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Steamships on the Panama Route - Both Atlantic and Pacific

Newpaper Items | Ships

Newspapers &c.

The following items have been found in the New York Daily Times (1851), the Sydney Shipping Gazette (1852) and a Colonization Circular (1859)

New York Daily Times, November 3, 1851 (microfilm) contributed by Harry Dodsworth

The following story mentions some of the ships coming back from San Francisco. The affray at Chagres (the Atlantic port for the Panama route) was a gun battle between local boatmen and American boatman over the carriage of passengers.

SIXTEEN DAYS LATER FROM CALIFORNIA
ARRIVAL OF THE CHEROKEE
Over Two Millions of Gold Elections - Mining Intelligence - Marriages - Deaths &c.
TERRIBLE AFFRAY AT CHAGRES

The steamer Cherokee, Capt. WINDLE, arrived at this port on Saturday afternoon, in nine days from Chagres, bringing San Francisco dates to the 1st October sixteen days later than previous advices, and dates from Panama to the 18th ult.
The Cherokee brings a California mail; but from circumstances within our knowledge, we incline to the opinion that a portion of the mails are still behind. Persons who fail to get their California correspondence today, may hope to receive it by the U.S. mail steamer Ohio, which went into Chagres the day the Cherokee left, and may be looked for by to-morrow.
The steamer Oregon, Capt. Pearson, had arrived at Panama from San Francisco, having on board upwards of two millions in gold dust on freight, independent of large amounts in the hands of passengers.
The steamer Carolina, Capt. RICHARD WHITING, arrived at Panama on the 11th, in twenty-eight days from San Francisco, having left the latter port on the 13th Sept., and been compelled to put in at Acapulco and Realaja for repairs in consequence of accident to her machinery.
The steamer Columbus, Capt. ISHAM, reached Panama on the 17th ult, in 19 days from San Francisco, with three hundred passengers, in whose hands a large amount of gold dust is reported, Capt. I. reports the Commodore Stockton at Acapulco on the 8th ult.
The New Orleans was to leave San Francisco on the 1st Oct. for Panama touching at San Juan del Sur, to leave passengers desiring to take the route across Nicaragua. The N.O. is one of the swiftest steamers on the Pacific, and her passengers via the new route ought - if the latter is one half as favorable as has been represented by interested parties - to have been here several days ago.
The Independence, also of the Vanderbilt line, was to leave San Francisco on the 4th Oct. Her passengers therefore are now thirty days out, instead of coming through in twenty five days, the line in which the trip by the new route is promised to be made.
The U.S.M. steamer Golden Gate, Capt. PATTERSON, arrived at Panama on the afternoon of the 16th, seventy-two days from New York, having stopped at Rio about five days, and at Valparaiso some fifteen days. She was expected to sail for San Francisco on the 1st inst.
[Then a list of the owners of $2,179,163 of gold on the Cherokee]

We regret to hear by this arrival of the death, at San Juan del Sur, of Capt. D. G. BAILEY of the new steamship Pacific. He was formerly Commander of the Liverpool packet ships Orpheus and Yorkshire, of this port, and commanded the Pacific mail steamer Panama from her first departure from this port up to December last, when he returned to this city and soon after took command of the Pacific.
The news from California is interesting though not startling.

Sydney Shipping Gazette: vol. 9 No. 444 (2 Oct. 1852) p. 280

NEW ROUTE TO AUSTRALIA:

We incidentally mentioned, in noticing the launch of the ARABIA, that Messrs. Burns & Co., were about to open a westerly route to our Australian colonies, via New York and Panama. We believe that their arrangements are already so far completed, that in about four months they expect to extend their steam fleet to the Pacific ; but the precise details will, of course, be subject to the orders of the post office and the admiralty authorities. Now that the Panama railway is partially finished, so as to afford an easy transit across the Isthmus, the main objection is removed ; and Messrs. Burns have acted well in so promptly availing themselves of the facilities thus opened up for a speedy and and regular communication with our Australian colonies, which have so suddenly sprung into an importance never before dreamt of, in consequence of the discovery of vast and inexhaustible fields of gold.

The Panama railway is to extend across that narrow portion of the Isthmus situated between Chagres on the Atlantic, and Panama on the Pacific. The length of the line will be when finished, 47 miles ; but, in the meantime, it is only intended to execute 21 miles, extending from Panama to Gorgona, on the river Chagres, at the highest point of navigation, up to which place passengers, &c., will be conveyed by river steamers from Chagres.

The country is favourable for the formation of a railway, as the summit level is only 260 feet above the ocean on either side, with a gradual ascent from the coasts towards the culminating ridge near the centre of the Isthmus. A few hours will therefore suffice to convey passengers from sea to sea. Chagres being situated at the mouth of the river of that name, and consequently being unhealthy at certain seasons, the Atlantic terminus of the railway is to be at Limon Bay, a good roadstead, about two and a half miles to the eastward, where the steamers can ride at anchor safely, and land their passengers at all times. The section of the railway from Panama to Gorgona will be very soon completed, and the traffic carried across the Isthmus with a degree of celerity and safety far superior to any other route hitherto adopted or suggested. As far then as passengers are concerned, it may be considered that, practically speaking, the navigation from this country to the antipodes is uninterrupted ; and a choice of two routes will then be offered to those desirous of visiting our Australian colonies.

The present and ordinary route of sailing vessels is by crossing the Atlantic until the coast of South America is neared, then changing the course so as to double the Cape of Good Hope, and thence nearly due west to Port Phillip or Van Dieman's Land --- New Zealand by this route lying about 1500 miles further off to the eastward beyond Australia. Steamers however, take a shorter course, and after calling at Madeira and the Cape de Verde Islands, steam along the west coast of Africa, south of the Cape. By the new route about to be opened up by the Royal American Mail Steam Packet Company, the traffic will be carried westward half round the globe until the antipodes are reached. Passengers will be conveyed in the magnificent steamers of Cunard Line to New York : there a second series of of powerful steamers will be ready to convey them to Chagres. A few hours will suffice to waft them from the Atlantic to the Pacific across the Isthmus to Panama, where another line of powerful steamers will receive them for the last and longest stage of the journey.

On a large 30-inch globe, we measured the distances roughly in nautical miles, and taking the courses as being direct, we found the distance to be:-
  Miles
From Liverpool to New York ....................... 3120
From New York to Chagres.......................... 2100
From Chagres to Panama.............................. 47
From Panama to Tahiti................................... 4500
From Tahiti to New Zealand.......................... 2400
From New Zealand to Port Phillip  
...................................or Van Deiman's Land 1500

The distance from Panama to Australia is too great for an unbroken run, and the steamers on this branch of the service will call and coal at Tahiti, one of the Society Islands, and the most advanced in civilization. Thence the course will be westerly to New Zealand, and still farther west to Australia. As our antipodes have to be reached, it is obvious that they would be equally near this country, if a direct course could be steered, whether that course was eastward or westward ; but, as there is already a line of steamers between this and America, unequalled in the world for comfort, power, and regularity, it is clear that, if we can take advantage of them so far, it will be a great point gained. We believe it is not yet decide at which, or how many of the ports in New Zealand, Van Dieman's Land, and Australia, this new line of steamers will call, nor how frequent the communications will be : but a general outline of the entire route is indicated above, from which its importance and convenience to the mother country and its colonies may be appreciated.____________North British Daily Mail.

Colonization Circular No. 19 - published May 1859

Routes to British Columbia:

There are three routes by which Vancouver's Island and British Columbia may be reached:-

1st. Round Cape Horn, in sailing vessels, direct to Victoria, in Vancouver's Island.
2nd. By the West India mail steamer to Colon; thence across the Isthmus (48 miles) by railway, to Panama; and thence by the Pacific line of steamers to Victoria, Vancouver's Island.
3rd. Via New York to Colon, by steamers; and thence to Vancouver's Island across the Isthmus, as in the second route. This is the most certain route for letters.

From Vancouver's Island to the main land of British Columbia, the distance is about 60 miles across the Gulf of Georgia.

The time occupied on the first route is about five months. The cost, in first cabin, from 50 to 60; and in the second, or intermediate cabin, from 30 to 40; and in the steerage, from 25 to 30. By the second route, Vancouver's Island may be reached in about 50 days, if the passengers are not detained at Panama and San Francisco. There is sometimes a week's detention at the latter place. The cost of first-class passage is about 100; that of second-class, about 65; and that in steerage about 45. The cost of passages by the third route is about the same as by the second route.

