942 torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U621 in a position 54.40N. 28.00W. after failing behind from Convoy ONS 136 whilst on a voyage from River Tyne and Loch Ewe to Port Sulphur. Her crew of 46 was lost. 5,828

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