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Ships

The following list is comprised of vessels which sailed the Panama route. The information was extracted from various sources but special note should go to The Panama Route 1848-1869, by John Haskell Kemble, first published by University of California Press, 1943. This is not an all inclusive list but should only be used as a guide.

Many thanks to Ted Finch for his assistance in collecting this data.

ALASKA
4011 tons, length 346ft x beam 47.6ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Launched 27th Nov.1867 by Henry Steers at Greenpoint, Long Island for Pacific Mail Co. service between New York and Aspinwall. Entered service 2nd Aug.1868 and continued through June 1869. Later used on San Francisco - Panama and San Francisco - Hong Kong services. Rebuilt 1882 and later became a coal hulk and store ship at Acapulco.

AMERICA (1)
923 tons, length 201ft x beam 31ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built and owned by William H. Brown, New York and launched in Apr.1853. Sailed from New York for Aspinwall on 20th Oct.1853 and then continued to San Francisco where she was used on the coastal trade to Humboldt Bay, Crescent City, Port Orford and the Umpqua River. June 1855 burned at Crescent City.

AMERICA (2)
2030 tons, length 285.5ft x beam 38.3ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built at Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario in 1855 as the AMERICA for the Great Western RR Co. service on Lake Ontario. Rebuilt at New York in 1858 and transferred to American registry in 1859 under ownership of Peter A. Hargous. 1859 name changed to COATZACOALCOS, then laid up. 1860 sold to Marshall O. Roberts and chartered to the War Department. 1862 renamed AMERICA and made New York to San Juan de Nicaragua sailings for Roberts in 1862-63. Sent to the Pacific and sailed San Francisco - Panama for the People's Line from 22nd Jan.1864 until 23rd Oct.1864. Then operated between San Francisco and San Juan del Sur for the Central American Transit Co until 15th Feb.1868. She was burned at San Juan del Sur on 11th Apr.1869.

ANTELOPE
425 tons (1847), 650 tons (1850), 581 tons (1865), length 178.7ft x beam 27.7ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Launched by Bishop & Simonson, New York on 17th Jun.1847 and sailed from New York for San Juan del Sur on 18th May 1850. Operated between San Francisco and Panama between Oct.1850 and Mar.1851 for George Law. Spring 1851 sold to Pacific Mail SS Co, resold and used on the Sacramento River. Scrapped at San Francisco in 1888.

ARAGO
2240 tons (1855), 2370 tons (1865), length 290ft x beam 40ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Launched 27th Jan.1855 by Westervelt & Sons, New York and operated between New York and Havre by the New York & Havre Steam Navigation Co. between 1855 and 1861. Chartered to the War Department in 1862,1863 & 1865. Made one voyage New York to Aspinwall for the North American SS Co. in 1868. Operated a brief transatlantic service in 1868 for Ruger Bros and sold to the Peruvian Government in 1869.

ARIEL
1295 tons (1855), 1736 tons (1865), length 252ft x beam 32.5ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Launched on 3rd Mar.1855 by Jeremiah Simonson, New York and made one New York - Aspinwall voyage for the United States Mail SS Co. in July-Aug.1855. Then entered the New York - Southampton - Havre service for Vanderbilt's Independent Line from 1855-1859. She was then used intermittently on the New york - Aspinwall service until summer 1865. Chartered to the War Department in 1861,1862,1864 and 1865. After the Civil war she was used for a while by Ruger Brothers transatlantic service but by 1873 was running between Hakodate and Yokohama for the Pacific Mail SS Co. On 27th Oct.1873 she struck a sunken reef 110 miles off Yokohama ans sank.

ARIZONA
2793 tons, length 323.8ft x beam 44.8ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Built by Henry Steers, Greenpoint, Long Island, she was launched for Pacific Mail SS Co. on 19th Jan.1865. She commenced service between New York and Aspinwall on 1st Mar.1866 and continued until June 1869. 1877 scrapped at San Francisco.

ATLANTIC
2850 tons (1850), 2668 tons (1865), length 284ft x beam 45.9ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built by William H. Brown, New York in 1849 for the Collins Line and ran between New York and Liverpool between 1849 and 1858. Laid up until 1859 when she was purchased by the North Atlantic SS Co. and sailed between New York and Aspinwall from 20th Oct.1859 until 11th Mar.1860. In 1863 she made one New York - Aspinwall voyage for the Panama Railroad, and one in 1865 for the Pacific Mail SS Co. Chartered to the War Department between 1861-1865. From 1866 to 1870 she was used by North American Lloyd for their service between New York, Southampton and Bremen and was scrapped at New York in Sep.1871.

BALTIC
2723 tons (1850), 2644 tons (1865), length 282.5ft x beam 45ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built 1850 by Brown & Bell, New York for the Collins Line New York to Liverpool service until 1858. Then laid up until 5th Oct.1859 when she sailed from New York for Aspinwall for the North American SS Co. which had purchased her, and in 1860 made a record passage from Aspinwall to New York in 6 days 21 hours. She completed her last voyage on this service on 27th Mar.1860 and was chartered to the War Department 1861-1865. In 1865 she made one New York - Aspinwall sailing for Pacific Mail SS Co. and was then operated by North American Lloyd between New York, Southampton and Bremen. Sold to Boston owners about 1870, she was converted to a sailing ship and employed on the San Francisco to Europe wheat trade. Later sold to a German company, she was damaged in a gale and scrapped in Boston in 1880.

BROTHER JONATHAN
1360 tons (1851), 1181 tons (1865), length 220.9ft x beam 36ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Built by Perine, Patterson & Stack, Williamsburg, New York with berths for 365 passengers, and launched for Edward Mills on 2nd Nov.1850. Sailed between New York and Chagres in 1851-1852 and then sold to Cornelius Vanderbilt who increased her capacity to 750 passengers. Sailed from New York for San Francisco on 14th May 1852 and then sailed between San Francisco and San Juan del Sur until 1856. After 1856 she was sold to the California Steam Nav. Co. and used on coastal services until 30th Jul.1865 when she struck a rock off St.Georges Point, north of Crescent City and sank.

CAHAWBA
1643 tons, length 250.2ft x beam 37ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built 1854 by William Collyer, New York for S.T.Rogers. Operated between New York, Mobile and New Orleans by Livingston, Crocheron & Co. Made one New York to San Juan de Nicaragua voyage in summer 1856 for C.A.Whitney. Chartered to the War Department 1861-1863 and sold to War Dep't 1864. Auctioned to Arthur Leary 1865.

CALIFORNIA
1058 tons, length 199.2ft x beam 33.5ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Launched 19th May 1848 by William H. Webb, New York for Pacific Mail SS Co. Left New York on 6th Oct.1848 for Valparaiso, Panama and San Francisco, then operated regularly between San Francisco and Panama until 1854. Used as a spare steamer at San Francisco in 1856 and at Panama in 1857. She made SF - Panama voyages for Pacific Mail in 1860,1861 and 1866 and was later sold to the California, Oregon & Mexico SS Co. Returned to Pacific Mail in 1872, she was sold to Goodall, Nelson & Perkins in 1874 and used on coastal services until 1875 when she was converted to a sailing ship and sold to N.Bichard. Employed on the coal and lumber trade, she was wrecked at Peru in 1894/5.

CAROLINA
555 tons, length 149.7ft x beam 27.9ft, wooden hull, twin screws, three masts. Completed in Dec.1849 by Charles & William Cramp, Philadelphia, she was sold to Pacific Mail SS Co. and sailed from New York for San Francisco on 9th Jan.1850. Arrived San Francisco on 7th May 1850 and was used on the San Francisco - Panama service until the end of 1851. Sold for service in China in 1854.

CENTRAL AMERICA
see GEORGE LAW.

CHAMPION
1419 tons (1859), 1452 tons (1865), length 235ft x beam 35ft, iron hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Capacity for 900 passengers. Built 1859 by Harlan & Hollingsworth, Wilmington, Del. for Cornelius Vanderbilt and sailed from New York for San Francisco on 23rd Oct.1859. Arrived SF on 1st Jan.1860 and made two San Francisco - Panama voyages for the Atlantic & Pacific SS Co. Sailed for New York on 3rd Apr.1860 and then operated New York - Aspinwall until the end of 1864. Chartered to the War Department in 1864-1865, she collided with the British barque LADY OCTAVIA on 8th Nov.1879 while 35 miles from the Delaware Capes and sank.

CHEROKEE
1245 tons, length 210.7ft x beam 35.3ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Launched 12th Jun.1848 by William H.Webb, New York for the New York & Savannah SN Co. and sailed for Savannah on 3rd Oct.1848. Purchased by Howard & Aspinwall, she was used on their New York - Chagres Line from 13th Dec.1849. She burned at her dock at the foot of Warren Street, New York on 27th Aug.1853, scuttled and later refloated, she did not re-enter the Chagres service and was owned by the United States Mail SS Co. in 1855.

CHINA
3836 tons, length 360ft x beam 47.4ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Capacity for 1,300 passengers. Launched on 8th Dec.1866 by William H.Webb, New York for the Pacific Mail SS Co. transpacific service. Left New York for San Francisco on 1st Jul.1867 and arrived San Francisco on 20th Sep. having picked up passengers at Panama. She then entered the transpacific service and in 1883 was sold to Henry Villard. She became a receiving ship for smallpox patients in 1884 and was scrapped in 1886.

CITY OF NEW YORK
575 tons, length 166ft x beam 27ft, wooden hull, single screw, three masts. Built by Capes & Allison, Hoboken, NJ in 1852. She made a single New York - Chagres voyage in Feb-Apr.1852 for Miller & Lord (southbound) and Palmer, Haight & Co. (northbound). Chartered to the War Department in 1861-1862, she was wrecked off Hatteras Inlet in Jun.1862.

COLORADO
3357 tons (1865), 3727 tons (1867), length 340ft x beam 45.6ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Equipped with 53 staterooms plus accommodation for 1,500 steerage passengers. Launched on 21st May 1864 by William H.Webb for the Pacific Mail SS Co. and sailed from New York for San Francisco on 1st Apr.1865 with calls at Rio de Janeiro, Callao and Panama. Used on the San Francisco - Panama service from summer 1865 to June 1869 with the exception of some occasional voyages on the China route. Sold 1878 and scrapped 1879.

COLUMBIA
777 tons, length 193ft x beam 29ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Capacity for 150-cabin passengers. Built in 1850 by Westervelt & Mackay, New York for the Pacific Mail SS Co. and sailed from New York for San Francisco on 15th Oct.1850. Intended for the mail service between San Francisco and Astoria, the amount of business caused her to be used occasionally on the SF - Panama route between 1851 and 1854. Sold to Chinese owners in 1862.

COLUMBUS
460 tons, length 148.8ft x beam 25.6ft, wooden hull, single screw, three masts. Built by Reeves & Brothers, Allowaytown, NJ in 1848 and commenced service between Philadelphia and Charleston, SC in Feb.1848. Sailed from New York on 12th Feb.1850 and arrived San Francisco 6th Jun.1850. Sold to the Pacific Mail SS Co. in 1851 and operated the San Francisco - Panama route until 1854. Chartered to the US Navy for a while in 1854 she was then sold to the Panama RR Co. and operated on the west coast of Central America. Lost at Punta Remedios, Central America on 9th Dec.1861.

COMMODORE STOCKTON
436 tons, length 153.7ft x beam 24.4ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built in 1850 by Davis & Burton, Philadelphia for R.F.Loper and sailed Philadelphia to San Francisco in 171 days. Advertised to sail from San Francisco for Panama on 12th Jun.1851 to connect with Vanderbilt's Atlantic steamer, she eventually sailed from San Francisco on 30th June with over 100 passengers, but put back after two days, having sprung a leak. When passage money was not returned, the passengers mutinied. In 1852 when running for the Independent Line, she put into Acapulco in distress and was condemned. Sold to Chile in 1853, she was renamed CAUPOLICAN.

CONSTITUTION (1)
530 tons, length 167ft x beam 26ft, wooden hull, single screw, three masts. Built in Philadelphia for R.F.Lopez and sailed from New York for San Francisco in June 1850. Made two voyages between San Francisco and Panama for the Empire City Line in 1851 and in 1851 made one voyage on this route for Pacific Mail SS Co. She made one voyage to the Hawaiian Islands before sailing for Puget Sound on 8th Jul.1857 to enter the mail service between Olympia and Bellingham Bay. She returned to San Francisco on 13th July because of a serious leak. In 1860 her engines were removed and she was rebuilt as a barque.

CONSTITUTION (2)
3315 tons (1861), 3575 tons (1865), length 342.5ft x beam 44.6ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Built by William H.Webb, New York for the Pacific Mail SS Co., she was launched on 25th May 1861. Chartered to the War Department in 1861-1862, she sailed from New York for San Francisco on 19th Jun.1862. She sailed between San Francisco from 1862 to June 1869 and was scrapped at San Francisco in 1879.

CORTES
1117 tons, length 220.5ft x beam 22.5ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Capacity for 100 cabin and 600 steerage class passengers. Launched on 28th Mar.1852 by Westervelt & Mackay, New York for Davis, Brooks & Co, she sailed from New York for San Francisco on 10th Jul.1852. She sailed between San Francisco and Panama from the end of 1852 to the summer of 1853 for the New York & San Francisco SS Line and was then sold to Cornelius Vanderbilt and used for his service between San Francisco and San Juan del Sur until Mar.1855. In 1858-1859 she was sailing between San Francisco and Panama for the New York & California SS Co. and in 1860 on the same route for the Atlantic & Pacific SS Co. Purchased by Pacific Mail SS Co. in Dec.1860, she entered it's Panama service and in Feb.1861 was sold to Flint & Holladay who chartered her for service in China. She was burned at Shanghai in 1865.

COSTA RICA
1950 tons (1864), 1917 tons (1865), length 269ft x beam 38.9ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Built 1863 by Jeremiah Simonson, Greenpoint, Long Island as the COMMODORE for Cornelius Vanderbilt. Renamed COSTA RICA, she operated from July 1864 until the summer of 1865 on the New York - Aspinwall service. Purchased by Pacific Mail SS Co., she was used on the same service until spring 1866. On 1st Apr.1867 she sailed from New York for Yokohama via the Cape of Good Hope and was then used on Pacific Mail's Yokohama - Shanghai service until 1875 when she was sold to Mitsubishi Mail SS Co and renamed GENAKI MARU.

CRESCENT CITY
1291 tons, length 233.6ft x beam 33.9ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built 1848 by William H.Brown, New York for service between New York and New Orleans. She entered the New York - Chagres service for J.Howard & Sons on 23rd Dec.1848. In Oct.1850 she passed to the control of Pacific Mail SS Co. and in early 1851 was sold to United States Mail SS Co., but continued regular New York - Chagres voyages until summer 1852. She made a single voyage on this service in 1853 and was wrecked on a reef in the Gulf of Mexico in 1856.

DAKOTA
2135 tons, length 270ft x beam 40ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Built by Henry Steers, Greenpoint, New York as the NICARAGUA. Launched for William H.Webb on 28th Jun.1865 and made one New York - Aspinwall voyage in Aug.1868 for the North American SS Co. Used briefly on the San Francisco - Australia service in 1873 for William H.Webb and then sold to Pacific Mail SS Co. Scrapped in 1886.

DANIEL WEBSTER
1035 tons, length 223.3ft x beam 31ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built with 31 staterooms and accommodation for 116 passengers. Launched by William H.Brown, New York on 20th Sep.1851 for Cornelius Vanderbilt and sailed from New York on her first voyage to San Juan de Nicaragua on 22nd Nov.1851. Continued to operate from New York and New Orleans to San Juan and later Aspinwall for Vanderbilt, and later Charles Morgan until 1859. Chartered to the War Department 1861-1865 and sank on 3rd Oct.1866 on passage to Mobile. Passengers saved by steamer GEORGE CROMWELL.

ECUADOR
323 tons, length 120.7ft x beam 21.5ft, iron hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Built by Tod & McGregor, Glasgow for the Pacific Steam Navigation Co in 1845 for the Callao - Guayaquil - Panama service. Made one Panama - San Francisco voyage in Jul-Aug.1850 with 96 passengers. 1850 sold to Pacific Mail SS Co., 1853 wrecked at Coquimbo.

EL DORADO
1050 tons, length 228.3ft x beam 30.9ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Launched by Thomas Collyer, New York on 2nd Dec.1850 for the United States Mail SS Co. Made one New York - Chagres run in Mar.1851 with labourers for the Panama Railroad and then sailed New Orleans - Chagres. From Dec.1851 to 1853 she was used on the New York - Chagres service and was scrapped in 1857.

EMPIRE CITY
1751 tons, length 238.7ft x beam 39.3ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built by William H.Brown, New York she was launched on 10th Mar.1849 for Charles Morgan. On 17th Jul.1849 she sailed from New York on her first voyage to Chagres for the Empire City Line, and Oct.1850 came under the control of Pacific Mail SS Co. In 1851 she was sold to United States Mail SS Co. and continued on the Chagres service until 1856. In 1860 she was sailing New York - Havana - New Orleans and in 1861-1864 was chartered to the War Department, who bought her in 1865. In 1868 she was used as a quarantine ship in New York Harbour.

ERICSSON
1902 tons (1853), 1545 tons (1865), length 253.5ft x beam 39.7ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Built in 1852 by Perine, Patterson & Stack, Williamsburg, New York for the Collins Line, she made one transatlantic voyage and by 1859 was owned by Hargous & Co and was laid up. Chartered to the War Department 1861-1865 and in 1865 made three New York - San Juan de Nicaragua voyages for the Central American Transit Co. She was converted to a sailing ship in 1867.

FALCON
891 tons, length 244.1ft x beam 30.1ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels. Built by William H.Brown, New York in 1848 for a group of businessmen, she sailed on her first voyage from New York to Savannah, Havana and New Orleans on 10th Sep.1848. Purchased by the United States Mail SS Co., she started New York - Chagres sailings on 1st Dec.1848 and continued New York or New Orleans - Chagres sailings until 1852.Converted to a towboat in 1857, her engines were later removed and she was serving as a quarantine hulk at Hoffman's Island in 1859.

FREMONT
559 tons, length 162ft x beam 27ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built 1850 by T.Birely, Philadelphia, she was purchased by Pacific Mail SS Co. and sent to San Francisco in 1851. Used on the San Francisco - Panama service until spring 1852, she was then used on the San Francisco - Columbia service. In Feb.1861 she was sold to Flint & Holladay for their coastal routes.

FULTON
2307 tons (1863), 2061 tons (1865), length 287.5ft x beam 40.9ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Completed by Smith & Dimon, New York in 1855 and operated on transatlantic services by the New York & Havre Steam Navigation Co. until 1861. Chartered to the War Department 1862-1865. Made two New York - Aspinwall voyages for North American SS Co. in 1868. Returned to transatlantic services for a short while and was scrapped in Mar.1870.

GENERAL WARREN
309 tons, length 148ft x beam 23.5ft, wooden hull, single screw, two masts. Built for George Knight at Portland, Maine in 1844 and arrrived at San Francisco on 20th Jul.1851, thirty one days from Panama. Used on coastal services north of San Francisco and was wrecked in the Columbia River on 31st Jan.1852.

GEORGE LAW
2141 tons, length 278.3ft x beam 40ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built by William H.Webb, New York, she was launched on 28th Oct.1852 for the United States Mail SS Co. She started the New York - Aspinwall service on 20th Oct.1853 and in 1857 her name was changed to CENTRAL AMERICA. On 12th Sep.1857 she sank at sea in severe weather while on passage Havana to New York with the loss of about 423 lives and eight million dollars in gold.

GEORGIA
2727 tons, length 248ft x beam 48.7ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, four masts. Built Smith & Dimon, New York, she was launched on 6th Sep.1848 for the United States Mail SS Co. and entered the New York - Chagres service on 28th Jan.1850. She continued sailings to the Isthmus until Feb.1854 when she was laid up. Condemned in 1859.

GOLD HUNTER
486 tons, length 172.5ft x beam 25.5ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built by A.J.Westervelt, New York, she was launched for William Skiddy on 5th Sep.1849. She sailed from New York for San Francisco on 19th Dec.1849 and arrived 29th Apr.1850, after calling at Panama. She made one voyage to Acapulco in 1850 and two to Tehuantepec, Nicaragua and Panama in 1851. Sold to the US Government in 1852, she was renamed ACTIVE for the Coast & Geodetic Survey. 1860-61 sold to the California, Oregon & Mexico SS Co. for their coastal services, she was wrecked on a rock north of Cape Mendocino in fog, while on passage San Francisco to Victoria on 5th Jun.1870.

GOLDEN AGE
2182 tons (1856), 1869 tons (1865), length 272.8ft x beam 41.9ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built by William H.Brown, New York in 1853, she sailed from New York on 30th Sep.1853 for Liverpool, Cape of Good Hope, Melbourne and Sydney. She operated Australian coastal services until 12th May 1854 when she sailed from Sydney for Tahiti and Panama, arriving 17th June. Purchased by the Pacific Mail SS Co. in Aug.1854, she entered the San Francisco - Panama service in Oct.1854 and continued until 1869. Later transferred to the Yokohama - Shanghai service, she was sold to Mitsubishi Mail SS Co. in 1875 and renamed HIROSHIMA MARU.

GOLDEN CITY
3373 tons (1863), 3589 tons (1865), length 343ft x beam 45.1ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Equipped with 56 double staterooms. Launched 24th Jan.1863 by William H.Webb, New York for the Pacific Mail SS Co., she entered the San Francisco - Panama service on 13th Aug.1863. and continued this service until 1869. She was lost on the coast of Lower California on 10th Feb.1870.

GOLDEN GATE
2067 tons, length 269.5ft x beam 40ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built by William H. Webb, New York and launched for the Pacific Mail SS Co. on 21st Jan.1851. Entered the San Francisco - Panama service in Nov.1851 and stayed in this service until she burned at sea and was beached near Manzanillo, Mexico on 27th Jul.1862 with the loss of 223 lives.

GOLDEN RULE
2767 tons (1864), 2107 tons (1865), length 304ft x beam 43.5ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built by Henry Steers, Greenpoint, Long Island and launched 3rd Jun.1863 for Marshall O. Roberts. Entered the New York - Aspinwall service for the Central American Transit Co in Jul.1864 and after one voyage was transferred to the New York - San Juan de Nicaragua run. On 30th May 1865 while on passage New York to San Juan, she was wrecked on Roncador Reef with no loss of life.

GOLIAH
334 tons, length 1455ft x beam 25ft (1849), 613 tons, length 185ft x beam 28.5ft (1854), wooden hull , side paddle wheels, no masts. Built by William H. Webb, New York in 1848 as a tug. Sold by Webb and arrived San Francisco on 21st Jan.1851, 244 days from New York and 24 days from Panama. Renamed DEFENDER and operated as a passenger steamer on the Sacramento River. Rebuilt in 1854 and renamed GOLIAH, she was used for coastal services from San Francisco for J.T.Wright. Later operated as a towboat and was dismantled and burned in 1899.

GRANADA
1059 tons, length 228ft x beam 31ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Built by Jeremiah Simonson, New York in 1855 and entered service between New York, New Orleans and Aspinwall for the United States Mail SS Co. in 1857. She stayed on this route until spring 1859 and in 1860 was used between New York, Havana and New Orleans. Later that year she was sent to San Francisco but went ashore near Fort Point on 13th Oct.1860 and became a total loss.

GREAT REPUBLIC
3881 tons, length 360.3ft x beam 47.4ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Accommodation for 250-cabin and 1,200-steerage class passengers. Built by Henry Steers, Greenpoint, Long Island for Pacific Mail SS Co. in 1867. She sailed from New York on 18th May 1867 for Panama, San Francisco and Japan and arrived Panama on 16th July. She made one Panama - San Francisco voyage on 22nd July, arriving 2nd Aug.1867 and then entered the San Francisco - Hong Kong service. Sold to P.B.Cornwall in 1878 she was used on the San Francisco - Portland route until she was wrecked on 19th Apr.1879 on Sand Island, Columbia River.

GUIDING STAR
3384 tons (1864), 2596 tons (1865), length 300.5ft x beam 40.5ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Built by Roosevelt, Joyce and Waterbury, New York and launched on 13th Aug.1864 for the New York Mail SS Co. Used on the New York - Havana - New Orleans route until 1867 when she started voyages to Bremen for North American Lloyd. In 1868 she made six New York - Aspinwall sailings for the North American SS Co. and in 1869-1870 was chartered by Ruger Brothers for services to Copenhagen. She was scrapped at Long Island in Oct.1874.

HENRY CHAUNCEY
2657 tons, length 319.4ft x beam 43ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Accommodation for 250-1st cabin, 250-2nd cabin and 300-steerage passengers. Launched 18th Oct.1864 by William H. Webb, New York for the Pacific Mail SS Co. Entered the New York - Aspinwall service on 1st Nov.1865 and remained on this route until 1869. She burned at sea on 16th Aug.1871 off the Carolina Coast while on passage New York to Kingston and Aspinwall with no loss of life. The hull was rebuilt and she was eventually scrapped in 1877.

HERMANN
1734 tons, length 235ft x beam 39.5ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built by Westervelt & Mackay, New York in 1848 for the New York - Bremen service of the Ocean Steam Nav. Co. Sold Aug.1858 to the California, New York & European SS Co. and sailed from New York for San Francisco on 23rd Aug.1858. She arrived at San Francisco via Panama on 27th Nov.and in Mar.1859 was sold to J.T.Wright and made one voyage to the Northwest coast. In the winter of 1862-1863 she made one San Francisco - Panama voyage for the People's Line and was auctioned in 1866. Sold on to Pacific Mail SS Co, she was refitted to be sent to Yokohama for use as a store ship and sailed on 1st Mar.1867. On 13th Feb.1869 she was wrecked on Point Kwatzu with the loss of 330 lives.

ILLINOIS
2123 tons, length 266.5ft x beam 40.9ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Accommodation for 500 passengers. Built by Smith & Dimon, New York in 1851 for the United States Mail SS Co. and entered the New York - Chagres service on 26th Aug.1851 and continued until early 1859. Sold to Cornelius Vanderbilt in Feb.1860 and used on the New York - Havre service. Chartered to the War Department 1861-1864. From Oct.1863 to Jun.1864 she sailed between New York and Aspinwall for Marshall O.Roberts and after the Civil War was used as a quarantine ship at Hoffman's Island, New York until 1900.

INDEPENDENCE (1)
614 tons, length 211.5ft x beam 27.9ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Launched on 25th Dec.1850 by William H. Brown, New York for Cornelius Vanderbilt and sailed from New York on 13th Jan.1851 for San Francisco. Arrived San Francisco on 17th Sep.1851 with passengers from San Juan del Sur. She continued this service until 16th Feb.1853 when she was wrecked on Margarita Island, Lower California with the loss of 125 lives.

INDEPENDENCE (2)
1377 tons, length 223.4ft x beam 36ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Accommodation for 500 passengers. Launched 20th Dec.1851 by Capes & Allison, Hoboken, NJ for Lauchlan, McKay. She sailed from New York for Chagres on 29th Dec.1851 and was lost at sea.

ISTHMUS
338 tons, length 155.8ft x beam 24.4ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Built by Bishop & Simonson, New York in 1846-7 as the AURORA. Sold to the US Navy on 6th Jan.1847 and renamed SCORPION. Sold to Marshall O. Roberts on 18th Oct.1848 and sent from New York to Chagres with passengers in Dec.1848. Subsequently used on the New Orleans - Chagres service. Rebuilt in 1849 and sent to San Francisco, arriving on 4th May 1850. She was used between San Francisco and Panama for George Law until Apr.1851 and was then purchased by Pacific Mail SS Co. She made occasional Panama voyages until late 1853, when she was put on the San Francisco - San Diego service and was sold in Jan.1854 and renamed SOUTHERNER. In Dec.1854 she sprang a leak in the Columbia River and was beached south of Cape Flattery where she became a total loss.

JAMES ADGER
1151 tons, length 215ft x beam 33.5ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built 1852 by William H. Webb, New York for M.C.Mordecai, Charleston, SC, she made one voyage from Aspinwall and San Juan de Nicaragua to New York for Spofford, Tileston & Co in Jan.1857. Owned by the US Navy from Jul.1861 to Oct.1866 and then by James B. Campbell, she was scrapped at Boston in 1878.

JAPAN
4352 tons, length 362ft x beam 49ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Launched on 17th Dec.1867 by Henry Steers, Greenpoint, Long Island for the Pacific Mail SS Co, she sailed from New York on 11th Apr.1868 for Panama, San Francisco and Yokohama. She arrived San Francisco on 3rd Jul.1868 and then entered the San Francisco - Hong Kong service. She burned at sea in Dec.1874 between Hong Kong and Yokohama.

JOHN L. STEPHENS
2183 tons (1852), 1995 tons (1865), wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Accommodation for 350-cabin and 550-steerage class passengers. Launched on 21st Sep.1852 by Smith & Dimon, New York for the Pacific Mail SS Co. She left New York for San Francisco on 17th Dec.1852 and arrived with passengers from Panama on 3rd Apr.1853. She continued SF - Panama sailings until Oct.1860 and in 1864 was sailing between SF and the Columbia River. Sold in 1878 to Sisson, Wallace & Co, she went to Alaska for use as a floating cannery.

LAFAYETTE
1059 tons, length 210ft x beam 32.5ft, wooden hull, single screw, three masts. Launched 18th Jan.1851 by Perine, Patterson & Stack, Williamsburg, New York for J.G.Williams. She made one Philadelphia - Europe voyage and was sold to Charles Stoddart and put on the New York - Chagres service on 28th Aug.1851. She burned at Chagres on her first voyage on 11th Sep.1851.

McKIM
244 tons, length 175ft x beam 23ft (1844), 377 tons, length 129.5ft x beam 23.1ft (1854), wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built 1844 at Allowaystown, NJ as the JOHN S. McKIM for the War Department. 1846 passed to private ownership and on 3rd Oct.1849 arrived San Francisco from New Orleans and Panama. Used on the Sacramento River, she made a further voyage to Panama in 1851 and was condemned at Acapulco on the northbound journey. Her passengers were left to continue to San Francisco as best they could. Repaired, she arrived back at San Francisco on 31st Jul.1853 and was scrapped in 1858.

MONTANA
2677 tons, length 318ft x beam 42.5ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Launched 25th Feb.1865 by Webb & Bell, Greenpoint, Long Island for the Pacific Mail SS Co. She was used on the San Francisco - Panama service from Oct.1866 through 1869. Scrapped in Nov.1877.

MONUMENTAL CITY
737 tons, length 180ft x beam 30ft, wooden hull, single screw. Accommodation for about 250 passengers. Built at Baltimore in 1850 for A.A.Chapman, she made two San Francisco - Panama voyages for the Empire City Line in 1851 and 1852 and one San Francisco - San Juan del Sur voyage in spring 1852 for Cornelius Vanderbilt. She was the first steamship to cross the Pacific leaving San Francisco on 17th Feb.1853 and arriving at Sydney, via Tahiti on 23rd April. Used on the Australian coastal trade, she was wrecked at Malacoutta Bay on 15th May 1853 with the loss of 33 lives.

MOSES TAYLOR
1373 tons (1858), 1354 tons (1865), length 246ft x beam 34ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Accommodation for 600 passengers. Launched 1st Aug.1857 by William H. Webb, New York for Marshall O. Roberts and sailed from New York on her first voyage for United States Mail SS Co. to Aspinwall on 5th Jan.1858. She continued on this route until Sep.1859 and in Feb.1860 was sold to Cornelius Vanderbilt. She then operated between San Francisco and San Juan del Sur for the People's Line from Nov.1862 to Aug.1863, and then from San Francisco to Panama until May 1864. In Sep.1864 she began sailing for the Central American Transit Co between San Francisco and San Juan del Sur and continued for this company and it's successor, North American SS Co. until May 1868. From 1871-1873 she was used on William H. Webb's San Francisco - Honolulu - Australia Line and was then purchased by Pacific Mail SS Co. and converted to a store ship in 1875.

NEBRASKA
2144 tons, length 269ft x beam 40ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Launched 26th Oct.1865 by Henry Steers, Greenpont, Long Island as the MANAGUA for the Central American Transit Co., but her name was changed to NEBRASKA before completion. She made one New York - Aspinwall voyage for the North American SS Co in Autumn 1867 and sailed from New York for Panama and San Francisco on 8th Jan.1868, arriving on 27th March. Operated for the North American SS Co. between San Francisco and Panama until autumn 1868. Between 1871-1873 she was used on the San Francisco - Honolulu - Australia service by Webb's Line and went to the Pacific Mail SS Co. in 1875. Owned by Goodall, Nelson & Perkins in 1876, she was scrapped in 1878.

NEVADA
1691 tons (1865), 2143 tons (1866), length 281ft x beam 40ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Launched by Jeremiah Simonson, Brooklyn on 18th Mar.1865 as the PAOU SHAN, she was purchased by William H. Webb on 9th Nov.1866 and renamed NEVADA. In 1867 she made three voyages from New York to San Juan de Nicaragua for the North American SS Co. and sailed from New York for Panama and San Francisco on 28th Sep.1867, arriving on 15th Dec. Used by the North American SS Co. on their San Francisco - Panama service until Oct.1868 and from 1871-1873 operated on Webb Line's San Francisco - Honolulu - Australia service. Subsequently sold to Pacific Mail SS Co., she was sent to the Yokohama - Shanghai Branch Line and was sold to Mitsubishi Mail SS Co. in 1875 and renamed SAIKIO MARU.

NEW ORLEANS
762 tons, length 209ft x beam 30ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Accommodation for 160-cabin and 400-steerage class passengers. Built in 1848 at New York, she was owned by the US Government in 1849. She sailed from New York for San Francisco on 5th Feb.1850 and operated for the Empire City Line between San Francisco and Panama from Sep.1850 to Dec.1852. On 11th Mar.1853 she sailed from San Francisco for Sydney and was then purchased by the Melbourne Steam Packet Co. and renamed GOVERNOR GENERAL.. Later owned by the Australasian SN Co. until 1861 when she was sold to China.

NEW WORLD
526 tons, length 216.1ft x beam 27ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Launched on 10th Feb.1850 by William Furness, New York for William H. Brown and sailed from New York for San Francisco on 16th Feb.1850, picking up 217 passengers at Panama en route. Used on the San Francisco - Sacramento service until 1864 when she was sold to the Oregon SN Co. and operated on the Columbia River until 1868. Then used on Puget Sound until 1878 when she was scrapped.

NEW YORK
2217 tons, length 292.6ft x beam 41.7ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Accommodation for 200-1st cabin, 170-2nd cabin and 500-steerage class passengers. Built by Jeremiah Simonson, Greenpoint, Long Island for Cornelius Vanderbilt, she was launched on 16th Jun.1864. She made the first of two New York - Aspinwall voyages for Vanderbilt in Sep.1865 and then continued the same service for Pacific Mail SS Co. from Dec.1865 to Apr.1867. She was then sent to the Far East and used on the Yokohama - Shanghai service until 1875 when she was sold to Mitsubishi Mail SS Co and renamed TOKIO MARU.

NORTH AMERICA
1440 tons, length 260.5ft x beam 33.8ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, four masts. Built at New York by Lawrence & Sneedon, she was launched on 14th Sep.1850. Owned by the Norwich & New London Steamboat Co., she sailed between New York and Chagres from Feb.to June 1851 She left New York for Panama and San Francisco on 24th Jun.1851, arriving 2nd Oct. Then used on the San Francisco - San Juan del Sur service for the Vanderbilt Independent Line until 27th Feb.1852 when she was wrecked near Acapulco.

NORTH STAR
1868 tons (1853), 2004 tons (1865), wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Built by Jeremiah Simonson, Greenpoint, Long Island in 1853, she was used as a private yacht by Vanderbilt for a voyage to Europe in 1853. From Feb.to Sep.1854 she operated the New York - Aspinwall service for Vanderbilt and continued the same service until Jan.1855 for United States Mail SS Co. From 1855-1859 she was used on Vanderbilt's transatlantic route and returned to the New York - Aspinwall run in Jun.1859. Chartered to the War Department in 1862, 1864-1865, but continued Aspinwall voyages between these dates until Feb.1865. She was scrapped in 1866.

NORTHERN LIGHT
1768 tons (1852), 2057 tons (1865), length 253.5ft x beam 38.1ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Accomodation for 250-1st, 150-2nd and 400-500 steerage class passengers. Launched 25th Oct.1851 by Jeremiah Simonson, New York for Cornelius Vanderbilt, she was used on the New York - San Juan de Nicaragua service from 5th May 1852 to Feb.1856. In Sep.1857 she went onto the New York - Aspinwall service of the United States Mail SS Co and remained on this route until Dec.1857. She made a single New York - Aspinwall voyage for Vanderbilt in Mar.1858 and was chartered to the War Department in 1862-1865. Chartered by Ruger Brothers in 1867 for their New York & Bremen SS Co until 1869 when she was sold. Scrapped in 1875.

NORTHERNER
1102 tons, length 203.5ft x beam 32ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built by William H. Brown, New York in 1847 for Spofford, Tileston & Co. and made one New York - Charleston - Havana - Chagres voyage in Mar-Apr.1849. Then sent to San Francisco, arriving 15th Aug.1850 and made one voyage to Panama for the Empire City Line. Sold to the Pacific Mail SS Co. in Dec.1850, she was used on the SF - Panama service until May 1853, after which she was used as a spare steamer. Later placed on the SF - Columbia River and Puget Sound service until she was wrecked near Humboldt Bay on 5th Jan.1860 with the loss of 38 lives.

OCEAN QUEEN
2801 tons (1859), 2715 tons (1865), length 327ft x beam 42ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built by J.A.Westervelt & Sons, New York and launched 8th Apr.1857 for Morgan & Garrison's San Francisco - Nicaragua service. Purchased by Vanderbilt and used on the transatlantic service until 1861 when she was chartered to the War Department. She entered the New York - Aspinwall service in Oct.1862, was purchased by Pacific Mail SS Co. in 1865 and continued the same service until Jun.1869. In 1870 she made one voyage to Europe for Ruger Brothers and was scrapped in 1874.

OHIO
2432 tons, length 246ft x beam 46ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, four masts. Staterooms for 250 cabin and accommodation for 80-steerage class passengers. Built by Bishop & Simonson, New York and launched on 12th Aug.1848 for the United States Mail SS Co. She started New York - Charleston - Savannah - Havana - New Orleans - Chagres sailings on 20th Sep.1849, was withdrawn from service in spring 1854 and laid up. Scrapped in 1860.

ONTARIO
417 tons (1850), length 139.5ft x beam 25.2ft, wooden hull, single screw, two masts. Built in 1846 at Rochester, New York she was rebuilt at Buffalo in 1850. She made a single voyage from New York to Chagres in Dec.1850 with cargo and returned in Mar.1851 via San Juan de Nicaragua with 14 passengers. Converted to a church in 1856.

OREGON
1099 tons (1848), 1052 tons (1865), length 202.7ft x beam 33.9ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Launched on 5th Aug.1848 by Smith & Dimon, New York for the Pacific Mail SS Co. and sailed from New York for San Francisco on 8th Dec.1848, calling at Panama and arriving SF on 1st Apr.1849. Used regularly on the San Francisco - Panama route until 1855 and made one further voyage in 1856. Subsequently used on the San Francisco - Columbia River service and sold to Holladay & Flint in 1861. Converted to a sailing barque in 1861, she was sunk in collision in the Straits of Juan de Fuca in 1880.

OREGONIAN
1914 tons, length 275.5ft x beam 42.4ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Built in 1866 by Lawrence & Foulkes, Williamsburg, New York for the Oregon Steam Nav.Co, she arrived at San Francisco on 3rd Dec.1866 and was purchased by the North American SS Co. on 22nd Jan.1867. Placed on the San Francisco - Panama route until 1868 when she was sold to Pacific Mail SS Co. and used on their Yokohama - Shanghai service. In 1876 she was sold to the Mitsubishi Mail SS Co.

ORIZABA
1450 tons (1858), 1334 tons (1865), wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Total accommodation for 1,028 passengers. Launched on 14th Jan.1854 by Jacob A. Westervelt & Co, New York for Morgan & Harris New York - New Orleans - Vera Cruz service. She made two New York - San Juan de Nicaragua sailings in Apr-May 1856 and was then sent to San Francisco, arriving 30th Oct. She operated for Vanderbilt's Nicaragua SS Co. until Feb.1857 and after Apr.1858 sailed from San Francisco to Panama for the New York & California SS Co. Purchased by Pacific Mail SS Co in 1860 and sailed San Francisco - Panama between 1st Jun.1861 and Apr.1864. Sold to the California Steam Nav.Co in Apr.1865 and used on their San Francisco - Portland - Victoria service until 1867 when she was sold to Holladay & Brenham. Purchased by Pacific Mail SS Co. in 1872 and by Goodall, Nelson & Perkins in 1875. She remained in coastal services throughout all these changes of ownership and was scrapped in 1887.

ORUS
210 tons (1842), 247 tons (1845), length 158.8ft x beam 21.5ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, no masts. Built at New York in 1842 and operated between New York and Red Bank on the Shrewsbury River. Purchased 1848 by Howland & Aspinwall and sent from New York to Chagres with passengers on 22nd Dec.1848. Then used as a tender and tug on the Chagres River until 1849 when she was purchased by Vanderbilt and used on the San Juan River, Nicaragua.

PACIFIC
1003 tons (1850), 876 tons (1865), length 225.5ft x beam 30.5ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Launched on 24th Sep.1850 by William H. Brown, New York and was used by the United States Mail SS Co's New York - Chagres service. She sailed from New York on 19th Mar.1851 for San Francisco and arrived 2nd July. Purchased by Vanderbilt, she entered the San Francisco - Panama service, and in Sep.1851 began sailings to San Juan del Sur and continued this route until Sep.1855. Laid up until 1858, she was purchased by Merchants Accommodation Line and was employed on San Francisco - Columbia River sailings. In 1863 she was owned by the Oregon & San Diego SS Line, in 1867 by Holladay & Brenham, Pacific Mail SS Co. in 1872 and Goodall, Nelson & Perkins in 1875. Used on coastal services by all these owners, she was sunk in collision near Cape Flattery on 4th Nov.1875 with the loss of over 250 lives.

PANAMA
1087 tons (1848), 888 tons (1865), length 200.3ft x beam 33.9ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Launched by William H. Webb, New York on 29th Jul.1848 for the Pacific Mail SS Co. She sailed from New York on 15th Feb.1849 and arrived San Francisco on 4th June. She then sailed regularly between San Francisco and Panama until 1853, made a single voyage in 1854 and in 1856-57 was used as a spare steamer at Panama. From 1858-1861 she was used on the San Francisco - Columbia River service and was sold to Holladay & Flint in Feb.1861. Presented to the Mexican Government in 1868, she was armed, renamed JUAREZ and used as a revenue and transport steamer.

PHILADELPHIA
898 tons, length 190.8ft x beam 31.5ft (1850), lengthened to 1238 tons, length 231ft x beam 33.3ft (1851), wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built 1849 by Vaughn & Flynn, Philadelphia and purchased 29th Jan.1850 by Howland & Aspinwall for their New York - Chagres service. Purchased by the United States Mail SS Co. in Jan.1851, she was lengthened and used on the New Orleans - Chagres run until 1860. Chartered to the War Department in 1861-62, she was scrapped in 1866.

PIONEER
1833 tons, length 218.3ft x beam 42.5ft, wooden hull, single screw, three masts. Built by Jacob Bell, New York , she was launched on 3rd Apr.1851 and was purchased by Spofford, Tileston & Co in 1852. She made one voyage from New York to Liverpool in Jan.1852 and one from New York to Chagres in Feb.1852. She sailed from New York for San Francisco on 19th Mar.1852, but was lost en route in San Simeon Bay on 17th Aug.

PROMETHEUS
1207 tons, length 230.5ft x beam 33ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built by Jeremiah Simonson, New York for Cornelius Vanderbilt, she was launched on 3rd Aug.1850. Commenced New York - San Juan de Nicaragua sailings for Vanderbilt on 26th Dec.1850 and later for Charles Morgan until Sep.1854. Then used on the New Orleans - San Juan service until an unknown date.

REPUBLIC
852 tons, length 200.9ft x beam 29.8ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built in 1849 at Baltimore for the Baltimore Steam Packet Co. and sailed on her first voyage to Charleston on 29th Sep.1849. In early 1850 she was sold to Howard & Aspinwall and was sent to the Pacific coast, arriving Panama on 15th Jul.1850. She then entered service between Panama and San Francisco for George Law. Sold to the Pacific Mail SS Co. in Jan.1851 and used mostly on coastal services with occasional voyages to Panama until 1855. Sold to Holladay & Flint in 1861, her engines were removed in 1864, and in 1866 her hull was towed to Acapulco to serve as a coal and supply hulk for the California, Oregon & Mexican SS Co.

RISING STAR
2726 tons, length 303.5ft x beam 43.7ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built by Roosevelt, Joyce & Waterbury, New York in 1865 for the New York Mail SS Co. Sold to Pacific Mail SS Co. and operated between New York and Aspinwall from Dec.1866 to 1869. Sold to John Roach in 1875 and scrapped in 1877.

S. S. LEWIS
1104 tons, length 216.9ft x beam 32.6ft, wooden hull, single screw, three masts. Built at Philadelphia and launched on 12th Jun.1851 for the New England Ocean SS Co. as the SAMUEL S. LEWIS. On the failure of the company, she was purchased by Vanderbilt and sailed from New York for San Francisco on 5th Mar.1852, arriving on 7th July. She operated between San Francisco and San Juan del Sur for Vanderbilt's Independent Line until she was lost near Bolinas on 3rd Apr.1853 with no loss of life.

SACRAMENTO
2647 tons (1864), 2682 tons (1865), length 304ft x beam 42.5ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Built by William H. Webb, Greenpoint, Long Island, she was launched on 8th May 1863 for the Pacific Mail SS Co. She sailed from New York on 14th Jun.1864 and arrived at San Francisco via Panama on 7th Sep. She was then used on the San Francisco - Panama route until 1869 and was wrecked on Geronimo Island, Lower California on 5th Dec.1872 with no loss of life.

ST. LOUIS
1621 tons (1854), 1771 tons (1865), length 266.4ft x beam 35.6ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Launched for Pacific Mail SS Co. on 1st Feb.1854 by Jacob A. Westervelt, New York, she was chartered to the New York & Havre Steam Nav. Co. and sailed from New York for Havre on 1st Aug.1854. Sold to the United States Mail SS Co. in Aug.1855, she made occasional New York - Aspinwall voyages between 1855-1859. Returned to Pacific Mail SS Co., she sailed from New York on 22nd Nov.1860 and arrived San Francisco via Panama on 9th Feb.1861. She then operated between San Francisco and Panama until 1866. Scrapped in 1878.

SAN FRANCISCO (1)
2272 tons, length 281.4ft x beam 41ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Equipped with staterooms for 350 cabin and accommodation for 1,000 steerage class passengers. Launched on 9th Jun.1853 by William H. Webb, New York for the Pacific Mail SS Co., she sailed from New York for San Francisco on 21st Dec.1853. She was carrying 500 men from the 3rd Regiment, US Artillery and 21 women and children, and encountered severe Atlantic gales. Disabled, she lay foundering from 23rd Dec. to 5th Jan and lost about 200 lives, before the survivors were taken off and the ship abandoned.

SAN FRANCISCO (2)
1137 tons, length 219ft x beam 35.5ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Built by J. W. Lyon, Philadelphia in 1853 as the KEYSTONE STATE for the Ocean Steam Nav. Co., she was sold to the US Navy in 1861. She served as a gunboat during the American Civil War and was sold to Marshall O. Roberts in Sep.1865. Renamed SAN FRANCISCO, she sailed between New York and San Juan de Nicaragua between Oct.1866 and Mar.1868. Burned at Boston in 1879.

SANTIAGO DE CUBA
1567 tons (1861), 1627 tons (1865), length 229ft x beam 38ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Built 1861 by Jeremiah Simonson, Greenpoint, Long Island for Valiente & Co, but purchased by the Navy Department the same year and served as a gunboat during the American Civil War. Sold in Sep.1865, she entered service between New York and San Juan de Nicaragua for the Central American Transit Co. in Nov.1865. She continued the same route after Aug.1866 for the North American SS Co. and changed to New York - Aspinwall sailings in Dec.1867. Withdrawn in Oct.1868, she made one voyage to Havre in 1870 and in 1877 was converted to a screw steamer. Converted to a barge in 1886, she was renamed MARION.

SARAH SANDS
1400 tons, length 215ft x beam 32ft, iron hull, single screw, four masts. Built by James Hudson & Co., Liverpool in 1846, she operated between Liverpool and New York for Sands & Co. until Dec.1849. Chartered to the Empire City Line, she arrived at San Francisco on 5th Jun.1850 and operated to Panama until Oct.1850. Purchased by the Pacific Mail SS Co., she continued operating until Jul.1851. She was then sold and returned to England via Australia and resumed transatlantic voyages. Requisitioned by the British Government for trooping during the Crimean War, she caught fire while carrying troops, near Mauritius, but reached port in Nov.1857. Converted to a sailing ship, she was wrecked near Bombay in 1858.

SENATOR
755 tons (1848), 901tons (1865), length 219.4ft x beam 30.3ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels. Built by William H. Brown, New York in 1848 for J. Cunningham, Boston, she was purchased by Lafayette Maynard and sailed for a short time in Long Island Sound. She sailed from New York on 10th Mar.1849 and reached Panama on 14th Sep, and San Francisco on 27th Oct. with 520 passengers. She then sailed between San Francisco and Sacramento until 1854 when she was sold to the California Steam Nav. Co and used on the San Francisco - San Diego route until 1882. During this period she came under the ownership of several companies. In 1882 her engines were removed and she sailed to New Zealand where she became a coal barge.

SIERRA NEVADA
1257 tons (1852), 1395 tons (1865), wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Accommodation for 570-steerage class passengers. Launched on 25th Oct.1851 by William Collyer, New York as the TEXAS for Charles Morgan, she operated between New York and Chagres as the SIERRA NEVADA from Feb. to Oct.1852 for the Empire City Line. Purchased by Vanderbilt, she arrived at San Francisco on 23rd Mar.1853 and entered the San Francisco - San Juan del Sur service until Mar.1857. Sold to Pacific Mail SS Co. in 1860 and used on their San Francisco - Oregon service, she was purchased by Holladay & Brenham in Feb.1861. She was wrecked on a reef near Monterey on 17th Oct.1869.

SONORA
1617 tons, length 269ft x beam 36.1ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Launched on 1st Oct.1853 by J. A. Westervelt, New York for the Pacific Mail SS Co., she left New York on 11th Mar.1854 and arrived San Francisco on 31st May. Used on the San Francisco - Panama service until May 1863. she made one voyage to Panama with troops in 1865 and was scrapped in 1868.

STAR OF THE WEST
1172 tons, length 228.3ft x beam 32.7ft, wooden hullside paddle wheels, two masts. Launched 17th Jun.1852 by Jeremiah Simonson, New York for Vanderbilt, she started sailings between New York and San Juan de Nicaragua on 20th Oct.1852 and continued this service for Charles Morgan from Jul.1853 to Mar.1856. She started New York - Aspinwall sailings for the United States Mail SS Co. in Jun.1857 and in Sep.1859 went onto the New York - Havana - New Orleans service. Chartered to the War Department in Jan.1861, she was seized by Confederate forces and later burned.

TENNESSEE (1)
1275 tons, length 211.8ft x beam 35.7ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built with accommodation for 200 passengers, but enlarged in 1849 to carry 200-cabin and 350-steerage class. Launched on 25th Oct.1848 by William H. Webb, New York for the Savannah Steam Nav. Co. and sailed on her first New York - Savannah voyage on 22nd Mar.1849. Purchased by Pacific Mail SS Co., she left New York on 6th Dec.1849 and arrived at Panama on 12th Mar.1850 and San Francisco on 14th April. She operated between San Francisco and Panama until 6th Mar.1853 when she went aground near San Francisco in dense fog and broke up. Her passengers, mail and baggage were saved.

TENNESSEE (2)
1149 tons, length 210ft x beam 33.9ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Built at Baltimore in 1853 for J. Hooper, she operated from New York to San Juan de Nicaragua for Vanderbilt from Oct.1853 and on the same service for Charles Morgan from Dec.1856 to Apr.1857. Captured at New Orleans by Farragut in 1862, she was converted to a warship and renamed MOBILE in 1864. Sold in 1865 to Russell Sturgis, she was renamed REPUBLIC and was lost in Oct.1865.

TEXAS
1151 tons, length 216ft x beam 35ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Built by Thomas Collyer, New York in 1852 for Charles Morgan. Operated between New York and San Juan de Nicaragua for Vanderbilt and Charles Morgan until Apr.1857. Abandoned in sinking condition off Texas on 5th Oct.1868.

UNCLE SAM
1433 tons, length 235.5ft x beam 35.7ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Accommodation for 800 passengers. Built by Perrine, Patterson & Stack, Williamsburg, New York and launched on 28th Sep.1852 for Edward Mills. She sailed between New York and Aspinwall from Dec.1852 to May 1853 and was then sent to the Pacific. She was used by the Independent Opposition Line between San Francisco and Panama from Sep.1853 to Sep.1854 and was then sold to Vanderbilt. She ran between San Francisco and San Juan del Sur for the Nicaragua SS Co. from Sep.1854 to Mar.1856 and then made a Panama voyage for unnamed owners. In May 1859 she resumed Panama voyages for the New York & California SS Co. She made one voyage for the Atlantic & Pacific SS Co in Jan.1860, and later that year was purchased by Pacific Mail SS Co. and was operated by them. She made her last San Francisco - Panama voyage in Dec.1861 and in Feb.1866 was sold to James Hermann & Co., Panama. She was lost in 1876.

UNICORN
650 tons, length 162ft x beam 23ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, accommodation for 101 passengers. Built at Greenock in 1838 for the Burns Line and operated between Liverpool and Glasgow until 1840 when she was purchased by Cunard, was sent to Halifax and used on the Quebec - Pictou - Halifax feeder service until 1846. She sailed from New York for California and arrived at San Francisco on 1st Dec.1849, having been chartered by Pacific Mail SS Co., who purchased her in 1850. She operated occasionally between San Francisco and Panama until Apr.1853 when she was sold and returned to England via Australia.

UNION (1)
594 tons, length 180ft x beam 26.2ft, wooden hull, single screw, three masts. Built at Philadelphia in 1850, she sailed from New York on 31st Oct.1850 and arrived San Francisco on 2nd Apr.1851. She made two Panama voyages for the People's Line and was wrecked on 5th Jul.1851 at San Quentin, when sailing to Panama for the Independent Line. She went aground during the night because the crew were drunk, but no lives were lost.

UNION (2)
1200 tons, length 215ft x beam 34ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built by William H. Webb, New York and launched for Spofford & Tileston on 19th Apr.1850. She was built for the New York - New Orleans service, but made three voyages between New York and Aspinwall in spring and summer 1853. Sold to foreign owners in 1856.

UNITED STATES
1216 tons, length 230ft x beam 33.1ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built by Thomas Collyer, New York in 1851 as the BIENVILLE for Henry Johnson. Chartered to the New York & Galway Line in Nov.1851 and operated New York - Chagres from Jan.1852 to Feb.1853. Sold to Cuba in 1855 and renamed MEXICO.

WASHINGTON
1641 tons, length 230.4ft x beam 38.7ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built by Westervelt & Mackay, New York and launched for the Ocean Steam Nav. Co on 30th Jan.1847. She operated transatlantic services until 1857 when she was sold to the California, New York & European SS Co. She made two New York to San Juan de Nicaragua and Aspinwall sailings in Nov-Jan. 1858-59 for J.P.Yelverton and was sold to the Pacific Mail SS Co in 1860. She arrived at San Francisco on 24th Oct.1860 and made two San Francisco - Panama voyages before being laid up as unfit for the service. Scrapped in 1864.

WESTERN METROPOLIS
2270 tons (1863), 2093 tons (1865), length 284ft x beam 41ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, two masts. Built in 1863 by F. T. Tucker, Brooklyn for L. Brown, she made one voyage to San Juan de Nicaragua for the Central American Transit Co. in Feb.-Mar.1865 and was then chartered to the War Department. Converted to a sailing vessel in 1878.

WILLIAM PENN
613 tons, length 183ft x beam 26.4ft, wooden hull, single screw, three masts. Built in 1851 by Birely & Son, Philadelphia for S. W. Reynolds. She made one voyage between New York, San Juan de Nicaragua and Chagres in Mar.1852 for Palmer & Co. In 1854 she was chartered to the French Government and was sold to British owners in 1856.

WINFIELD SCOTT
1292 tons, length 225ft x beam 34.7ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built with accommodation for 165-cabin and 150-steerage class passengers. Built by Westervelt & Mackay, New York, she was launched on 27th Oct.1850. She arrived at San Francisco on 28th Apr.1852 and operated to Panama until the end of 1852 for the Independent Line, then for the New York & San Francisco SS Co from Feb. to Apr. 1853. Purchased by the Pacific Mail SS Co. in July 1853, she was wrecked on Anacapa Island in thick fog when bound for Panama on 2nd Dec.1853. There was no loss of life.

YANKEE BLADE
1767 tons, length 274.4ft x beam 34ft, wooden hull, side paddle wheels, three masts. Built by Perine, Patterson & Stack, Williamsburg, New York in 1853 for Edward Mills. She made a single New York - Aspinwall voyage for the Independent Opposition Line in Dec.-Jan.1853-54 and sailed from New York on 2nd Feb.1854 and arrived San Francisco on 4th May. She operated between San Francisco and Panama for the Independent Opposition Line and the Independent SS Co until she was wrecked on Point Arguello on 1st Oct.1854 with the loss of 30 lives.

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